THE MICHIGAN DAILY
TUESDAY, JANUARY 10, 1967
PAGE TWO TUE MICUIGAN DAILY TUESDAY. JANUARY 10, 1907
Viet Pacification: How Successful?
EDITOR'S NOTE: The key word,
in South ;Viet Nam is "pacif ica-
tion." It means the effort to win t
people over to the side of the Sai-
gon government, with assurances for
their safety. How is it going? '1o
find the answers a reporter with
five years' experience in Viet Nam,
winner of a Pulitzer Prize for his t
reporting there, traveled through the
country, observing and talking with
Americans and Vietnamese at all
levels. In this article, first of a
series of five, correspondent Peter 1
Arnett analyzes the history of the
pacification program, its debits and ;
By PETER ARNETTt
SAIGON (A') - Priority one in
Vietnam today,- as for the past
five years, is pacification.
This paramount objective has!
been overshadowed for years by
the bloody battles, the coups d'
etat, the political infighting in j
The sad truth is that pacifica-l
tion has been a failure in Viet-w
nam, a sorry record of grandiose
schemes that collapsed, of money]
ill spent, of dissillusionment by1
those with energy and vision who surgents roaming freely through
came to Vietnam to help and left the hamlets and villages of the
disgusted. countryside. ,
This failure to gain minimal Pacification is meant to move in
progress in pacification has so two ways. It must woo the uncom-
angered President Johnson, ac- mitted millions of Vietnamese to
cording to well-informed Ameri- the side of Saigon. And it must
can sources in Saigon, that he has smash the Communist organiza-
threatened to take the whole mul-
timillion-dollar program out of
the hands of the civilian U.S. mis-
sions in Saigon and turn it over
to Gen. William C. Westmoreland,
commander of American forces.
The billions of dollars poured
into Vietnam since 1962 have
been aimed directly and indirectly
at achieving pacification-winning'
and holding the allegiance of theI
15 million Vietnamese people.
Time has shown that without
this allegiance, the Saigon gov-
ernment will remain at best a be-
leaguered regime, necessarily bol-
stered by massive support 'of the
United States, permanently im-
prisoned in the provincial and dis-
trict towns, with Communist in-
tion holding sway across much
of the countryside and pervading
the tiniest aspects of Vietnamese1
For this dual purpose in 1967,1
the Vietnamese government willi
commit 560,000 armed men, a to-
tal that includes all of the police
and paramilitary forces and half
the regular army.1
American troops also will beR
assigned to various pacificationI
projects of differing importance.
As the year began, approximately
20 U.S. infantry battalions were1
committed for this purpose, andi
the figure is expected to doublei
One of the main roles of these
U.S. units will be to handle the
regional Viet Cong troops thati
operate within province bounda-i
American Civilians Aid
A force of about 1,500 Ameri-
can civilians also will be involved
in the pacification and directly re-
lated U.S. aid programs
The 1967 budget for the Revolu-'
tionary Development Program,
the name now applied to the pro-
gram, is about $77 million. Thet
aim will be rehabilitation of =sev-
eral hundred hamlets.
But hundreds of millions more
will be spent in related projects,
such as commodity support and
providing building and other
Pacification has gone under
many names since the late Presi-
dent Ngo Dinh Diem belatedly
created his so-called agrovilles in
1959 with the aim of depriving
the Viet Cong of rural support.
When he agrovilles failed to bring
about the social revolution he en-
visaged, Diem introduced the stra-
tegic hamlets-islands of people
forcibly relocated or settlements
surrounded by moats and walls.
Various New Schemes
Then in rapid succession after
the fall of Diem came a torrent
of new schemes-the "new life"
hamlets, the "oil spot" program,
rural construction, rural recon-
struction, revolutionary develop-
ment and, for 1967, the "New So-
ciety," an amalgam of the slogans
of the Kennedy and Johnson ad-
The White House is believed to
fear that the scores of bloody
battlefield victories gained by
American troops in the past 18
months might well be in vain un-
less measureable progress is made
in winning over a large number of
the nation's 12,000 hamlets where
the Communists get much of
their support Only a handful of
these can be said to be truly paci-
fied as of now.
As commander of U.S. forces,
Westmoreland reportedly looked
like a good bet to President
Johnson to wear the extra hat of
pacification chief. But the pro-
posal was fought on two counts.
The civilian U.S. missions had
built up over the years a bank of
experts and knowledge about paci-
fication which, they argued, would
flower in a suitable environment.
And the mission felt that West-
moreland, while leading U.S.
troops to victory against main
units of the enemy, had failed in
his basic mission-that of build-
ing the Vietnamese army into a
viable fighting force. The need for
nearly 400,000 American troops in
Vietnam was cited as evidence.
