EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDEN'T PUTiT CATTONS
SOUand FURY College Students: Privileged Minority?
by Clarenuce Fanuto u e t : l O i .
- - -
Opininne Are Free. 420 MAYNARD ST., ANN ARBOR. MIrH.
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Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
DAY, SEPTEMBER 16, 1966 NIGHT EDITOR: NEIL SHISTER
The Free University:
A Good Opportunity Lost?
HAT HAS HAPPENED to the Free Uni-
versity? By this relative time last se-
mester, people had volunteered to teach
18 differ'ent courses, registration dates
had been set and a prospectus written..
Close to 300 students were registered by
the beginning of February. Thus far this
fall, no plans have been made.
The principle behind the Free Univer-
sity was learning and exploration for its
own sake. No grades or credit were given.
The curriculum covered a wide variety of
subjects and interests. Poetry, modern
film, historical theory and Marxism and,
art were just a few.
MANY PROBLEMS plagued the group
last year. Administrative details were
not planned for or well carried out. It
was hoped that some data telling how
many students had actually finished the
courses would be compiled. This was never
done. It is not even known how many
courses officially ran to completion.
Collection of money was difficult. A
tuition of five dollars was the sole source;
of funds. In some cases this fee was
waived if someone could not pay. Be-
cause of inadequate funding it was im-
possible to hire a sufficient number of
Facilities for holding classes was an-
other problem. There was some attempt
to locate a house which could be used as
a center for teaching and a general head-
quarters but it* was' never secured. In-
dividual groups arranged their own
meeting locations. Most met in private
homes, co-ops or offices. Because * the
Free University was a form of protest
against the teaching methods and prac-
tices of the University, and also because
the people involved desired a more in-
formal, setting than the traditional
classroom, the University was not con-
Also because of lack of organization,
the hope for iterchange between the
different groups was never realized. Once
classesbegan to meet there was very little
contact between teachers or students in-
volved in different areas.
These were all problems, true. They all
weakened the structure of the Free Uni-
versity but they did not prevent the or-
-ganization from functioning. They cer-
tainly cannot be preventing it from oper-
ating this year.
HY, THEN, is the Free University fal-
tering? Is there a lack of people will-
ing to compile a class prospectus, draw up
reading lists and lead discussions? With-
in a month and a half after the original
group decided to start the experiment,
people had volunteered to teach 18 dif-
ferent courses. Several were taught by
more than one person. One course had
seven different leaders.
There were no limitations placed on
who could teach and no qualifications
to meet. If someone wanted to teach a
course, he had to write an outline de-
scribing his idea. People would then sign
up for the individual classes offered on
the basis of this outline. If they didn't
like the subject matter or organization,
they were free to alter it. It is difficult
to believe that there is not at least an
equal number of people interested in or-
ganizing classes this semester as there
were last year.
COULD THE PROBLEM be lack of stu-
dent interest? When the idea was
newly conceived 300 students registered.
Although no figures exist indicating how
many people completed courses, the num-
ber who registered (300) indicates that
many students were willing to give it a
try. Being a dynamic organization with
a changing curriculum each semester,
and such a large number of people ex-
pressing interest in the idea if unpattern-
ed education should be enough to make
THE ONLY ELEMENT which seems to
be lacking is a group willing to bring
all these different people together. Many
of the people who worked last year are
willing to take part, but will not assume
responsibility for organizing it.
There is one source of movement, how-
ever. Prof. William Livant of the psy-
chology department has called a meet-
ing of people interested in the Free Uni-
versity. Hopefully, the organizational ele-
iment needed' will emerge from Livant's
meeting. If it doesn't and no one else
takes the initiative, a great opportunity
for creative education will have been
By CLARENCE FANTO
STUDENTS on this campus will
most likely be asked to parti-
cipate in a "draft referendum"
as part of the all-campus student
government elections in Novem-
ber. Supposedly, the result of this
referendum will be a massive out-
pouring of student sentiment op-
posing the release of class rank-
ing information to local draft
boards by the University.
