THE MICHIGAN DAILY PAGE THREW
SUNDAY, APRIL 10, 1966
r r rrrrir r r i r. i rrr
MOSCOW (Al) - For 55 hours
spread over 11 days, they sat in
soft chairs in the Kremlin and
listened to speeches.
When it all ended and the 4,942
delegates to the :Soviet Commun-
ist party's 23rd congress trooped
out into the pleasant spring wea-
ther, things were about the same
Leonid I. Brezhnev remained in
control of the party, which con-
trols the Soviet government. With
only minor changes in the high
command, both the strength of
Brezhnev's grip and the possible
order of succession were left un-
The dispute between Moscow
and Peking remained irreconcil-
able. An offer to talk it over went
unanswered by the Chinese, who
boycotted the congress.
Soviet support for the Com-
munist cause in Viet Nam remain-
ed strong. There was no attempt
to line up visiting Communist del-
egations behind a Soviet unity ap-
peal, which China calls a fraud.
Joseph V. Stalin remained in
the background. But there were
indications of a new, softer atti-
tude toward the late dictator and
of a new, tougher attitude toward
culture and the Communist indoc-
trination of youth.
Economic promises remained
big, with more consumer goods to
come. A realistic admission of eco-
nomic problems ended with blame
on former Premier Nikita S. Khru-
shchev and the arms race.
'hese, for lack of anything new
or striking, were the main themes
of a party meeting notable mainly
for its quiet, orderly procedures.
The emphasis was on a business-
like approach in contrast to Khru-
shchev's circus atmosphere at the
last few congresses.
The lack of new initiatives couldI
have meant an inability within the
collective leadership that succeed-
ed Khrushchev to agree upon any
changes of course.
And it could have meant that
the leaders had encountered op-
position while laying plans for the
There were signs of opposition
over trying to unify world Com-
munist parties behind a Soviet-
led movement to support Vietnam-
ese Communists and also over any
obvious rehabilitation of Stalin.
But there was no opposition
within the congress itself.
In theory a congress of the So-
viet Communist party is held ev-
ery four years-this one was five
months late, without public ex-
planation-to set party policies.
The delegates represented the 12,-
471,000 party members.
In practice the policies were laid
down by Brezhnev in a four-hour
opening speech March 29. The
speech reappeared in shortened'
form as a resolution summing up'
the congress when it closed Friday.
Brezhnev announced h im s e 1 f
that he had been elected general
secretary by the party's newly
chosen Central Committee.
His title had been first secretary
but it was changed to the name
Stalin used in 1922-34. The ruling
group for the 195-member Central
Committee was changed in name
from Presidium to Political Bu-
reau, or Politburo, another Stalin'
In announcing the new list of
Politburo members and party sec-
retaries, Brezhnev followed a cur-
ious order. Its most likely explana-'
tion seemed to be the relative im-
portance now given to the men.
?remier Alexei N. Kosygin and
President Nikolai V. Podgorny
were named first in the Politburo,
after Brezhnev's own name. Then party Control Commission, a po-
came Mikhail A. Suslov, an old tentially powerful body.
Stalinist. Brezhnev continued at the con-
Suslov seemed to be the second- gress the policy he adopted after
ranked party man next to Brezh- Khrushchev's ouster of avoiding
nev. He was listed right after him 'direct argument with the Chinese.
in the secretariat. But he is not He accused them indirectly of
in good health and is not regarded trying to assume control of the
as a possible successor. world Communist movement. But
The man named by Communist he said the Russians "sincerely de-
sources since December as the No. sire friendship" with China and
surs n D b sits European ally, Albania.
and promised "mounting support Nam, North Korea and the Viet
for Viet Nam from the Soviet Un- Cong.
ion" to meet any American escala- There had been signs for several
tion. months before the congress that
But, he said, his people are "pre- Khrushchev's denunciations of
pared to develop our relations with Stalin were being played down.
the U.S.A." if only the Americans Communist sources explained this
would withdraw from Viet Nam. as simply trying to salvage the
2 party oficial, AMexander N.
