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January 26, 1967 - Image 3

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The Michigan Daily, 1967-01-26

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THURSDAY, JANUARY 26,1967

THE MICHIGAN DAILY

4 IV ryirv

Analyze Causes of Developing Chinese Cot

PAUTL Z',.LR2
1f i

Is

EDITOR'S NOTE: The lines of
conflict in mainland China are slow-
ly becoming discernible. How the
"cultural revolution" has siirted
the edge of civil war is reported hi
this analysis by an AP specialist in
Communist affairs. It is the third
of a five-part series telling the
background of China's troubles as
far as they can be traced from
available information.
By WILLIAM L. RYAN
AP Special Correspondent
How close has Red China's con-
vulsion come to civil war?
Students of the scene say it
was within a hair of armed con-
flict last June and July-perhaps
closer even than it is now.
Reports from the mainland this
week are generating new specu-
lation about the extent of civil
strife, but China watchers are
waiting for developments to pro-
vide the perspective they need to
sort out fact from confusion.
Study of Red Chinese documents
has led these analysts to conclude
that last summer a division from

north China was moving on the'
Peking-Tientsin area and was
stoped only at the 11th hour.
The documents also indicate
that in some respects what is
going on now in China is a Chi-
nese version of what happened in
Moscow in 1957, when Nikita S.
Khrushchev came close to being
thrown out by an opposition group
he labeled "antiparty." There is a
similar "antiparty" group in China
now.
The story of the Red Chinese
regime's close brush with civil
war, as the stu.dents of China piece
it together, goes back to November
1965. That is when the current
phase of the developing upheaval
began, and the outlines of a power
struggle became clearly discernible
to the outside world.
The evidence is that every time
party Chairman Mao Tse-tung
faces political trouble, he disap-
pears from Peking, betakes himself
to his Shanghai stronghold to

weather the storm and plot coun-
termeasures.
He did this in 1954, when a grab
for power by the onetime boss of
Manchuria, Kao Kang, resulted
in a political clash and purge. He
turned up in Shanghai when the
battle lines were being drawn late
in 1965, and again only recently,
when the confusion of his "great
proletarian cultural revolution"
was reaching a peak.
As Mao disappeared from Pe-
king in November 1965, Wu Han,
the playwright and deputy mayor
of the capital, was being de-
nounced for his 1961 drama, "Hai
Jui's dismissal." The play, in es-
sence, had been a symbolic pro-
test-understood by millions of
Chinese-against Mao for purging
those who disagreed with him.
Wu became the first important
victim of a new purge. Then his
chief, Mayor Peng Chen, a power
in the Politburo, was brought down
in disgrace.

The evidence indicates Peng was
purged in April last year, since he
was not in his accustomed place
for the important May Day parade
at which he invariably had been a
dominating figure.
The first attacks on Wu and
Peng appeared in the Shanghai
paper, Wen Hui Pao, suggesting
Mao's hand. This probably was be-
cause Mayor Peng and President
Liu Shao-chi still controlled the
central press in Peking.
Then the Liberation Army Daily,
the paper of Lin Piao's Defense
Ministry, mounted a vicious attack
on intellectuals, concentrating on
editorial boards of the main
papers, including the most im-
portant, People's D a i 1 y, the
mouthpiece of the party.
This attack brought down sev-
eral other high-ranking people,
including Lu Ting-yi, head of the
party's propaganda department,
and his deputy, Chou Yang; the
head of Peking University and the

editorial staffs of practically all
Peking papers. All these were ac-
cused of trying to influence Chi-
na's youth to turnaway from Mao's
"thinking."
Nothing is sure about Commu-
nist politics, but it appeared that
both Premier Chou En Lai and
party Secretary-General Teng
Hsiao-ping had thrown in their
lot with Mao and Defense Minister
Lin. Teng was in Shanghai when
the purge movement began.
The situation in Peking became
tense as summer neared. There
was evidence of discontent among'
army officers and of opposition to
Mao's policies from Lo Jui-ching,
the chief of staff.
Lo is believed to have issued
orders to a division. in northwest
China to move down toward Pe-
king. Defense Minister Lin, aware
of this, is believed to have ordered
a division to move north to Peking
out of Shanghai.
He is said to have ordered his

