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April 09, 1966 - Image 3

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1966-04-09

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SALISBURY, Rhodesia (W) -
Rhodesia's bloodless revolution
raises an issue much broader than
the question of "one man, one
It concerns the future of the
white man in the most developed,
most dynamic part of the conti-
This area includes Rhodesia,
South Africa and Portugal's terri-
tories of Mozambique and Angola
-all ruled by white minorities.
It is nearly five months since
Prime Minister Ian Smith threw
off Britain's silken yoke and pro-
i laimed Rhodesia an independent
nation. Britain clamped almost
complete trade sanctions and an
oil embargo on Rhodesia. Many
other nations joined in the sanc-
tions under British pressure.
Not a single nation has recog-

nized the Smith government. But
Smith is more firmly in power
than before the declaration of in-
In essence, Britain has demand-
ed that the Smith government
guarantee unimpeded progress by
Rhodesia's four million blacks to-
ward the goal of a black govern-
ment in Rhodesia.
Smith has pledged to the 225,-
000 white Rhodesians that there
wll be no African nationalist gov-
ernment in his lifetime.
South Africa has been provid-
ing the gasoline and petroleum
products with which Rhodesia is
beating the oil embargo. Oil stor-
age tanks are being built in
Beira, Mozambique, so Rhodesia's
pipeline to the coast will be reac-
If no tankers break through the
embargo, which Britain is polic-

ing with planes and ships, South
Africa will seek to meet Rho-
desia's requirements. South Afri-
ca also can supply many other
products imported by Rhodesia be-
fore independence.
Shock to Economy
There is no question that Rho-
desia's economy has taken an
enormous shock from the sanc-
tions. Almost everybody here ex-
pects the situation to grow much
worse before the corner is turn-
ed. But they expect also to turn
the corner.
One professional man who op-
poses the Smith government sug-
gests that the first sign of a
crack would be depreciation of the
currency-possibly in another six
But it is in the interest of South
Africa and Portugal to see that

the Rhodesian currency remains
Whatever damage sanctions do
to Rhodesia's comparatively so-
phisticated economy, Smith and
his followers contend it could be
no worse than the havoc that they
say an immature and unprepared
black government would create.
Wilson under Fire
Prime Minister Harold Wilson
has been under heavy pressure
from African members of the Brit-
ish Commonwealth to crush the
Smith government quickly and
violently if necessary. With sanc-
tions failing, he will face several
alternatives if his party wins
Thursday's election in Britain.
He can recognize the de facto
government in Rhodesia and talk
with Smith. He can use force, a
costly and not very promising mil-
itary operation which, if success-

ful, would transfer Smith's racial Nevertheless, South African pol-
problem to Britain's shoulder. iticians are saying that South Af-
He can let the problem go to the rica's frontier has moved north
United Nations where mandatory from the Limpopo River to the
sanctions against Rhodesia might Zambezi.
be voted. This could force South Portgual already has 100,000
Africa and Portugal openly to troops in Mozambique and Angola
Rhodesia's side in defiance of the to meet the threat of guerrillas
United Nations. war directed from Tanzania. Rho-,
It could also imperil Britain's desian police have seized Russian
investment in South Africa. and Chinese arms and arrested
. 1(hodesian Africans who have
It is not a happy choice forRhesianedfinso a e
Prime Minister Wilson.I been trained in Moscow and Pe-

badly needs the Rhodesian rail- somewhat unreal here. In any
way to haul copper to Portuguese case Rhodesians don't state their
ports in Africa. It needs Kariba doubts for publication. It is a
power for the copper mines. And crime to spread statements which
it still has found no alternative might create "alarm and despond-
source for the textiles, building ency."

materials and other products it
always has imported from Rho-

Newspapers are censored. The
Zovernment-controlled radio seems


Whites in Southern Africa do
not take seriously the threats of:
the Organization of African Unity
to act again-t Rhodesia. The re-
cent series of army coups in Af-
rica and the instability of many
other governments appear to rule:
out any concerted action, even if
the means for action were avail-

