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July 10, 1965 - Image 2

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Michigan Daily, 1965-07-10

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0

(-Pr mlrhigan Daily
Seventy-Fifth Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS

FEIFFER

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Where Opinions Are Fre, 420 MAYNARD ST., ANN ARBOR, MICH.
'Truth Will Prevali

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MA1A~6WAS
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NEWS PHONE: 764-0552

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
SATURDAY, JULY 10, 1965 NIGHT EDITOR: ROBERT HIPPLER

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4
4

New Bookstores:
Sign of Intellectual Change

IT IS PART of the history of every great
university that it has created about it-
self a milieu-an environment-in which
it can be supported in carrying forth its
ideals.
In part this is an accident: The vari-
ous "intellectual" sub-cultures which
grow up at the periphery of a university
simply represent the diffusion of the
"stuff" of university life into the general
community.
In part, however, the "intellectual un-
derground" plays a crucial role in main-
taining the proper environment for the
university itself: It represents an "inter-
est" within the general commiity which
is in accord with many of the university's
primary values.
It is a conspicuous feature of this uni-
versity-perhaps its most conspicuous one
-that it has not developed or encouraged
the development of a suitable environ-
ment fore the pursuit of its intellectual
life.
ALTHOUGH such a statement borders on
the purely speculative, at least part of
the collusive character of the relation-
ship between the University and some of
Ann Arbor's local financial institutions-
to the detriment of the student--springs
from the unequal nature of the battle
between a local power structure-backed,
supposedly, by "local public opinion"-
and the "ally-less" University.
Yet, there are indications that the Uni-
versity's atmosphere is in the process of
changing.
Until about a year ago it was impossi-
ble to find an interesting and tastefully
maintained stock of books in any "book-
store" in Ann Arbor.
This was due, in large measure, to the
fact that a "bookstore"'in Ann Arbor
parlance-was not in fact a bookstore.
The people who ran the various textbook
emporia that surrounded the campus were
not part of an intellectual sub-culture
that was interested in maintaining and
extending the finest values of the Univer-
sity-they were book-merchants. They
were interested in books not as conveyors
of ideas and sentiments but rather as
"commodities" - sources of revenue and
profit.
CONSEQUENTLY, the entire intellectual
atmosphere of the University suffered.
With the possible exception of Bob Mar-
shall's (which has rapidly been losing
whatever distinctive character it may
have enjoyed in the past), there was no
place in Ann Arbor where a person simply
interested in books could browse through
a wide and tastefully selected collection
of philosophy, poetry, foreign language,
or non-text books in the social sciences.
With few exceptions, the books offered
for sale were those required for various

courses. With the exception of those items
they stocked for the twice annual text-
books rush, the shelves of many book-
stores were all but bare.
Approximately a year ago, Ann Arbor
got its first bopk store. Originally called
the "Centicore Modern Poetry-Paper-
back Bookstore," it soon began to attract
a steady clientele.
This resulted from several factors. In
the first instance, the people who ran
the newly-opened bookstore liked books.
The collection they put together-which
included a broad range of titles-has the
best selection of poetry, philosophy and
literature that may be encountered any-
where.
MOREOVER, in contradiction to the no-
tion of a bookstore as a place in which
one simply purchases "commodities," the
Centicore's owners were people who saw
their store as fulfilling an educational
function. In lieu of the irritated and irri-
tating sort of militant anti-intellectual-
ism to which one is often treated by the
shopkeepers who maintain the mass book-
stores, the Centicore provided an at-
mosphere congenial to the discussion of
books-or simply ideas--or both.
Despite all the doomful prophecizing
that accompanied the opening of every
enterprise which attempted to short-
circuit the mediocrity that results from
the mass-market ideology of the more
established bookdealers in Ann Arbor, the
Centicore has survived-and prospered.
In some sense it offers the most con-
vincing proof that: if one opens a book-
store in Ann Arbor which serves the needs
of an intellectual life and, if one offers
more cordial and extensive service (the
Centicore is open until 12 p.m.) and, if
one does not simply seek to become an-
other book-super-market, he can succeed.
IN PART encouraged by the success of
the Centicore, Professor Fred Shure of
the nuclear engineering department, has
begun the "student book service" which
aims at providing a more extensive and
up-to-date selection of books in the physi-
cal and natural sciences than those of-
fered by any of the other bookstores.
Both of these new bookstores repre-
sent a movement away from the Univer-
sity's condition of isolation. Both dem-
onstrate that it need not live as the vic-
tim of its surroundings.
Students and, more especially, mem-
bers of the faculty, ought to encourage
the creation of an atmosphere more con-
genial to university life. They ought to
encourage the respect for excellence that
breeds greatness.
These bookstores represent a step in
that direction.
-STEPHEN BERKOWITZ

