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March 19, 1967 - Image 3

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1967-03-19

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uam eetin a evealM a jor Policy C


EDITOR'S NOTE - What is the
outlook in Vietnam as President
Johnson heads for the Guam con-
ference with his advisers and Sai-'
gon officials? This is an appraisal
by an experiencedcorrespondent.
SAIGON M)-There are changes
in the wind in Vietnam as Presi-
dent Johnson draws his war coun-
sellors to his side in Guam.
Thechanges go far deeper than
the announced replacement of
Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge
by Ellsworth . Bunker and the
shakeup of top embassy personnel
in Saigon.
There is a general feeling,
which by available evidence is
shared in Communist Hanoi, that
1967 is the year that will decide
the war. Still there is no readily
detectable evidence that negotia-
tions are in the offing, or that
such negotiations could bridge
Johnson's requirement for "an+

honorable peace" versus Ho Chi
Minh's demand for U.S. with-
drawal from Vietnam.
The Guam planners, including
Secretary of State Dean Rusk and
Defense Secretary Robert S. Mc-
Namara, are likely to concentrate
on military efforts and the vital
pacification program to win over
more of South Vietnam's villages.
The aim seems twofold: to in-
crease military pressure so much
Hanoi will accept negotiations or,
failing that, to obtain such sub-
stantial improvements in South
Vietnam by the year's end that
they cannot be denied by doves
or doubters.
Meanwhile, it is hoped the mil-
itary government of Premier Ngu-
yen Cao Ky, who will be present at
Guam, will move toward democ-
racy of some sort. A constitution
has now been completed. Schedul-
ed presidential elections before the

end of the year could brighten the
political picture.
Facing this prospect of a tough
year ahead, President Johnson
will be checking the balance
sheet. It contains some hopeful
entries, but far too much red ink
to please him.
The war is costing roughly $60
million daily. Each week about 175
Americans are killed and 800 or
more wounded. There are now
423,000 U.S. troops in Vietnam.
These figures are mounting as
America's top commander, gray-
ing tough Gen. William C. West-
moreland, turns to larger "sus-
tained operations" to sap Red
Recognizing their inability to,
match U.S. firepower, the Com-
munist leaders have shifted tac-
tics and strategy-while still pay-
ing lip service to the notion that
their forces can be built up to

meet the Americans headon.
The Red's goal is to build and
conserve strength in South Viet-
nam while waging a war of attri-
tion to raise American and South
Vietnamese casualty figures. To
this end they are employing more
long-range mortar and rocket
attacks. They jab and feint and
fade away at night in classic
guerrilla attacks..
Above all they concentrate po-
litical activity in the nation's vil-
lages and hamlets-backing these
efforts with a sustained campaign
of murder against South Vietna-
mese officials and pacification
Communist strength in hard-
core and guerrilla units is put at
282,000 men, including about
50,000 North Vietnamese regulars.
South Vietnam has 15 million peo-
ple. The Communists probably ex-
ercise outright control over about

five million. Two million more are
in a sort of political limbo, and
eight million under government
Westmoreland estimates that on
balance Hanoi is funneling down
men and supplies sufficient to
keep their force operating at the
present level and even increase
their strength.
Faced with this formidable
threat, U.S. policy has frequently
evolved jerkily. For some months,
however, a pattern has emerged,
though in practice the application
is frequently bumbling.
In general terms, U.S. officials
are determined to maintain the
bombing of North Vietnam, keep
as much military pressure as pos-
sible on the Communists in South
Vietnam, and push ahead as rap-
idly as possible with a new pro-
gram aimed at pacification and
rural improvements.