At least, this seems to be the
result desired by SGC President
Ed Robinson as well as Voice Po-
litical Party, which is asking for
the draft referendum to be con-
ducted in October, 'separated from
the other election contests.
Unfortunately, the world being
what it is, it would be nonsense
for the University to refuse to
submit transcripts to draft boards
because more students would be
hurt than helped by such an ac-
tion. Whether we like it or not
(and many of us don't), this coun-
try is at war in what has now,
been described as the third larg-
est war involving the U.S. in this
That means that many of us
now in college will be called on
to fight if the war continues for
another two or three years, which
now seems likely. Most college stu-
dents, until now, have been quite
secure from the pressures of the
draft, even if they had barely-
passing averages and were attend-
ing school to evade adult responsi-
bilities rather than to try to learn
how to live a decent life.
BUT NOW, the secure haven of
college no longer exists. Students
in the lower quarter of their class
as undergraduates face the like-
lihood of being drafted unless they
score above 70 per cent on the
draft deferment test.
The proponents of the draft ref-
erendum here justify it on two
grounds: 1) the University is al-
legedly "cooperating" and thereby
supporting the aims of the Selec-
tive Service system by submitting
class rankings, and 2) use of the
class rankings contributes to aca-
demic pressure and detracts from
the more important purpose of col-
lege-education in how to live ra-
tionally and intelligently.
However, students still have a
free choice as far as their class
rankings are concerned. If they
did not fill out the forms provid-
ed at registration, the University
will not release their transcripts
and rankings to their draft board.
What can the University do but
give the student this choice?
If the University were to adopt
a policy of not submitting rank-
ings to draft boards, many stu-
dents who stand in jeopardy of
being drafted would suffer because
their draft board would lack evi-
dence of their academic progress.
Furthermore, even if a draft ref-
erendum is held, it seems highly
likely that a majority of the stu-
dents here would approve the Uni-
versity's policy of submitting tran-
scripts and rankings after clear-
ance by students.
MOST IMPORTANT, the argu-
ment that submitting the rank-
ings contributes to vicious aca-
demic pressure misses an impor-
tant point. Academic pressure was
a distasteful fact of life long be-
fore the Viet Nam war developed.
It existed then, it exists now, and
it will continue to detract from
the higher goals of education un-
til more fundamental academic re-
forms are approved by the Univer-
A start toward this type of re-
form is the proposed pass-fail op-
tion, which is before the literary
college executive committee. A
modest beginning toward the elim-
ination of unhealthy preoccupa-
tion with grades, the option would
allow students to select one course
per sfmester, outside their major,
to be graded on a basis of pass
or fail. Students would be thus
enabled to take courses which in-
terest them but which might cause
some difficulty, with the assur-
ance that they would "pass" un-
less they received the equivalent
of an "E" grade.
Proposals such as this are the
way to help ease academic pres-
sure. Granted, the Selective Serv-'
ice System needs a major over-
haul, with options for Peace Corps
service or a universal system
whereby everyone would serve the
nation for a year. But it is a dis-
tortion of the facts to claim that
Selective Service pressure is the
main cause of heightened academ-
ic pressures, but it has long been
recognized that radical academic
form is needed to reduce this
bane of college life.
AS FOR THE DRAFT, it is un-
likely that any major overhaul in
the system can be accomplished
until, the war is over. It would be
unfair to ask some young men to
give up their lives fighting in Viet
Nam, while others, through their
own choice, would be leading a
relatively comfortable, safe ex-
istence building roads in Nigeria.
The fact is that we are at war
but the burdens of war have
been shouldered only by a small
minority of our citizens-mainly
those unable to attend college for
financial difficulties or lack of
interest and capability. This has
indeed been a "poor man's war"
so far with Negroes accounting for
close to 20 per cent of combat
casualties in Viet Nam, though
they only constitute 11 per cent
of the nation's population.
Defense Secretary McNamara's
proposal to "salvage" nearly one
million draft "rejects" who were
unable to meet the physical or
mental requirements of the army
will add to the inequities, since 30
per cent of those to be "salvaged"
will be Negroes.