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IN PARENTHESIS:

BOOK REVIEWS BY GEORGE A. WHITE

The Crisis of Cultural Change.
Myron B. Bloy, Jr. Seabury
Press: New York. $3.95.
IT IS ALTOGETHER fitting that
the author of this book-an
Episcopal minister-to-students-
be located at the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology. For its
acronym, with that of Interna-
tional Business Machines, is very
nearly symbolic of the cultural
change-accelerated-by-technology
the book analyzes.
"The Accelerating Rate of
Change" is beginning to sound
like a well-worn record, yet it
cannot be denied. As much as we
might like to repeat Eve's remark
to Adam as they were driven from
the Garden: "You must recognize
dear, that we are living in an
age of transition,"-we cannot be
blind to the massive consequences
of mass communication, mass
technology, mass culture.
Mr. Myron Bloy says:
The pace and depth and
breadth of change in American
culture, especially technological
change, are so great that the
traditional forces of social in-
tegration and order are not
nearly strong enough to impose
a pattern of coherence and di-
rection on the process.
HE POSES the problem clearly.
Contemporary man often finds
himself quite lost. He often reacts
to his existence with anxiety,
frustration, and fear. He either
attempts to disengage himself
from the present-turning to a
past or hiding some psycho-
religious wall; he retreats behind
a wall of apathy and indifference.
Or he makes "random forays into
the future."
And Mr. Bloy asks questions as
a man and as a Christian: How is
the Christian to understand and
accept such change? Where is
God's grace in all of it? How are
we to recognize it? Finally: What
should we do when we discover it?
His slim little book is the result,
he says, "of dialogue." And in its
forceful, sharply-directed style, it
shows the rough-and-tumble
marks of its mode of creation. It
is extremely ambitious-Mr. Bloy
wants the Christian to see reality,
life, for what it really is. And
remembering countless roadsigns
in the Bible-Belt, or the "Get
Right With God" movement of the
'50's, we are less than certain he
will be able to accomplish such a
task.
MR. BLOY wants the Christian
not only to see, but accept and
affirm as well-change, technol-
ogy, Technopolis (to borrow Har-
vey Cox's apt terminology), and
more-see in it all, God-at-work,
Christ's presence.
He begins by broadly stating the
problem. In a short space he does
well. He suggests not only the
areas directly affected by change
and technology-government, cor-
porations, home, family, individual
-but the social by-products as
well: new leisure, new sexuality,
new competitive brutality. And he
asks:
And of special concern is the
problem of maintaining a bal-
anced perspective. We are in the
situation of the contest winner
who is given a certain number
of seconds in the fabulous
supermarket to pick out what-
ever he chooses. In carrying out
a task of such urgent and easy
choosing, how does a culture
keep its values straight? How
do we avoid, in our lustful
hurry, mistaking beans for
caviar?

Hard questions, but Bloy gives
Bonhoeffer's superb answers: con-
temporary man doesn't need a new
integration of experience, or a
new grid, he must see the world,
clearly but in all its ambiguity;
he must act in it-on its own
terms.
Bloy's answers avoid the sim-
plistic or the naive. He has read
Bonhoeffer. He has read Camus.
And he knows how to re-read
Scripture. He cuts deeply beneath
Sunday-School-Theology. In his
re-reading, he demonstrates that
within Christ-Christ-as-man-in-
this-world-authority, wholeness
of being, freedom, affirmation-of-
life, being-for-others, were one!
Jesus' authority is a revelation
of his ability to heal in him-
self the deep human dichotomies
of being and action, of the ideal
and the real, of moral generali-
ties and earthy events. Jesus is
neither a detached contempla-
tive or a willy-nilly activist.
BLOY SUGGESTS that Christ
was and is more than merely a
norm to hang our values on.
Where Yeats asked: "How 'can
we know the dancer from the
dance?" Bloy says with Paul: "For
me life is Christ."
And rather than imposing
"Christian" solutions upon people
(an impossibility), Bloy shows
how Christ was freedom; how he
gave freedom by bringing people
to awareness, then letting them
choose for themselves.
In short, Mr. Bloy asks us to
be as Christ, to act in this world.
And he asks us to see goodness in
this world as a manifestation of
Christ. He asks us to affirm life
and goodness even if it does not
bear the overt labels of "Chris-
tian" or "Deist," WASP or
Middle-Class. One even gets the
feeling that Bloy knows that
Christ was a Jew; that he was
dark, wore a beard (not the flow-
ing YMCA-kind) and smelled.
BLOY ASKS for commitment.
And he asks us to prove by action
rather than by words. He asks it
seems, essentially the things
Camus asked:
What the world demands of
Christians and what Christians
should demand of themselves,
is that they speak out against
injustice and evil wherever it
may be. That they speak out
loudly and clearly, and if neces-
sary, pay up-personally.
So much for the good news.
There is a great deal more. Mr.
Bloy reads "literature" even better
than Scripture and his reading of
Ignazio Silone's novel "Bread and
Wine" is the highlight of the
book.
But excited as I am after watch-
ing him attack problem after
problem and cut through verbage
to reality, even after having read
Harvey Cox's "Secular City," still
-I have doubts. Let me try to
describe a few.
MR. BLOY talks a good deal
about "functionalism" and "prag-
matism." He suggests that Christ
had both. I would like to make
qualifications.
Bloy is so eager for the "good"
that change, technology, the Tech-
nopolis, can bring to man, the
"new" (and here I do not in the
least disagree), that I fear he all
but ignores the potential evils.
At only one point in the book-
quite early-does he tread cau-
tiously and remind his reader of
the threats technology poses. Here
he speaks only briefly about the
evils of change and their by-
products: chaotic mobility, the
Urban Hell, nuclear weapons.