Westmoreland appears content
with present plans that will bring
his troop strength to some 470,000
men by year's end. With that force
he plans greater offensives against
previous Communist "safe hav-
ens." He feels the Communists
must soon stand and fight to de-
fend these or lose essential bases
for military and political activity.
Working with pacification teams,
and other South Vietnamese
agencies, the United States has
centralized civilian programs un-
der an Office of Civillan Opera-
The OCO program for 1967 is
concentrating on four priority
a r e a s, notably large regions
around Saigon and in the delta.
The program aims to, win over
1,100 hamlets during the year.
To back up this program, Viet-
namese military forces will be

turned more and more to local
security while Americans take on
the larger share of fighting main-
force Communists units.
How this will work is one of the
big questions. Premier. Ky, with
almost 700,000 men in military,
police and paramilitary outfits,
should have enough troops for the
job. How they work and fight is
another matter.
The military and police forces
contain some crack outfits and
some that are adequate. The local
militia forces defending isolated
outposts in their home districts
often fight with spirit..
But sometimes they make ar-
rangements with the local Viet
Cong and don't fight at all. And
the Vietnamese army still fre-
quently moves through the coun-
tryside with the morals of a pick-
pocket at a county fair.

The Vietnamese military com-
mand, with officers as local bosses
in every district and province, is
equally spotty. In outlying districts
corruption is often the rule rather
than the exception.
It is a problem American ad-
visers learn to live with. Their
feeling seems to be: If the district
or province chief is willing to get
on with the essential part of his
job the shortcomings can be over-
Nobody expects anything in
Vietnam to end suddenly.
Ambassador Lodge said this
week: "There will be no headlines
when the war is over, that an
armistice has been signed, or rib-
bons that pictures can be taken
of. I think there will be a state of
affairs where casualties will drop
and certain things no longer

OK Vietnam Constitution;
Await Johnson A pproval


Drivers Are

New Bills Advocate Open Aid
For U.S. Overseas Activities

SAIGON (R)-South Vietnam's
draft constitution received final
approval from the Constituent
Assembly yesterday in time for
Prime Minister Nguyen Cao Ky
to carry it to Guam today and
show it to President Johnson.
The draft constitution, which
provides for the election of a
civilian government later this
year, was approved by all of the
assemblymen present at the final
session-102 of 117 members--10
days ahead of schedule.
The constitution is still subject
to change. The Saigon military

junta have the right to review its
117 statutes during the next 30
days and to send it back to the
Constituent Assembly. Amend-
ments suggested by the junta can
be turner down only by a two-
thirds vote of the Assembly.
Presidential elections are to be
held in Vietnam six months after
the' constitution's promulgation.
Legislative elections are promised
within a year after balloting for
The assembly had been working
toward a March 27 deadline for
completion of the national char-

ter, a basis for conversion of this
war-wracked nation from military
to civilian rule.
The assembly began working on
the constitution last September. It
provides for a blend of presidential
and partiamentary forms of gov-
erment, an independent judiciary
and a two-house National As-
A president elected by universal
and direct adult suffrage will ap-
point a prime minister who would
choose a Cabinet.
The lower house has the power

Divided GOP Senators Plan
No Vietnam Policy Statement

to oust Cabinet members on votes
of confidence.
Assemblymen said Ky had asked
them to vote for the final adoption
of the draft constitution by last
night, rather than by March 27
as scheduled, so that he could take
it to his meeting with Joihnson.
In lengthy sessions yesterday,
the assemblymen smoothed over a
conflict with the junta. The As-
sembly wanted to continue func-
tioning with full legislative powers
until the presidential elections.
The military opposed this.
The compromise will give the
assembly the right to draft the
presidential electoral law, write
statues relating to political parties
and the press, and ratify treaties.
The Assembly obviously yielded
(.to Ky in this matter. "They sold
out," one Vietnamese newsman
commented after the compromise
was voted in.
Conflict between the assembly-
men and the military may not yet
be over. Within the next 30 days
the junta could propose changes
that might ruffle the feathers of
the assemblymen. Several changes
proposed by the military earlier
in the week were turned down.
A bizarre scene yesterday high-
lighted the morning of the As-
sembly. A group of deputies walk-
ed into the Assembly building car-
rying a white alabaster bust of
the late Tran Van Van, a promi-
nent politician and member of the
Constituent Assembly who was
murdered in the streets of Saigon
early in December.
One assemblyman, Capt. Nguy-
en Dac Dan, representing the prov-
ince of Ba Xuyen, cried out from
the floor of the Assembly: "I
dreamed last night that Tran Van
Van gave me a pistol and 50 bul-
lets and asked me to use them
against people who attempted to
destroy this constitution.",
The captain completed his per-
formance by brandishing a white
plastic pistol at his fellow mem-