division commander to get in con-
tact with the commander of Lo's
division and order him to stay out
of the Peking-Tientsin area. It
worked. If it had not, civil war
was just around the corner.
Chief of Staff Lo Jui-ching was
purged. But the struggle con-
tinued.
At this point there is reason to
believe that party Secretary Teng
shifted sides again, allied himself
with President Liu and planned
to call a Central Committee meet-
ing to deal with the crisis. But
then he changed his mind yet
again, the evidence indicates.
Thus, when a Central Commit-
tee meeting finally was called for
the first part of August, Mao was
able to be back from Shanghai
in time to attend it. The fact that
there was no meeting until then
may have saved Mao from being
overthrown.
The Central Committee met for

two weeks, then issued a set of
instructions calling for a "great#
proletarian cultural revolution."
Mao seemed in control once again
with the help of Defense Minister
Lin and forces loyal to him.
Th emerging picture was one of
Lin himself striking out for su-
preme power through control of
the propaganda apparatus and the
army. To do this he had to by-
pass many people.
The Young Communist League
had been Peng Chen's creature
and a source of possible opposition
to Lin. The All-China Federation
of Trade Unions had belonged to
President Liu, and it was yet an-
other source of opposition to Lin.
Most China-watchers agree that
Lin won Mao's blessing for a new
phenomenon: The Red Guards of
Defense-Hung Wei Ping. It
seems to have been Lin's crea-
tion.

Lin turned their wrath on the
party apparatus at province and
local levels. Swarming into the
streets by the hundreds of thou-
sands in city after city, they beat
and humiliated many a lower-level
party leader accused of straying
from "Mao Tse-tung's thinking,"
And they terrorized urban popula-
tions.
Lin, meanwhile, broke up the
Peking city party committee and
repopulated it with his ,own men,
thus depriving the opposition of
command over the Peking gar-
rison.
He fired the Central Committee
of the Young Communist League
and abolished the organization. He
shook up the staffs of all impor-
tant provincial papers. He purged
universities. He decreed suspen-
sion of all higher education in
September so that students could
devote themselves to the cultural
revolution and "Mao's thinking."

LACKS UNITY:

ArmylT
Against
TOKYO (P)-Red China's army Other
was told yesterday to use its guns of the 2
bolsterin
to rout Mao Tse-tung's foes, and loyal M
wall postersĀ° reported units al- feat the
ready had swung into action in Shao-ch
the nation's bitter civil strife. land.
Japanese press reports from Pe-
king said the army had gone into The p
action in Changsha, capital of could no
Mao's native . Hunan Province in Shan
where anti-Maoists took over mili- Peking,
tary barracks, the provincial gov- said to
ernment headquarters. Wall pos- Manchu
ters said six soldiers were wound- province
ed. Soldie

'old

To

Hint Crisis
Use GunsIn Ouster

LACKS UNITY:
Viet Cong Apparently Free
Of Hanoi Control, Says Baggs

Anti-Mao

Forces,

Of General
Uneas-iness iniSa]ron

EDITOR'S NOTE: The following

.i

posters reported troops
.5 million-man army were
ng Red Guards and other'
aoists in an effort to de-
backers of President Liuj
i throughout the main-
Accuracy Doubtful
osters, accuracy of which
ot be judged, told of clashes
si Province, next door to
where Mao forces were
have seized . control; in
ria, and in some eastern
s.
rs were said to have rolled