Behind that, James spoke vol-
umes on ends and means as in-
separable. That is, that the ends
are determined in part (and here
we must ask for contextualization)
by the means.
VULGAR PRAGMATISM takes
the aphorism as guide; pragma-
tism asks to see the process as
well as the product. It does make
ethical judgements. It does ask
in making evaluations for data
other than merely the product.
Bloy seems so fixed in vision on
the end of the road, seems so
eager for the promises that Tech-
nopolis bodes, that he chides his
fellow-theologians harshly, ne-
glecting the fact that they do not
share his boundless enthusiasm.
I find myself inadequately pre-
pared to evaluate his analysis of
Paul Tillich on technology, al-
though I feel his attack valid.
YET I AM MADE, from what
little I have read, to muse: Are
they (Tillich and like-minded)
not just vigorously skeptical and
cautious? If Mr. Bloy can be so
vigorous in his radicalism (and
here my own radical spirit hides
its face), can he deny their "radi-

cal" warnings of "demonic tech-
nology" and its de-humanizing
capabilities?
Further, as a disciple of Bon-
hoeffer's, does he fail to see Bon-
hoeffer's own intuitive sense of
prudence-that Bonhoeffer was
able, again and again, in crowd,
rally and seminary, to make the
"right" choice-the choice that
was verified in its rightness
through time? Will others be able
to do as well?
And should I remind Mr.- Bloy
of the blind sort of faith of func-
tionalism and pragmatism, vulgar
or no? The faith that says: I do
my job, someone else will do his.
The mythical and metaphysical
men worry about all the jobs,
from student chaplain to Defense
Secretary of the United States.
SHOULD I REMIND Mr. Bloy
too, of the disparity between faith
and blind faith, between believing
not beyond reason, but in spite
of it?
Which brings me, I suppose, to
my last criticism'of "The Crisis
of ' Cultural Change"-really an-
other kind of musing. Mr. Bloy:
What has the Technopolis to say
to the less than "tough," "aggres-

sive," "eager " "adaptive," indi-
vidual? What will be his role and
treatment in this "brave new
world?" What of the introvert, the
shy, the weak?,What risks do they
run? What of the old woman who
must stay in her house and raise
flowers and love God?
I am afraid you must answer,
if you did, that the glowing ma-
terial promise that Technopolis
holds, also holds no guarantees of
love and compassion to the weak.
AND I AM also afraid that you
would say that the risk Christian-
ity runs, plunging in so deeply
into the secular realm, dispelling
any distinction between the two-
is a risk that may well divide
Christianity into "tough" and
"weak" factions like the split to-
day between radical intellectuals
and the remainders of their cam-
puses.
I find myself excited by the
promise, and the risk too-chal-
lenged-but I must worry and
must convey that worry to Mr.
Bloy. He has written a good, an
honest book. And he has furthered
the dialogue that was begun so
long ago.

4

I

SUPERFICIALITY:
Civil Rights Act Ineffective

Grades Are Valuable

AMONG THE thousands of freshmen
who will converge upon the University
late this summer, there will be many who
come armed with a variety of fallacies
about college.
Prominent among these fallacies will
be beliefs about grades. After the push
for grades in high school-to have a high
class standing, to make National Honor
Society, to get into the University-more
than a few freshmen will enter believing
that at last specific grades will not
matter.
Primed with the knowledge that a few
small, progressive colleges have abolished
grades, hopefully thinking that college is
a place for pure, exciting enlightenment
rather than for struggling for grades in
separate courses, an idealistic student is
bound to be sorely disillusioned.
THE MORE practical student, who
thinks that getting into the University
in the first place is all that matters and
that no employer is going to study his
transcript later on will be a partner in
disillusionment.
Good grades do matter. And no begin-
ning freshman can realize just how much.
Honors students will soon find they have
to maintain a high average to stay in the
program. Others will find they must have