COLLEGE students should real-
ize once and for all that they are
not a privileged minority in this
country despite the fact that they
will one day be the leaders of
this country. Unless the burden
of this sickening, immoral war is
shared equally by all classes of
American society, we will be sub-
verting our basic democratic val-
ues much more than the Selective
Service System is.
From Bad to
Worse in Indonesia
By WALLACE IMMEN
jNDONESIA is in desperate need
of aid. While its leaders make
pretenses of seeking a cure for
that nation's current severe eco-
nomic crisis with "trade not aid,"
its future appears to depend large-
ly upon assistance from the West.
Indonesia's leaders have sched-
uled a series of "trade discussions"
in Tokyo next Monday to try to
reopen some of the aid channels
which Sukarno effectively blocked
last year. Representatives from
the United States, Japan and oth-
er countries, which were the sub-
ject, of angry tirades last year,
have been invited in the hope
that they will forgive and forget.
They're expected to be asked for
collective assistance in the form
of an "aid Indonesia consortium."
Also expected is a request to de-
lay repayment of the nearly $1
billion which Indonesia received
from America in previous aid pro-
INDONESIA'S economic struc-
ture has been left in a horrible
muddle by large expenditures for
the "crush Malaysia" campaign.
The attempted coup was also a
large strain on the military budg-
et. Debts are rising.
The country's industrial produc-
tion is definitely the prime factor
behind its current economic con-
dition. Its factories are operating
at less than 15 per cent of ca-
pacity and farm output of key
goods for both domestic and for-
eign consumption is very small.
The current droughts will curtail
agricultural production even more
But no effort has been made
toward economic reform, and im-
practical expenditures continue.
For example, projects initiated by
Sukarno expressly for prestige are
still being planned.
STARVATION is occurring in
the midst of this extravagance,
which also underlined the need
for reappraisal of the economic
Due to a two year crop failure,
most of the 1.5 million inhabi-
tants of Lombok Island, a short
distance from Jakarta, have been
reported to be down to their last
stocks of rice or without any food
,Already an estimated 29,000 have
died of starvation this year and
that figure is expected to reach
80 000 by January. Without im-
mediate aid the toll could reach
many times that figure.
The Indonesian government was
accused last week of keeping in-
formation from the press to con-
ceal the country's desperate 'situ-
ation. The local government offi-
cials have not been given power
to begin emergency action, and no
outside help has as yet been
INDONESIA's grave economic
problems no doubt were a fac-
tor in the decision to reconsider
the cancellation of United States
aid, and will affect how much re-
newed aid will be given. More im-
portant, however, was the shift of
Indonesia's political position clos-
er to the United States.
A year ago, officials were grave-
ly concerned that Indonesia had
been lost to the Communists.
Demonstrations and speeches de-
nounced the United States for its
support of Malaysia and its in-
volvement in Viet Nam. The at-
tempted coup of last fall took its
own toll of political leaders and
relegated Sukarno to an advisory
A purge, led by militant Mos-
lems, which followed the coup
virtually rid the nation of much
Communist influence. While most
of the purge activity was done
secretly with mass exterminations
in isolated areas of the Jungles.
estimates of the slaughter have
been set as high as 300,000 to
These changes have brought In-
donesia very close to American
policy and have alienated Com-
munist sources of aid.
OBSERVERS say the decisions
concerning America's future poli-
cies on Indonesia have already
been determined by the adminis-
tration. The manpower, resources
and potential inherent in the
country, that made it a prime
target for assistance by three ad-
ministrations, still exist.
Therefore, most experts see a
renewal of aid relations, if re-
newal can be done without a loss
of continuity in our foreign poli-
cy. Decisions must now be made
as to the magnitude and the con-
ditions under which this assist-
ance will be given.
AMERICAN officials who are
attending the meeting say they
plan to be firm in considering a
revival of the large aid programs
conducted In the 1950's and will
insist that, as a minimum step,
Indonesia institute "austerity
measures" and formulate a work-
able program to combat the spir-
aling inflation threatening its
AMERICA SEES Indonesia as a
strong ally and a source of great
potential in the future. The eco-
nomic difficulties of the' present
will remain a long-term headache;
to expect immediate results would
be foolish indeed.