Viet Troop Butld-Up
McNamara Tells Sen

WASHINGTON (P) - Secretary
of Defense Robert S. McNamara
told senators Monday the Com-
munist buildup in South Vietnam
showed a leveling-off in late 1966.
More American servicemen will
go to the war zone in the next
year and a half "although at a
very much slower rate" than dur-
ing the past 18 months, McNa-
mara said.
And, he added: "I believe it has
been conclusively demonstrated
that the Viet Cong main force
units are simply not capable of
winning any major battle against
U.S. forces."
McNamara's Statement
These significant points showed
up in a 26-page prepared state-
ment given by McNamara behind
closed doors Monday before the
Senate Armed Services Commit-
tee and Defense Appropriations
subcommittee.
McNamara spoke in terms of
having about 475,000 men in Viet-
namby the end of this year.
McNamara's testimony came as
the administration was preparing
to unveil a $73-billion defense
budget-including $21 billion for
Vietnam-for fiscal 1968 and a
12.3 billion supplemental to the
current budget.
He gave assurances that Viet-
nam war costs through June 30, .
1968, would be covered by the
spending proposals and no sup-
plemental money request is fore-
seen for fiscal 1968.
Enemy Strength
On enemy strength, McNamara
said the confirmed Communist
force in South Vietnam totaled
275,000 at the end of 1966-up1
from 250,000 in 1965-including
45,000 North Vietnamese regular
troops.
Other North Vietnamese are
listed in "possible" or "probable"
manpower categories and would
have to be added if and when they
were clearly identified, he said.
But "interestingly enough even
including the 'probable' and 'pos-
sible,' the number of North Viet-
namese troops in South Vietnam
appears to have leveled off in the
second half of 1966," McNamara
said, The December total was
about the same as June's 45,000 1
to 50,000.

In the same six-month period,
McNamara continued, Viet Cong
strength "also appears to have
leveled off" at around 230,000, and
for the entire year rose "by only
three per cent."
McNamara cautioned that any
final conclusions would be prema-
ture but said it appears U.S. sea
and air strikes against enemy
supply lines and transportation
routes "have indeed succeeded in
limiting the buildup" of Com-
munist forces.
"During the last half of 1966,
the Viet Cong appear to have
lost about as many men as they
were able to infiltrate from {North
Vietnam and recruit in South
Vietnam," he told the senators.
He told Congressional leaders
yesterday, "We plan to stabilize
our armed forces worldwide at
about 3%/ million men" for the!
immediate future, he said.
American "search and destroy"
operations have been effective,
he said "but the ultimate success
of our entire effort in South Viet-
nam will turn on the ability of the
South Vietnamese government to
re-establish its authority over its
territory so peaceful reconstruc-
tion can be undertaken."
Military Units
The South Vietnamese military
units have primary responsibility
for conducting "clear and secure"
operations to maintain control,
over territory, but McNamara said
U.S. manpower will assist where
possible.
While McNamara's figures on
tapering-off of the enemy force
seemed 'assuring, they constituted
an admission of sizable under-;
statements made earlier abbut
Communist manpower in South
Vietnam.
"Order-of-battle" records which
credited Hanoi with 11,000 reg-
ulars in the south at the end of
1965 have had to be corrected
to 26000, he said.
This could elevate the monthly
infiltration rate for 1965 to over
6,100-considerably above recent
Pentagon estimates.
55,000 Killed
Field reports show 55,000 Com-
munists were killed, 10,000 cap-
tured and 13,000 defected.

into Wuhu in east-central China'
from Nanking, 60 miles to the
northeast, to help 30,000 Red
Guards and other Maoists crush
a rebellion of 5,000 peasants. Wall
posters said four persons were
killed and 11 wounded in fighting
there,
The picture presented by wall
lposters and official broadcasts
twas one of confusion throughout
tthe nation with the outcome of
ithe power struggle between Mao
and Liu in doubt.
While posters told of soldiers
Levels Off,'
Gate Group
Since the total gain in strength
during the year is estimated at
25,000, the reports indicate they
must have 'infiltrated from North
Vietnam and recruited in South
Vietnam a total of at least 103,000
new men, McNamara said.
Infiltration figures are not hard
and fast, McNamara emphasized,
explaining: "This number is a
composite of hundreds of indivi-
dual observations of the Viet Cong
lines of communication."
McNamara said any net increase
in Communist' forces this year
"will have to come from North
Vietnam" because the number of
possible Viet Cong recruits n t1the1
south "is growing more limited,"
World New,