economical standpoint, this evaluation
system is simpler, less costly, and less
time-consuming than the gradeless sys-
tems which can be undertaken by the
smaller, privately endowed schools that
can afford to pay for the personnel
needed to run such a system.
However, more important than this, a
single good grade, or a set of single
grades, is valuable-and not necessarily
because it means one has mastered
and/or memorized every tiny fact in one
possibly obscure, dull, or unimportant
course. Grades represent more than that.
A good grade is a symbol implying that
the student has had the discipline, the
foresight and the determination to work
to get what he decided to have. These
important factors transcend the mere
fact of having made a grade.
NO ONE expects a student to go through
college without having to take a few
poor courses, without disagreeing with
the material of certain courses, without
having personality clashes with a few
instructors.
However, to overcome these very real
obstacles, to have achieved a good record
in spite of them, indicates quite a bit.
Employers, after all, are not all going
to be agreeable to the personal feelings
and convictions of his potential employe.

THE CIVIL RIGHTS Act of 1964
was passed just a year ago in
a frenzy of optimism.
President Johnson went on tele-
vision and announced that the
government would henceforth for-
bid all racial discrimination. Civil
rights leaders embarked on a
triumphal procession through the
South, testing this'restaurant and
that hotel for evidence of the new
freedom.
Twenty million Negroes began
to believe that their lives would
rapidly change.
A YEAR LATER, that optimism
has receded. Congress has not leg-
islated a revolution. The Civil
Rights Act attacked the most
obvious and hence the most vul-
nerable excesses of segregation, the
ones that' made the least eco-
nomic sense in the short run.
So doing, it strippedsofif the
top layer of the civil rights 'prob-
lem." Underneath were the real
issues; unemployment, slums, apa-
thy, ghettos, voicelessness and
fear.
Negroes w e r e discriminated
against in a thousand ways that
the Civil Rights Act did not con-
sider ,and which indeed had noth-
ing to do with "equal protection
of the law." The 1964 act, and
the one guaranteeing voting rights
which presumably will come later
this summer, are what President
Johnson called "perhaps the end
of the beginning."
EVEN AS AN "end to the be-
ginning" the 1964 act has not
yet fulfilled its promises. The
section on voting rights is use-
less on its face; the consequences
of the compromise which produc-
ed it were Selma and the Voting
Rights Bill of 1965.
The employment section goes in-
to effect this month. If the chair-
man of the Fair Employment Prac-
tices Commission it creates can
assemble a staff and find an of-
fice, there may be some modest
progress, although the experience
of the 28 states that have their
own (usually tougher) FEPC laws
suggests not.
The section which permits the
attorney general to intervene in

-Associated Press
THIS LONG LINE of Negro students and civil rights workers
march after their arrest in Selma, this winter. The students were
demonstrating as part of a voter registration drive. Such events
prove the ineffectiveness of the 1964 Civil Rights Act.

I

unevenly enforced.
There have been no punitive
cut-offs of money. So far, it has
caused only token changes in seg-
regation patterns in the South.
There are no implications yet
for enforcement of integration in
programs that practice de facto
segregation, particularly in the
North.
IN SCORES of other programs
(there are about 190 in all) Title
VI has not been even superficially
enforced.
The government agencies in
Washington plead lack of inves-
tigative facilities, and they are
right. HEW was the only depart-
ment which forthrightly asked
Congress for money for that pur-
pose.
THAT REASONABLE request-
for $250,000--was turned down in
toto. "So far, compliance with Ti-
tle VI is a matter of paper-shuf-
fling," one federal civil rights of-
ficial said.
The guidelines for compliance
with Title VI with Office of Edu-
cation rules on school desegrega-

In most big cities in the South,
hotels and restaurants admit Ne-
groes, more or less courteously.
"White" and "colored" signs are
down in bus stations and rest
rooms, although in more cases
than not the ancient customs of
segration are observed by the
locals, if not the travelers.
In rural areas, desegregation has
proceeded slowly.
BY AND LARGE, the public ac-
commodation law has affected
middle-class Negroes-those who
eat in restaurants, sleep in ho-
tels, and travel long distances for
business and holiday.
The great mass of poor Ne-
groes remains untouched by that
section, and indeed by the whole
act.
They know now that despite
the psychological benefits, and the
modicum of dignity which derives
from passage of any civil rights
law, the 1964 act has done little
to change their lives.
IF ANYTHING, it has proved to
them-and perhaps to President
Johnson and the rest of the coun-

i

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