America does, however, have an
excellent opportunity to establish
what it has been seeking for years
-a close diplomatic relationship
with Indonesia. A cautious and
logical approach to the confer-
ence next week could pay big
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR:
The Fraternities Attempt a 'Tax Dodge'
The Territorial Imperative
To the Editor:
WE'RE BEING TAKEN again!
John Feldkamp's s c h e m e
(Michigan Daily, September 15)
to siphon off tax deductible do-
nations to the University into the
fraternities' coffers is the latest
raid by special interest groups on
the little man's pocketbook. Texas
has its oil depletion allowances
and now Michigan will have its
tax supported private clubs.
Even if the houses are formal-
ly deeded to the University, there
will be no reform of their un-
democratic methods of selection
which exclude students from mi-
nority groups and from low in-
come families. With one hand the
University is recruiting Negro stu-
dents and faculty, and with the
other it facilitates illegal tax sup-
port for an undemocratic ana-
chronism which rigidly excludes
them. It appears that the scheme
is, in fact, "merely a tax dodge"
in the University's housing direc-
Under the proposed plan a fra-
ternity alumnus could contribute
to his son's plush surroundings
and claim that the contribution
is tax deductible. The unaffiliated
student has no such government
subsidy in furnishing his already
IT IS NOT too late for the Uni-
versity to uphold the tax laws by
refusing to hand the fraternities
an avenue of tax evasion. Is a
tottering fraternity system worth
sacrificing the University's vaunt-
ed reputation as a law abiding in-
-R. Berets, Grad
-G. Beauchamp, Grad
-T. Wilson, Grad
IT SEEMS that baboons have it all over
"humans"' they know when to stop
In the book, "The Territorial Impera-
tive," anthropologist Robert Ardrey notes
that baboons, upon violating another
tribe's domain, quickly size up the situ-
ation and often, decide that the little ex-
tra land they could gain from fighting is,
not worth'the baboon lives that would be
But, take a quick look around the world,
and on any day you are likely to see a
few hundred thousand soldiers or so
crawling through the jungles being mo-
lested by some idiots in black pajamas--
both, ironically, fighting for the libera-
tion of South Viet Nam.
ANOTHER THEORY which Ardrey pre-
sents in his book is that a society,
when invaded, reacts instinctively to re-
pel the aggressor. It is this instinct which
motivated the United, States' immediate
response to attack. on December 7, 1941.'
The instinct still persists, but, some feel,
without the strength it had before.
And, the instinct still exists in Viet
Nam. The territorial imperative was only
dormant during the previous wars. The
French had been there for years and the
mental irritation was only that: a slight
inconvenience. Furthermore, the Viet
Minh were an integrated part of the cul-
ture; they could not be excluded.
Now, the Vietnamese people have been
subject to strife and struggle for 20 years.
The underlying cause of the conflict there
is poverty and the response is the all-too-
human desire for some kind of relief
through involvement in rebellion.
And, in the face of American inter-
vention in increasing numbers, the Viet -
namese cannot help but feel the terri-
torial instinct. The Americans are out-
right invaders; an alien element.
FIRST OF ALL, the invaders have dis-
rupted the Vietnamese way of life. The
forces have upset the economy, created,
if not an American brothel, certainly an
American ghetto. They have been forced
to create concentration camps for dis-
The Vietnamese see their children
growing up on a staple diet of rice and
chocolate bars. They are forced to beg
in the streets; having been driven from
the fields and villages by bombings and
Viet Cong' atrocities.
In addition, there is always the dif-
ference of culture. The United States has
managed to create the perhaps true im-
pression of the "Ugly American" by show-
ing arrogant attitudes, displaying plump
bellies and wearing strange clothes.
And then, there is the question of race.
No matter how much the idea of broth-
erhood is supported in this country, the
fact that Americans are on the whole
Caucasians or Negro is a psychological
barrier which creates distrust and fear.
ALTHOUGH THEY ARE also invaders,
the North Vietnamese are not hind-
ered by the barriers of race and culture.