Shelepin, was dropped to seventh
in Politburo listing but was listed
after Brezhnev and Suslov in the
The only new face in the high
command was of Arvids J. Pelshe,
now the only top leader who was
a Communist at the time of the
Bolshevik revolution. Pelshe, a
former secret policeman who heads
the party in Soviet Lativa, joined
the Politburo and took over the
A meeting in Moscow or Peking
to talk over differences "would be
valuable," Brezhnev said. "The
Chinese have said it would be be-.
neath them to talk with men whom
they accuse of selling out Com-
munist causes to the West and
turning the Soviet Union toward
Brezhnev reiterated in familiar
terms the Soviet condemnation of
United States policy in Viet Nam
There had been signs some
months ago that the congress
would be used to try to sign up
foreign Communist parties with
the Soviet call for unity in support
of Vietnamese Communists. This
met heavy resistance, however, be-
cause the Chinese attitude meant
that signing wouldahave been an
anti-Chinese act. Many parties
prefer to stay in the middle.
So instead Suslov read to the
closing congress session a resolu-
tion embodying Brezhnev's re-
marks on Viet Nam. The Soviet
delegates approved it in the pres-
ence of 86 foreign delegations, in-
cluding ones from North Viet
party's reputation from the cri-
tirism of its long-time leader.
But the prospect of both a re-
habilitation of Stalin's reputation
and a return to his police control
methods was real enough to fright-
en 25 leading party 'intellectuals
into warning Brezhnev against
them. The Italian Communist
party said "we cannot accept it"
that Stalin be given a better
Some sources thought t h I s
caused the leaders to back away
from a direct reassessment of
Stalin at the congress. Brezhnev
avoided the subject.
See BREZHNEV, Page 8
Buddhist Leaders Demand
Use of Force
Urge Total Trade
Embargo of Colony
UNITED NATIONS ()) - The
United States and Britain joined
forces yesterday in urging the U.N.
Security Council to speed the
adoption of a British resolution
asking authority to use force to
stop oil shipments in Rhodesia.
.But the British proposal was
considered too soft by the three
African members of the council,
who submitted amendments call-
ing on Britain to use force to halt
all trade with Rhodesia, and if
necessary to topple Premier Ian
Smith's' minority government by
direct military intervention.
The amendments offered by
Uganda, Mali and Nigeria received
the backing of Soviet Ambassador
Platon D. Morozov.
The 15-member council was
convened yesterday morning at'
Britain's request to deal with the
specific issue of preventing oil
shipments from reaching Rhode-
sia via Portuguese Mozambique's
port of Beira. The debate was re-
* sumed at a later session.
British Ambassador Lord Cara-
don said the situation was urgent
because one oil tanker, Joanna V,
is now anchored outside Beira,
while another tanker, Manuela, is
believed headed for the port.
He warned that the economic
embargo of Rhode ia will be nul-
lified unless the council acts
promptly to give Britain authority'
to detain ships with oil believed
destined 'for Rhodesia.
Interception of Vessels
U.S. Ambassador Arthur J.
Goldberg termed the British pro-
posal "one of the gravest and most
far-reaching that has been made
to this council." He appealed for
unanimous support for the resolu-
He said the council's action con-
cerning interception of, vessels on
the high seas would establish a-
precedent in international law that
vessels on the seas "can be arrest-
ed and detained in the interest of
The Berkeley Viet Nam Day Committee headquarters were bombed early yesterday. Four person
were injured by the blast, which was reportedly done by a stranger seen lurking near the buildin
with a mysterious package. Those in the headquarters were putting together a puppet show at th
~ World New's Roundup
Wilson for I
Britain's UN Request
To Halt Oil Tankers to
sition Conservative party accused
Prime Minister Harold Wilson
yesterday of double-dealing in
approaching the United Nations to
halt oil-for-Rhodesia tankers.
The accusation, likely to spark?
a domestic political row, came as
the U.N. Security Council met in
New York on Britain's appeal.
