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July 02, 1965 - Image 2

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1965-07-02

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Seventy-Fifth Year

Tutorial Project--Fourth Year

Balance of Power:
The Fed vs Johnson

Where Opinions Are Free, 420 MAYNARD ST., ANN ARBOR, MICH.
Truth Will Prevail

NEWS PHONE: 764-0552

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily ex press the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
Michigan Should Have
Uiform Rights Laws
JUDGE JAMES BREAKEY'S recent rul- THIS IS PROBABLY the first case in
ing, that Ann Arbor's Fair Housing which municipal courts have been able
Ordinance is constitutional and does not to make more stringent demands than
conflict with state law, may create some made by the state courts. This situation
basic inequities in the treatment of peo- cannot continue without creating dis-
ple before the law. crimination within the civil rights laws
The argument that each locale has a themselves.
right. to demand more stringent laws, To weaken Ann Arbor's ordinance would
while it sounds fair, is basically inapplic-
able, for it conflicts with the concept of be to defeat the purpose of the ordinance
equal justice for all. itself. The result would mean even more
Applied to the situation here, the ar- inadequate means of eliminating dis-
gument implies that people living in c
towns outside of Ann Arbor, who don't The only way out of the problem creat-
have their .own housing ordinance, are ed by the inequity between the Ann Arbor
subject to state laws that are more len- ordinance and the state law is to bring
ient than the Ann Arbor Fair Housing - them into line with each other.
T)ie object of the Fair Housing Ordi- BUT IN ORDER for the laws to be effec-
nance is to assure equal treatment in the tive, this must be done by strengthen-
area of housing, yet this requirement is ing both the state laws and the Ann Arbor
hardly justifiale if harshness of treat- ordinance.
ment varies widely throughout the state. -BARBARA SEYFRIED

EDITOR'S NOTE: Allan Levett is
a PhD candidate in sociology.
Robin Power is a senior in physics.
Both are presently connected with
the Ann Arbor Tutorial Project.
THE TUTORIAL and Cultural
Relations Project, an effort of
University students to reach and
work with disadvantaged children
n Ann Arbor, is currently be-
ginning its fourth year of opera-
About 40 children have asked
for tutoring while school is out
this summer.
The main aim of the project is
to bridge the gap between the
Negro and white cultures through
supplementary education on a one
tutor to one child basis.
EFFORT IS concentrated on
Negro children who are poor and
performing below their potential
in school.
In effect the project attempts
to break into what Michael Har-
rington has described as the vi-
cious cycle-of poverty.
Children from poor homes start
off school at an intellectual dis-
advantage and this disadvantage
tends to increase as the child
progresses through school, be-
cause his home lacks books and
other incentives to learning. This
difficulty is compounded in the
case of the Negro child.
THE KINGPIN to the project's
entire effort is the kind of re-
lationship which the student-tutor
is able to achieve with the child.
The tutor has to get involved in
the way the child looks at the
world, to understand his level and
his perspective.
This takes a great deal of open-
mindedness, tolerance, patience
and persistance; and frequently
also imagination and resource-
The right kind of relationship
opens up a two-way channel of
communication that makes pos-
sible learning and understanding
for both child and tutor.
THE PROJECT recognizes that
the children need al kinds of
encounters with a world with
which they would otherwise be
.unfamiliar. One child was thrilled
to eat out at a restaurant with
his tutor. It was the first time
that he had used a saucer.
But the work of the tutor is
usually more complex than this.
Many of the children have not
only failed in their classrooms,
but have an attitude toward life
that expects failure for then-
They are adept at resisting the
tutor's initial efforts to help them
read and do math better. Some
will show up late for the meeting,
others forget to bring their work-
books and then set about telling
diversionary stories to a fascinat-
ed tutor.
THESE ARE just initial hurdles
which the tutor has to overcome,
if he does not himself become dis-
couraged. The important ingre-
dient to new learning and a new
attitude toward learning for most
of the children is quick early
The tutor has to strike the ap-
propriate level for his child-not
so easy that it insults, and not
so hard that failure is confirmed.
The project places special em-
phasis on mastery of language,
particularly written language.
THE ABILITY to read easily is
an essential ingredient to continu-
ed independent learning on the
part of the child.
It opens up avenues to such
things as the richness in his Ne-

gro culture in which he may take
pride, but also to greater political
awareness and a wider variety of
job opportunity.
It is the key to progress through
the educational system.
BOOKS ARE NOT something
the children are used to in their

"A Close Examination Of Actual Photos Of Our
Press Releases Indicates That The B-52
Bombing Raid Was A Great Success"
>- M