- '~ Icopyright story was written Jan. 19
Follows as Officials by Bill Baggs, editor of the Miami
(Fla) News. Baggs spent eight days
Make HouseAret early this month in North Viet
rallying to Mao, the Japan Broad-kA Nam. He was accompanied by Harry
casting Corp. correspondent in Pe- SAIGON, South Viet Nam VP)_ -S. Ashmore, chairman of the exec-
king said another poster told of I tive committee of the Center for the
king danotheriposer tol o ouster yesterday of Lt. Gen. Study of Democratic Institutions,
army defection in Inner Mongolia, 6 and by former Ambassador Luis
long a Mao trouble spot. Nguyen Huu Co from the ruling Quintanilla of Mexico.
This report' said troops in Hu- military junta created a certain By BILL BAGGS
hohaot'e, the capital, surrounded uneasiness ,in Saigon, Possibility Copyright, 1967, The Miami News
newspaper offices and other build- of another political crisis fed the HANOI, North Vietnam (P)-
ings seized by Maoists on Monday rumor mills. There are two Vietnams shooting
and demanded that they get out Vietnamese sources said 20 to and shooting back at the Amer-
Ulanfu, the boss of Inner Mon- 30 supporters of Co, mostly mili-l icans.
golia, has been assailed in Maoist ary personnel, were put under. One is the Democratic Repub-
posters and may be behind the house arrest as a precaution. A lis of Vietnam, the country here
trouble, small troop detachment was in the north, whose leader is Ho
The poster said the troops later sighted on the move, but there was Chi Minh.
withdrew but called this an im- no indication that this was any- The other is the National Lib-
portant incident in which troops thing but routine. eration Front, whose soldiers,
had suppressed pro-Mao forces. known by Americans as the Viet
Reluctance Hinted An aloof, ascetic-looking former Cong, are in the steady and violent
Furthermore, the editorial in field commander, Co is out as de- engagements in the figthing down
Defense Minister Lin Piao's Lib- fense minister and deputy premier South. It is not recognized as a
eration Army Daily calling on the in Premier Nguyen Cao Ky's gov- government by the United States.
army to use its guns indicated a eminent, by order of the other What very few persons know,
reluctance of some military menrung-gnerls. for a certainty, is whether the
to plunge into the power struggle. He had never been the most j Democratic Republic of Vietnam,
Only in the past 10 days has the popular member of the military I the government here in the north
army been reported intervening hierarchy and they dismissed him country, actually rules the rather
anywhere. in absentia after, Vietnamese sour- portable government down South.
"Some people use 'noninterven- ces said, he spurned a suggestion A visiting reporter is inclined
tion' as a pretext to suppress the that he resign and accept a diplo- to doubt that Hanoi governs the
masses in reality," the paper said matic assignment abroad. National Liberation Front, or the
in reference to the army. "This is Co was halted and given the Viet Cong.
absolutely impermissible." news by security officers in Hong Surely, Ho Chi Minh, because
The paper said the army must Kong on a flight back to Saigon of his immense prestige, and other
go into action because of the new Tuesday from a goodwill visit to leaders of the north have long in-
situation-a reference to the ex- Formosa. fluences with the National Lib-
tension of the cultural revolution, Security Minister Linh Quang eration Front down south.
as the purge is called, the factor- Vien was reported to have told Indeed, General Vo Nguyen
ies and farms. Under the circum- him he could stay abroad as an Giap, respected in American mili-
stances "it is not possible for the ambassador-perhaps in South tary circles as a most accomplish-
people's liberation army to refrain Korea, Tunisia or the Ivory Coast ed commander, probably has as
from intervention," it added. -or return to Saigon and face much to do with strategy of the
"The political power of the pro- a military trial on charges of troops in the south as anyone,
letariat seized by the people's army corruptior.. and he is formally of the govern-
with the gun has to be defenaed Co presumably remained in ment here in the north.
by the people'srarmy with the gun Hong Kong to ponder. The persons you converse with
The ebb and flow of the Viet- here are strong in expressing sym-
namese political tide was illus- pathy and admiration for the
trated by two incidents affecting Vietnamese who are fighting the
the high command last year: Americans and the South Viet-
-Dismissal of Lt. Gen. Nguyen namese Premier Nguyen Cao Ky
Chanh Thi as commander of the troops down south.
northernmost 1st Corps Area in The difference between the two
DETROIT-Chrysler Corp. and March set off a Buddhist-led up- governments could be critical. If,
General Motors Corp. announced rising that gripped the country for instance, the United States

BNOT-YAACOV BRIDGE ON
THE SYRIAN-ISRAELI BORDER
(P)-The first meeting of the
Syrian-Israeli mixed Armistice
Commission since 1959. produced
an announcement yesterday that
both sides agreed to refrain from
all hostile acts. Another meeting
is planned Sunday.
Representatives of the two na-
tions, mostly military men, sat
down together in an effort to ease
border .problems which have
threatened to lead to war.
Israel entered the meeting with
a proposal that Syria join in a
renewal of their pledges to abide
by nonaggression provisions of the