The Labor government wants
authority to use force if necessary
to give bite to sanctionos against
breakaway Rhodesia, the Central
African colony whose white rulers
seized independence last Novem-
1g Breach of Faith
he Enoch Powell, opposition
spokesman for defense, said in a
"In tabling a resolutionat the
1Unitied Nations to empower Bri-
tain to prevent, by force if neces-
sary, vessels with oil for Rhodesia
arriving in Beira Mozambique, the
prime minister has been guilty of
a clear and grave breach of faith
Viet both with theHouse of Commons
blic. and with the country.
fuse "In the House of Commons on
as Dec. 21 last, he said: 'We have no
used intention of imposing a naval
itu- blockade around Beira, and we
the never have had'."
Powell charged Wilson had gone
even further than this.
pre- "Envisaging the possibility that
ter- the embargo might fail, Mr. Wil-
azer son said the matter would then
sev- be raised at the United Nations,
s 10 but not by us.
SAIGON (?) - The Buddhist
hierarchy has come out in open
opposition to a Vietnamese gov-
ernment for the third time in
three years. They are fielding the
same team and have a high bat-
The Buddhists want the govern-
ment of Premier Nguyen Cao Ky
to hold elections for a civilian gov-
ernment "in the shortest time
possible." This is somewhere be-
tween two and five months, in a
country where much of the popu-
lation is under some control of the
The Buddhists overthrew the
regimes of President Ngo Dinh
Diem and. Gen. Nguyen Khanh in
their first two attempts at playing
modern politics. Many here believe
Ky is a much easier target.
I The Buddhists announced their
united front yesterday after week-
long demonstrations in Saigon
and near civil war in the northern
center of Da Nang.
In the past week the situation
has worsened all over. A high-
ranking United States official was.
quoted Saturday as saying the sit-
uation now is "perilous."
In Hue and Da Nang, soldiers
of the Vietnamese Army's 1st and
2nd divisions are training Buddhist
Boy Scouts in the use of arms,
and issuing them weapons. In Sai-
gon, street demonstrations had
taken on an increasing anti-Amer-
Civilian police in Saigon have
fled from the demonstrators.
The dilemma of the lieutenant
is similar to the dilemma of the
premier. There is a feeling young
Ky has overplayed his hand. He
has failed to fulfill a boast that
he would "liberate" the city of Da
Nang and execute the mayor.
There are rumors Ky is fast los-
t ing support within the ruling mil-
itary junta, and that he may be
on his way out. But the resigna-
tion of Ky would be more than
just a change of premiers.
It would mean a change of gov-
ernment, with new faces in the
ministeries, new men in the secur-
ity divisions of the country, and a
revaluation of current policies. It
would mean a major setback to the
pacification program in Viet Nam.
of fl overnment
The extinction of the Ky gov-'
ernment would be a byproduct of
the Buddhist stand.
Some U.S. officials believe a
government dominated by the
Buddhists would attempt to seek
a quick end to the war. This
might mean a demand to remove
all American forces from the
The Buddhist leaders who have
decided openly to oppose the gov-
ernment are the monks most' agitators.
Document Shows Viet Cong
Plot to Use Demonstrations
WASHINGTON (RP) - A docu-
ment reportedly captured from the
Viet Cong shows some plans for
using the current anti-government
demonstrations in the Communist
drive to take over South Viet
"Viet Cong agents should make
every effort to infiltrate street
parades by winning the sympathy
of the leaders," is among the in-
structions reported from the Viet
C o n g document obtained in,
"Banners, slogans, leaflets, ex-
plosives and grenades are to be
kept ready at all times so that the
agitators can work in a state of
confusion," according to the re-
Washington authorities yester-
day cautioned against labeling the
demonstrations against the Ky
government as primarily Commun-
ist-initiated. They said the main
political opponents of the military
regime are aaginst the Communit
takeover. But the Communists at'e
seeking to exploit what they can
to their advantage.