Because the Vietnamese army
was unable to provide sufficient
security to pacification teams, the
civilians argued, the programs
are doomed to failure. There
could be no guarantee of success
for Westmoreland in pacification,
because in the end he would have
to face up to the problem of get-
ting the Vietnamese to toe the
With these arguments, the civil-
lan U.S. missions managed a stay
of execution. But the possibility
of a military takeover of the paci-
fication program still exists, and
U.S. officials speak about a two-
to three-month trial period after
which a decision will be made.
, One senior officer commented,
. don't know what we have to do
in that time, or what we can hope
to do. But we have to do some-
thing spectacular to stay leading
the team here."-
That "something spectacular"
includes a whole new look at the
problems of pacification, and the
creation of a powerful pacifica-
tion chain of command within the
U.S. mission, presided over by
Deputy Ambassador William Por-
ter and functioning with strong
A Saigon-based brain trust will
aid, evaluate and prod field teams
of U.S. experts led by men of
But the streamlining of the
American effort is regarded as
just a fraction of the problem.
The main burden must lie with
the Vietnamese, U.S. officials 'ar-
"SUPERIOR OFF-BEAT, AND
CO .PYZ'APC, BP
SUGGESTED FOR MATURE AUDIENCES
Tuesday 7 and 9
210 S. Fifth Avenue
ANN ARBOR FRIENDS MEETING
For anyone interested in the Society of Friends
(Quakers) you are invited to a series 'of Seeker's
Meetings scheduled for the following Sunoays:
Jan. 15 "Friends' Testimonies and Social Concerns"
WALTER SCHEI DER
Jan. 22 "The Organization of the Society of Friends
HERBERT L. NICHOLS
3:00 P.M.; Friends Meetinghouse,
1420 Hill Street, Ann Arbor
NEW MUSICAL TO OPEN AT
LYDIA MENDELSSOHN ON JAN. 27
MUSKET, nationally acclaimed musical comedy company;
will open on Jan. 27 with OUT OF OUR MINDS; a musical en-
tertainment which can't be missed. The show uses the Univer-
sity situation as a springboard for two hours of song and dance.
There has not been a musical comedy in Ann Arbor quite like
this one since the days of the famed Union Opera. OUT OF
OUR MINDS is fast-moving, bright entertainment, with a list
of songs which touch on the widest variety of musical styles--
from flamenco to popular to rock.
Tickets are available at the Lydia Mendelssohn
beginning Jan. 13 for Block Sales, and Jan. 16 for
Sales. Don't miss the chance to see this great show.
Tonight at 7:15
in Room 3C in the Union.
Sign up for CHEAP trip to Mt. Holly this
Friday night. Everyone is invited.f
UAC MUSKET '67
ATOMIC ENERGY DIVISION
PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY
has need at the
NATIONAL REACTOR TESTING STATIONz
Located near Idaho Falls, Idaho
the new musical
* Block Sales
." Individual Sales
All Seats $2.50
Fri.-Sun., Jan. 27-29
Wed.-Sat., Feb. 1-4
Fri. & Sat. Nights
7:00 & 9:30
A PREVIEW of one of the highlights of this year's original
Musket performance of "Out of Our Minds" is shown here being
taped at the University Television Center, The television preview
will feature taped interviews with student co-authors Charles
Troy and Carolyn Delevitt, composer Bruce Fisher, and director
Jack Rouse. Plans for the 30-minute television version are not
definite, but an airing on state stations is planned before the
premiere in Lydia Mendelssohn Theatre Jan. 27. The revue will
run through Feb. 4 for 11 performances.
To Clear Up Any
caused by a Display
Ad which ran on
Sun., Jan. 8th,
Begins Jan. 15 at 1 P.M.
All Other Nights
"" "" .
To plan and direct experiments and tests aimed at
understanding the behavior of reactors and reactor
systems under dynamic conditions.
Work in an area where you can enjoy the best in:
FISHING HUNTING SKIING
JAN. 27-29, FEB. 1-4
7 and 9:15 P.M.
Dial Shows at 1 :00
5-6290 C TODAY 3:00-5:00
You caught the 'Pussycat"...Now chase the Fox!
PAkAVISION* COLOR by DeLuxe Released thr UNITED APTIATA
FRI.-Dean Martin in "MURDERERS' ROW"
Contact your PLACEMENT OFFICE
for an interview appointment on
January 20, 1967
I A1 °IUr.
TONY RICHARDSON'S DON'T MISS IT
0 STARTING THURSDAY e
Claude Giroux Presents.
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JANUARY 10-15, 1
"One of these dire
the cinema can n
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Tonight & Tomorrow
UNE FEMME EST U
(A Woman Is a Woman- 196
One of film's most brilliant exc
thematic use of color in Godar
tribute to his wife. With John-I
Thursday & Friday
"The importance of 'Alphaville
not by our conception of its th
but by the fact that it exists, h
life, occupies its own artistic sp
Saturday & Sunday
RAkIfL A DAT
ctors after whom
ever again be
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Paul Belmando and
She the worldsmost
e' is defined