Republican leaders are soft-pedal-
ing GOP differences over President
Johnson's Vietnam policies that
apparently run as deep as those
Democrats air publicly almost
When the GOP Policy Commit-
tee. directed its staff last week to
draft a study of Vietnam war
policies, it was with the clear un-
derstanding that there would be
no attempt to forge any party
position on the issue.
The committee expects to have
in about two weeks what Chair-
man Bourke B. Hickenlooper of
Iowa calls a "completely objec-
tive analysis."
Avoid Advertising
The problem of Hickenlooper
and Republican Leader Everett M.
Dirksen of Illinois at this point is
to avoid advertising the same
kind of party split that Sen. Rob-
ert F. Kennedy (D-N.Y.) and
Chairman J. 'W. Fulbright (D-
Ark.) have made it clear exists
among the Democrats.
Although they can't prevent
their colleagues' from embarking
on individual excursions, Dirksen
and Hickenlooper are classified as
"hawks," as are a majority of the
Senate's 36 Republicans.
Sen. Jacob K. Javits of New
York lately has swung away from
this group to the stop-the-bomb-
ing side but Sen. Clifford P. Case
of New Jersey said he doubts this
is the time to halt air strikes.
Sens. George D. Aiken of Ver-
mont, dean of Republicans in the
Senate, Thomas H. Kuchel of Cali-
fornia, the assistant leader, John
Sherman Cooper of Kentucky,
Mark 0. Hatfield of Oregon and
Charles H. Percy of Illinois all are
listed as "doves."
are likely to have places. on the
The Daily,
Sports Staff

Veteran Senate Republicans who
foreign policy drafting panel of
the 1968 convention Platform
Committee are at sea about the
position their party's presidential
candidate will take on Vietnam.
They know, of course, that for-
mer Vice President Richard M.
Nixon is taking a generally hawk-
ish stand on the war while criti-
cizing Presiden~t Johnson's conduct
of it. They have no clear idea
where Gov. George Romney of
Michigan finally will land.
Standing Ovation
It was not lost on the Republi-
can leaders that Hatfield got a
standing ovation from a largely
student audience at Harvard Uni-
versity last week when he accused
President Johnson of being a
"very sincerely wrong man" be-
cause he treats the Vietnam con-
flict not as a civil war but as a
clash between democracy and
The Harvards seemed to agree
with Hatfield's description of re-'

signing Ambassador Henry Cabot
Lodge, the 1960 GOP vice-presi-
dential nominee, as a "puppet of
the Johnson administration" in
The Republicans are desperate-
ly trying to woo youthful voters in
1968. Their young stars, like Hat-
field, Percy and Sen. Edward W.
Brooke of Massachusetts are re-
jecting any hard line of military
victory in Vietnam.
Bombing Policy
Brooke, just ending a Far East-
ern tour that took him to South
Vietnam and adjacent countries,
called during his trip for re-ex-
amining the policy of bombing
North Vietnam.
All of this adds up to a differ-
ence of opinion among Republi-
cans that could make it difficult
for them to agree on any Vietnam
position in 1968. The leaders hope
for a judicious dose of silence
while events unfold which could
change the p r e s e n t Vietnam