1949 armistice agreement that
ended the Palestine war.
Sassen told the Syrian delega-
tion, that "Israel undertakes to
abide by the cease-fire on an
understanding of reciprocity and
on the assumption that no hostile
acts be conducted against us from
the territory of the other signato-
ry,"
This might be the hitch. Activity
of Arab irregulars against Israel
has contributed considerably to
Middle East tensions.
Accordingly, radio Damascus
declared Syria "would not guar-
antee Israel's security" against
sabotage raids by Palestinian
guerrillas.

pendent? Indeed, if it is indepen-
dent, the only solution might be
the personal influence of Ho Chi
Minh to urge the Viet Cong to end.
figthing.
Not long ago, the National
Liberation Front suggested, in a
paper here, that in time, after the

war, it will establish a government
in the south and will begin talks
with the Ho government on re-
unification of the entire country.
The National Liberation Front
statement emphasized that re-
unification would take a long,
long, time,

Israeli, Syrian Officials
Agree To Halt Hostilities

F

THn"E ARKdi
Resumes Thursday Night Discussions
This Thursday's Topic: "The Gift"
A short film followed by
coffee and conversation

I

1421 Hill Street

9:00 P.M.

NEW YORK-For the first time
this year, the stock market regis-
tered a clear-cut loss yesterday.
Analysts said the drop was
caused by overdue profit taking-
persons selling at higher prices
the stocks they had bought ear-
lier.
In a day of heavy-trading, the
Dow Jones average of 30 indus-
trial stocks fell 7.13 points to
840.59, with prices battered to
the lowest of the day. The average.
was down only 2.12 points at 3
p.m.
The average value of a share
of stock trades on the New York
Stock Exchange lost 32 cents. For
the first time this year, more
stocks fell than gained. There were
457 advances against 756 declines.

further production cutbacks yes-
terday as the auto industry con-
tinued to curtail its output in line
with a slowdown in auto sales.
Chrysler said three of its seven
assembly plants would be closed
for a week, with a fourth due to
go down for two weeks. GM said
a total of 1,900 workers would be
laid off indefinitely at Chevrolet
plants at Willow Run and Flint,
Mich., and Tarrytown, N.Y. .
Ford Motor Co. said it planned
no plant shutdowns presently, but
pointed out that Board Chairman
Henry Ford II said earlier this
year that various plants would
have occasional short work weeks.

for three months, Premier Ky and the Ho government decide to
settled it with a combination of initiate peace talks one day, what
military force and negotiations. about the Veit Cong, if it is inde-

i

/111/el

THE DURANGO KID
Is
back!
9 P~iR QVSaturday, at 2:00 p.m.
THE INDIVIDUAL AND HIS RELIGION
(A PSYCHOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION)
A seminar in religion, sponsored by the Office of Re-
ligious Affairs, and open to all students. The six
seminar sessions, led by Lloyd W. Putnam, will be de-
voted to a psychological understanding of the nature
and functioning of religion in the mature personality.
Basis for the presentations and discussions will be Gor-
don W. Allport's book, "The Individual and His Reli-
gion" (MacMillan paperback). Other selected readings
will be announced,
TIME: TONIGHT at 7:30
PLACE: Guild House, 802 Monroe Street

Iii

WRITER=IN-RESIDENCE
PROGRAM for 1968
Petitions now available
at 1528 Student Activities Bldg.

I

SABBATH SERVICE
Conducted jointly with Beth Israel Congregation

Positions:
General Chairman

Scheduling (C
Special Events

-chairmenn)
(Co-chairmen)

Tomorrow

(Friday) at 7:30 P.M.

I I

q7uild /kuje
---802 Monroe----
Luncheon Discussion-Speaker to be announced

RABBI JAMES 1. GORDON
of The Young Israel Center of Oak Woods,
Oak Park, Michigan.
Member, Executive Committee,
Rabbinical Council of America
A NEW LOOK AT I

Booklet

I

Publicity-Publications
Graphics
Sponsor Relations-Treasurer
Sec reta ry

(Co-chairmen)

II

I

I.

U

II

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