% ---- ptv - -

H AVING very great respect for
William McChesney Martin,
the chairman of the Federal Re-
serve Board, I have been reading
and rereading his celebrated
speech of June 1.
The reader will remember that
it was called "Dloes Monetary His-
tory Repeat Itself?", and the bur-
den of it was that as our prosper-
ity proceeds on its record-break-
ing path we must look for the
warning signs of another great
MARTIN AND some of the gov-
ernors of the Federal Reserve
Board on the one hand, the Pres-
ident, his Council of Economic
Advisers, his secretary of the
treasury and his director of the
budget on the other have a very
different reading of the economic
condition of the country and pre-
sumably, therefore, are offering
different views of what action
should be taken.
Martin, moreover, seemed to be
saying that the defense of the
dollar and the continuation of
economic expansion may be in-
compatible with one another.
ed by his remarks is whether we
are on the verge of having two
conflicting policies-that of the
administration, which is to en-
courage the continued expansion
of demand, and that of the Fed-
eral Reserve Board, which is to
hold back the expansion.
Whatever one's opinions of the
two policies, no one can suppose
that anything but confusion and
a loss of confidence could come
from trying both of them at once.
This brings us to the fundamen-
tal problem which has been re--
vealed by the conflict between
Martin and the administration.
IN CONFORMITY with the tra-
ditional role of central banks,
which was written into law in
the Banking Act of 1935, the
Federal Reserve System, though
its governors are appointed by the
President, is an independent in-
stitution and not just one of the
many departments and agencies
under the President's command.

It is a public but not a govern-
mental institution.
Thus, Martin is not, like Secre-
tary Fowler, a member of the
Johnson administration.
Federal Reserve Board derives
from the time when the manage-
ment of money and credit was the
function of the bankers alone.
At the end of the second world
war Congress passed the Employ-
ment Act of 1946 which gives the
President a mandate to use his
power to keep unemployment low,
to keep prices reasonably steady
and to promote an adequate rate
of economic growth.
separate sets of officials, both of
them responsible for the manage-
ment of the economy.
There is the Federal Reserve
Board with its power over the
supply of credit and the structure
of interest rates.
There is the administration with
its power to spend and tax, to
finance the debt and to give
grants in aid.
THE TWO SETS of powers have
to be exercised harmoniously, and
the problem raised by Martin's
speech is how to insure harmony
in action without producing a con-
formity that prevents critical de-
bate in the formation of policy.
It is hard to see how this can
be written into law, and almost
certainly what we must fall back
upon is an understanding that in
high financial policy, the Federal
Reserve Board can advise and can
warn, but it must not act at cross
purposes with the administration.
Thus, Martin, for example,
would remain free to say that
credit should be restricted and
interest rates increased, but the
Federal Reserve Board should not
carry out such a policy if it is
contrary to that of the President.
THIS IS, to be sure, untidy. But
it is the kind of untidy arrange-
ment by which so often old in-
stitutions are adapted to changing
(c) 1965. The Washington Post Co.



Furthermore published books
available in libraries are often not
appropriate to children who are
educationally retarded.
A child of ten years with men-
tality and interests appropriate to
his age, yet with the reading skills
of an eight-year old, gets little
satisfaction from books for the
younger age level.
ONE resourceful tutor found out
the validity of these observations
for her particular child. Over
many weeks they worked with
word cards, writing down words on
cards from the child's own vocab-
ulary 'and gradually extending it.
(Often the child knows many
more words than he can spell or
even recognize.)
Then recently the child, a
twelve-year-old girl, produced this
Once upon a time
A goose drank wine on the
streetcar line.
And he began to rhyme,
And stomp his foot in time:
"As I was leaving home,
I sang a little poem,
As I began to roam.
"I said to myself 'I won't forget
To bring along my cigarette.
I bet you a dime that I won't
drink wine,
I will be there on time to get
a shoeshine'."
He was on his way home on
the bus,
And the bus driver said, "We
don't want you- with us,
When he got off the bus, the
driver said:
"Next time you get on, you
will be knocked on the head."
When the goose got home, his
wife stood in the door
And said "What did you use
your money for?"
When night came his wife said
"Don't expect to get a kiss!
I don't want you anymore,
You can sleep on the floor."
The floor was hard on the
goose's head.
He wanted to go back to his
He was sorry that he had
drunk the wine
Instead of getting a shoeshine.
THE PROJECT will be entering
its fourth yearof full-scale opera-
tion in the fall semester.
Many of the staff members, up

The Cities : Busing Is Not The Answer
De Facto Segregation':
A Cry of Despair

"DE FACTO SCHOOL segregation" -
meaning segregation in fact-unhap-
pily has become a tool of political dem-
agoguery in the Northern cities. The
Civil Rights Commission, acutely aware
of the pressure in Northern cities, hopes
to hold meetings in the more strategic
urban areas and produce both facts and
educational awareness of what is a des-
perate need.
The commission, through its chairman,
the able Erwin N. Griswold, dean of the
Harvard Law School, has stated the need
to focus attention on some of the prob-
lems of the Northern states and cities.
This is a wise and necessary decision.
Schools, unfortunately, become the
most immediate focus because they are
the more visible and available. But is is
apparent to any who choose to look ser-
iously, and with a will to understand, that
the cry of de facto segregation is one
largely of despair.
MORE THAN" TEN YEARS have passed
sincethe school case decision was
handed down in May of 1954. Since that
time a really great amount of progress
has been done.
Indeed, the overall story is one of prog-
ress. It is marred-and obscured-bythe
evil and the violence of Selma, Ala., and
that of a year before at Birmingham--
or by the murders at Philadelphia, Miss.,
and other instances of murder and as--
These cities, and the men within them
who produced the violent passions that
led to the murders and the beatings,
helped bring about legal reform and
legislation necessary to making this na-
tion truly "one nation under God, with