DETROIT 1P) - Charges that Ws
some of its milk drivers have been WASHINGTON (IP) a- Both to ask creation of a publicly con-
intimidated were leveled Friday branches of Congress are to re- trolled corporation to finance vari-
by the Michigan Milk Producers ceive bills tomorrow to provide ous activities, outside the Intel-
Association against the National for open, congressional super- ligence-gathering field, which have
Farmers Organization which is en- vised financing of certain Amer- been covertly supported by the
gaged In a milk holdout. ican activities overseas, displacing CIA in the past.
the clandestine support hitherto In the Senate, Sen. Eugene J.
The association said some of its provided by the Central Intel- McCarthy, (D-Minn), establish a
8,539 members and drivers of milk lignce Agency. fund to be financed by private
tank trucks have been threatened- A bipartisan House group plans foundations which would lose
The NFO strike, called Wednes- ____-______________________________
day night in 25 states, is aimed at
boosting milk prices. The NFO is
seeking an additional dollar for v'
each 100 pounds of -milk, or two vrnmentPlans
cents per quart. Farmers now re-
ceive $5.50 per 100 pounds.
New Tactics id for Economy
It "doesn't seem to be working
and new tactics are being employ-
ed," said an association spokes- WASHINGTON (A) -The ad- investment tax credit suspended
man. ministration plans to pour more last October as an antiinflationary
Association members are sending than $1 billion into a sluggish na- tool. This came only one day after
their milk to market, the spokes- tional economy but officials deny a government report projected the
man said, saying, "We are worried a pump-priming operation is un- first drop in business spending
that things could get out of hand." derway. for plants and equipment in four
Meanwhile in Lansing, Lt. Gov. "To say this is pump-priming years.
William Milliken, acting in place would present an alarmist image," The investment tax credit was
of Gov. George Romney who was one key government analyst said adopted in 1962 to stimulate the
in Washington, issued this state- yesterday. economy but officials say its re-
ment: He and other government econ- instatement is merely a return to
"I have been advised by the omists said the economy now is normal business.
director of the Michigan State able to absorb the added federal
Police that there have been scat- spending. Later in the year, such
tered incidents of violence and spending might contribute to an
harrassment in connection with anticipated buildup of inflationary
transportation of milk. These in- pressure, they added.
cidents appear to have resulted Economy Report
from the recent action of the Na- Control
tional Farmers' Organization in President Johnson's economic
calling upon farmers to withhold report to Congress in January en-
milk from market visioned some federal stimulation TOKYO W-Communist China's
"Under Michigan law, it is a of the economy during the first army, which supports Chairman
criminal offense for any person, half of this year, the source said. Mao Tse-tung, has extended its
by force, to stop or hinder the op- Some members of Congress con- control of Peking by seizing the
eration of any vehicle transporting tend the administration's January capital's schools, factories and mu-
farm or commercial products projections of the economy should nicipal agencies, Japanese dis-
within the state." be revised. But government experts patches reported yesterday.
Milliken urged that all involved are sticking by their forecast of a The reports from Peking by cor-
in the dispute use "restraint, and sluggish first half with a later respondents of the Japan Broad-
obey the law." upswing. casting Corp. and the newspaper
One tanker truck reportedly was Despite denials of pump-prim- Yomiuri coincided with mainland
hijacked southwest of Flint and ing Lhe timing of the administra- radio broadcasts saying the army
its 5,000 gallons of milk dumped. tion's announcements has coin- had taken over farms and factor-
In Livingston County, a group cided closely with reports con- Kies in the provinces of Anhwei,
of : striking farmers reportedly firming economic sluggishness. Kiangsi and Hupeh.
stopped a milk tank truck in Iosco Pressure Subsided The reports reinforced the con-
Township. Sheriff's deputies were sd J sviction amongobservers of China's
called to the scene. President Johnson announced'bitter internal struggle that the
"There was no trouble," said Friday, for instance, that because 2.5 million-man army had become
Sheriff LawrenceGehringer. "The inflationary pressue had subsided the principal instrument of Coin-
farmers said they were just check- the government would make avail- munist party Chairman Mao's
ing and the driver said he wasn't able another $791 million in de- "Great Proletarian Cultural Rev-
threatened. ferred funds, including $350 mil- olution," a purge of so-called re-
"Everyone agreed that those lion for highways and $250 mil- actionary elements in Chinese life.
who don't want to sell their milk lion for mortgage aid. It meant, too, that the army
don't have to but those who do This followed by just one day was achieving at least some suc-
have the right to sell it." a Federal Reserve Board report of cess through force where Mao's
Ray Nielsen, state NFO repre- the second substantial drop in.in- militant civilian Red Guards and
sentative, claimed the withholding dustrial output in as many revolutionary rebels had failed,
of milk from producers is 80 per months. through political agitation, propa-
cent effective and contends that Johnson asked Congress last gandizing and appeals for faith-
some counties are 100 per cent dry I week to reinstate the 7 per cent ful adherence to Mao's thought,