United States strategists are
keeping a nervous watch for any
major upsurge in the internal
South Vietnamese turmoil over
One danger area is Da Nang,
where U.S. sources would not rule
out the possibility of battling soon
between loyal central government
troops and 1st Corps dissidents.
American civilians and U.S. serv-
icemen on leave have been pulled
out in anticipation of possible
In Saigon, the situation was re-
ported by the State Department
to be calm as of last night. But
there were "indications of possible
demonstrations" coming up, press
officer Marshall Wright said.
U.S. officials noted that in their
latest series of communiques the
Buddhist leaders in Saigon appar-
ently are trying to get better con-
trol over the demonstrations and
disassociate themselves from hood-
The captured Viet Cong docu-
ment, U.S. sources said, is one of
several intelligence items indicat-
ing Communist efforts to capital-
ize on the unrest.
Buddhist School Children
One of the document's instruc-
tions tells Viet Cong cadres to
watch closely developments among
Buddhist school children so that
a fight plan can be devised for
them. Many youngsters have been
in the street demonstrations.
A major objective cited in the
Communist document is creation
of a movement to wipe out "mili-
tary dictatorship" - referring to
the ruling council of generals
headed by Premier Nguyen Cao
Washington authorities say that
the anti-Yankee tone of some
demonstrations has been mainly
an offshoot of the power struggle
among competing South Vietna-
mese groups rather than a funda-
mental drive to oust the Ameri-
prominent in the uprisings against
There are two senior leaders,
bespectacled Thich Tam Chau,
leader o the secular branch of
the Buddhist church, and Thich
Tri Quang, a mysterious figure
who leads the spiritual side.
The Buddhist leadership called
for unity in opposition to the gov-
ernment. They said in effect, that
,there were too many freelance
By The Associated Press
BOGOTA, Colombia-Four per-
sons were killed and about 60
wounded Friday in a clash be-
tween squatters and police in Bo-
gota. Some of the wounded were
reported in serious condition yes-
Investigators said four civilians,'
including two children, died when,
police tried to force the squatters,
off government-owned land.
The area was calm yesterday
but there was fear the clash might
be used by extremist groups toj
create new incidents before the
May 1 presidential election. j
* * *
WASHINGTON - The UnitedI
States plans to turn down Presi-
dent Charles de Gaulle's one-year
deadline for getting American
troops and military installations
out of France, U.S. sources said
In a note slated for dispatch to
Paris sometime next week, Wash-
ington intends to ask for more
time for the withdrawal of some
30,000 U.S. servicemen and trans-
fer of scores of U.S. defense facili-
ties, the sources stated.
The note is expected to say that
a U.S. pull-out by April 1, 1967,
as demanded by De Gaulle, would
be too difficult to, accomplish in
view of the administrative and
technical complexities involved.
WASHINGTON - President
Johnson has signaled his deter-
mination to broaden his "Great
Society" program without respect
to what happens in Viet Nam.
to United States actions inI
Nam and the Dominican Repub
The group said it would ref
to pay federal taxes "as long
U.S. forces are clearly being u
in violation of the U.S. Const
tion, international law and
United Nations Charter."
* * *
CAPE KENNEDY - Twop
plexing problems developed yes
day in America's new star-ga
satellite, delaying perhaps fors
eral days the turning on of its
The troubles involved a bat
and a command clock.
The satellite, launched Fri
is to give man his first clearI
at the stars from above the c
of the earth's atmosphere, wb
distorts the view of ground-ba
Project offiicals were hopefu
overcoming the problems qui
so that the Orbiting Astronom:
Observatory - OAO - could b
its search of the heavens fors
rets of the stars and other celes
The Classic Beauty
Its ruggedly elegant lines
match the marvelous quality
of its Supple Leather
TONIGHT at 7 and 9
VITTORIO DE SETA'S
"A modern parable told with great sim-
plicity and acted entirely by shepherds
and peasants of Orgosolo, a wild, deso-
late and perilous region in the rugged
mountains of Sardlinia."
1M' .. R
v ,, z'
* Rouge Red