patterns in the older areas of cities have
not really changed-they have simply
expanded. A high rise apartment devel-
opment in a slum area, for example, will
house two or three thousand persons at
a site where the demolished dwellings
had housed perhaps a hundred or so.
Such a process is accelerated by the
steady increase in population.
There is not much housing choice in
the central areas of the cities. It is either
detriorating housing, slum housing, or
new luxury apartments. The problem be-
comes desperate.
USE OF BUSES to remedy "de facto
school segregation" has, not unex-
pectedly, fallen into the hands of politi-
cians who see a political advantage in
exploiting the desperate wish of the peo-
ple involved for something to be done.
This is unfortunate, since the business
of schools is'not sociological reform, but
teaching. That schools have taught so
well they have produced thousands of
persons who recognize and cope with need
for social change' is a tribute to the
De facto segregation cannot be changed
by the bussing of pupils to produce, for
a few hours a day, a sort of token correc-
tion of the imbalance that exists. Bussing
makes sense--and can be corrective-only
in those areas where children are bussed
-from bad overcrowded schools to those
with unused classroom space.
MERELY TO BUS for a temporary cor-
rection is a waste of energy, time and
money, and diverts attention from the le-
viathan itself.
The location of the many new schools

to this time volunteers and stu-
dents, have acted as tutors during
most of that time.
Charles R. Sleet, the main in-
stigator and director of the proj-
ect, has been tutoring for three
years. Rudy Kalafus, an engineer-
ing grad student, and Barbara
Wilson, a psych major, each tu-
tored two years. These three are
the main pillars of the project.
AS THE PROJECT has devel-
oped it has constantly sought
ways to assist the tutor-child re-
Members of the faculty in the
education and psychology depart-
ments have acted as consultants.
The University has made avail-
able a project office in the Stu-
dent Activities Building, and last
year provided some administrative
IN THE 1964-65 school year the
project experimented with super-
visors/consultants. These were
mostly graduate students in psy-
chology, social work, education
and sociology and were each as-
signed to about five tutors.
The results were promising and
the project plans to develop this
For example, a course for super-
visors may be offered by the psy-
chology and education depart-
ments, a course for supervisors
may be offered by the psychology
and education departments, which
project supervisors may attend.
THE MAIN JOB of the super-
visor is to assist tutors wherever
possible and to help keep tutors
more closely in touch with re-
sources of the project. Last year
there were 140 tutors and 20 su-
For the forthcoming year the
project plans to provide 150 tutors
with 30 supervisors, a librarian, a
full-time secretary, reading and
math consultants and other re-
source people.
Charles R. Sleet will be full-time
ONE recurring question that is
always asked, and most intently
within the project itself, is: What
is being accomplished?
Reassurance by parents, teach-
ers and the genuine response of
the children have beenencourag-
ing over the years. The project is
also undoubtedly popular among
students, judging by the steady
stream of volunteers coming for-
But many questions remain that
can only be answered by
thorough-going research.
PROFESSORS Morton H. Shae-
vitz and Harold L. Raush of the
psychology department are cur-
rently planning such research,
which may get underway in the
1965-66 school year.
The Tutorial and Cultural Re-
lations Project is clearly meeting
needs in the community and it
has grown into a relatively com-
plex organization.
Apart from the purpose and
dedication of its staff people, the
great strength of the project lies
in the willingness of students to
volunteer, to use their initiative
and to get involved. Herein are
spontaneity and flexibility that
seems to surmount discourage-
ment and despair, and brings new
hope to the lives of disadvantaged
children and their families. For
students too, the project provides
n. nnrnt on a nrlrl tha+h i, nt




ADMINISTRATION ECONOMISTS have predicted each year's
gross national product for the last five years-and with great
accuracy (see above). They have aided this growth with programs
of deficit spending. But Federal Reserve Chairman William Mc-
Chesney Martin contends that they are not safeguarding the dollar
enough in their plans for economic expansion.
Chalin-Still Unique,
Touchig Memorable
At the Cinema Guild
CHARLIE CHAPLIN once said that "Gold Rush" is '"the picture I
want to be remembered by." Go to Cinema Guild and see why. It
has some of the most touching scenes ever filmed, plus the inimitable,
sometimes hysterical Chaplin comic touch.
It's always a little dangerous to try and say what a movie means,
but outwardly "Gold Rush" is a satire on the tall tales of quick-found
gold in Alaska. It is also a statement of frustrated hope, the danger of
greed, and the suffering of those who are sentimental, weak, and kind.
"Gold Rush" was 14 months in production before it premiered
in New York on AugustX16, 1925. One estimated cost of production was
put at $700,000. Chaplin personally made around $2 million on this
movie, one of the big money-makers of the twenties.
ONE WAY OF looking at Chaplin's character in this film is to see
him a a bisnhemirit. fta heni lsrhinz for heautv ndlove in the


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