their tax exemptions if they re-
fused to assist in the financing.
Both measures would be aimed
at assisting openly the overseas
undertakings of student groups,
educational and trade union or-
ganizations such as have been re-
vealed recently as secret recipients
of CIA funds.
Speaking for the House group,
all members of the House Foreign
Affairs Committe, Rep. Dante B.
Fascell (D-Fla), said in a state-
ment Saturday night that the pro-
posed plan should go a long way
toward meeting the legitimate
needs of private groups operating
overseas while eliminating the
CIA secrecy which many feel has
jeopardized such activities.
Under the House proposal, the
various activities would be en-
trusted to an institute on interna-
tional affairs. It would be man-
aged by a nine-member board of
directors composed of private cit-
izens and government officials.
The nine board members would
be appointed by the President and
would be subject to Senate con-
firmation. The majority would
come from the private sector.
l~ Increases
kling Sections
to win popular support for the
Troops were reported Friday to
have taken overin Chekiang Prov-
ince on the coast south of Shang-
hai. Earlier in the week they were
said to be in control in Kwang-
tung Province after a series of
bloody clashes in the provincial
capital, Canton, and in rural com-
The use of the army is a recent
development in the purge, which
began last August. Mao original-
ly had counted on the teen-aged
Red Guards and older supporters
to carry it out, but they encount-
ered widespread opposition.
Further evidence of Mao's turn
to the military was, the call
Thursday for the 200-million-man
militia to become more deeply in-
volved in the purge. A Peking
broadcast reporting the appeal
said thecultural revolution was in
a "critical stage."

World News Roundup




By The Associated Press
MADRID, Spain - The Spanish
cabinet sent to the Spanish leg-
islature for approval yesterday a
new law reforming the National
Movement-Spain's only legal po-
litical organization. %
Among provisions of the new
law, officials said, was one pro-
viding for election to the move-
ment's National Council of Repre-
sentatives from each of Spain's 52
provinces. Election will be by town
councils and local councils of the
movement rather than by popular
election. Previously all members
have been named by Franco as
national head of the government.
WASHINGTON -- About one-
third of the membership of the
House of Representatives urged
the Justice Department' this week
to act with "due diligence and dis-
patch"on findings of wrongdoing
by Adam Clayton Powell.'

A letter dated March 14 and
signed by some 150 members re-
minded Atty. Gen. Ramsey Clark
that the House committee investi-
gating Powell's affairs forwarded
copies of its report and findings to
the Justice Department for "ap-
propriate action."
There was no immediate com-
ment from the attorney general.
s . *
MOSCOW - The Soviet govern-

ment expelled two Chinese diplo-
mats from Moscow yesterday,
charging them with carrying on
anti-Soviet activity.
The Foreign Ministry ordered
immediate departure for First
Secretary Miaho Chiung and Third
Secretary Sun Lin.
The expulsion was in apparent
retaliation for the recent expul-
sion of two Soviet diplomats from

802 Monroe
Noon Luncheon-25c
Sue Klara, Student: "Why I Am a Conservative"

dir. Francois
Charles Aznavour.



(or "The Man Who
Dared to be Different")

The University of Michigan
Gilbert & Sullivan Society

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