In the eyes of the Vietnamese, they are
the underdogs; they lack planes and
bombs, they starve with the peasants.
The Vietnamese do not show a deep
hatred for the Americans; they would
rather milk both sides for as much as
possible. War has settled them and
brought them to accept, in a fatalistic
way, poverty and suppression. They no
longer fill the roads, fleeing from the ene-
my, as the Chinese did in World War II.
But for so many reasons, a dormant
wish to rid themselves of the Americans
is portrayed by a word, a gesture, or no
, / + "
rr C t
To the Editor:
I WAS DISAPPOINTED not to
find further details on the pro-
posed motorcycle ordinance - a
subject of great concern to a
large number of students (as well
as non-students like myself). I
would particularly like to have
seen what "certain safety meas-
ures" to be imposed on cyclists
are going to be.
Regarding the proposals you did
publish, I would make these com-
-LICENSING of rental agen-
cies would be of primary concern
to owners of such agencies, and
licensing fees a new source of in-
come to the city. This may not
be a bad idea, but will the license
restrict rentals of anything over
50c? May I say that the more
power a machine can produce, the
safer it is. (This also applies to
cars, Mr. Nader notwithstanding.)
-Safety helmest should beworn
by all cyclists, whether the law
requires this or not. Not only do
they partially compensate for the
lack of a roof over the rider's
head ,they also make the rider
more easily visible to the automo-
-Cars must drive 35 m.p.h. in
the city, or less, so what is this
proposal doing in here anyway?
-Tail lights for night driving
is an obvious precaution and any
cyclist who would drive without
them is suicidally inclined.
-AS FOR LIMITING the road
conduct of cyclists, I think that
prohibiting them to ride between
lanes of traffic is a good idea.
Although ,asfa cyclist myself, I
find it very nice to be able to
ploy through traffic (especially
at rush hour), I also drive a car;
I know how hard it is to see a
cyclist generally, and especially
one coming up close to the car
on the right.
I have also felt the urge to
crush a few hapless riders who
hog the line between two lanes
and don't let the drivers in either
lane go by. Add to this the fact
that many automobile drivers are
reckless and don't bother to sig-
nal turns, there is the ever-pres-
ent danger of an unseenecyclist
being run down by a car turning
suddenly, or switching lanes.
someone to turn, and the cyclist
in the right .,ane cannot go past
because the law prohibits this t
In order to prevent what I think
the council is trying to prevent,
i.e., weaving in and out of traffic
and squeezing into small and un-
safe places. the preceding suggest-
ed ordinance should be made to
read "prohibit passage between
lanes o ftraffic" or "motorcyclists
shall operate their cycles in the
center of a traffic lane" or some
such appropriate legalese.
-Beyond the proposals men-
tioned, if the city is truly inter-
ested in improving traffic safety,
an area the size of a large park-
ing lot might be set aside spe-
cifically for the training of motor-
cycle and scooter riders, with dif-
ferent obstacle courses set up and
plenty.of open space for the rider
to learn not only how to handle
his machine, but also what the
limitations of his machine are.
I also think that some kind of
campaign should be started and
waged vigorously over a period of
months to alert automobile driv-
ers to the fact that there are
cyclists on the road (I sometimes
think most drivers are blind to
anything but 10-ton trucks ob-
viously bigger than they); to the
fact that most cyclists are at least
as careful and courteous (prob-
ably even more so) as the aver-
age car driver; and to the fact
that cyclists have an equal right
to use the highways of this coun-
IN EUROPE, where cyclists are
.a common sight, there are not as
many accidents between cars and
cycles; and the car drivers cer-
tainly don't., gripe about cyclists
-they probably had a cycle be-
fore they gotaa car, anyway. The
trouble in this country is that
automobile drivers are not used to
seeing cyclists and therefore don't
see them, even when they are
That is, unless the cyclist hap-
pens to get in his way (i.e., is
in the lane he'd like to be in).
And then strange things happen.
Car drivers are a vicious, lazy, un-
safe lot. They don't bother to sig-
nal a turn, and yell bloody mur-
der when a motorcycle crosses the
intersection they were about to
turn into. They take out their
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