Neighboring Zambia was held.
back on what was advertised as
the really crushing blow against
Rhodesia - a complete cutoff of
trade with her most natural trad-
ing partner.
Zambia still needs the 700,000
tons of Rhodesian coal it imports
annually for copper processing. It

desi.j Y 1a1i -tVa u1 1 U1 G aJ
ia. to accentuate favorable news, no
No Surface Changes matter how trivial.
On the surface, life in Rhodesia Tobacco, kingpin of Rhodesia's
has not changed. There are no top- economy, is coming into Salisbury
pled statues here. A life-size paint- from the farms for auction. The
ing of Queen Elizabeth hangs in auctions will be secret, with many
the Rhodesian Parliament. The of the customary buyers absent
supermarkets, the drive-ins, the and even the growers banned from
night clubs flourish. Gasoline is the auction floors.
rationed, but nobody complains The government has created a
Rhodesian-South African "friend- corporation to take over future
ship societies" are blooming. disposal any part of the crop
The statements from far off not sold at auction. Nobody will
London about the imminent fall of know how they are getting along
the Smith government sound] with it.



WASHINGTON oP)-Behind its
careful statements, the Johnson
administration is in deep dismay
over South Viet Nam's internal
turmoil and the apparent U.S.
inability to steer it to a construc-
tive end.
So far, Washington strategists
said yesterday, the domestic tur-
bulence has not cut deeply into
the massive war effort against
Communist guerrillas. But the
military campaign is bound to be
affected in time, and the civil un-
rest is now entering its fifth
Some important allies already
are beginning to have doubts about
sending in more help to a coun-
try where an internal power strug-
gle pervades the home front. For
instance, South Korea is report-



ed having second thoughts about
dispatching another 20,000, troops
to South Viet Nam now.
U.S. officials' answer to such
doubts is that plans for the. mili-
tary campaign are staying put and
the political turmoil is going to
work itself out-although these
officials don't profess to know
when. Nor are they willing to
guess how long the political disor-
ders can continue without having
a 'major impact on the military
Public Opposition
Of even greater concern to the
administration would be a ground-
swell in U.S. public opposition to
sending GI's to fight and die for
a distant people whose leaders
seem snarled in politics-as-usual;
including distinctly anti-Ameri-
can overtones.

The Communists have been as-
serting right along that the Amer-
ican public eventually will force a
U.S. pullout.
U.S. policymakers find them-
selves boxed in by frustrating lim-
its on their choices.
On the one hand, the United
States is 100 per cent committed
to staying in South Viet Nam as
long as needed to prevent a Com-
munist takeover. On the other, it
cannot step in to rule a friendly
country as it could a defeated
enemy such as Germany or Ja-
pan after World War II.
Thus the U.S. choice is limited
to ways of pushing ahead in the
war effort with whatever govern-
mental machinery is available at
The very depth of the U.S. com-
mitment is one of the factors al-

lowing the current political ma-
neuvering by South Vietnamese
factions, in the opinion of U.S.
analysts. With the United States
pledged to Viet Nam's defense
with 230,000 troops there so far
and the antiguerrilla drive going
fairly well, the Vietnamese politi-
cians are said to feel freer to
pursue their own goals than if the
Communists were about to take
The U.S.-urged move by the mil-
itary Ky regime toward a consti-
tutional government, it is believed
here, also has played a part in
setting off the jockeying for po-
sition by the rival Vietnamese
The State Department's state-
ment Thursday that "the solution
to political problems in Viet Nam
is something for the Vietnamese

themselves to work out" represents
a U.S. official desire rather than
the practicalities of the immedi-
ate situation. Like a declaration
that the goal of U.S. foreign pol-
icy is peace, such wording does
not say much about what is go-
ing on at the moment.
It is an open secret that Am-
bassador Henry Cabot Lodge and
other U.S. representatives in Sai-
gon have been working overtime
trying to get the feuding politi-
cians together on some govern-
mental process that will have
broad popular support and thus
lay a solid foundation for the
long fight against the Commu-
The United States at this stage
is still behind Premier Nguyen
Cao Ky's regime, embraced by
President Johnson at Honolulu in
February. U.S. planes flew his
troops to Da Nang to face dissi-
dents, and American military po-
lice helped the government against
demonstrators in the capital yes-
Yet one of the limitations on
U.S. involvement in the internal
strife is the boomerang effect
Washington experts believe. Crit-
ics of the Ky leadership already
contend it is bought by the Unit-
ed States, and each further ap-
pearance of U.S. aid risks denun-
ciation of "outside interference."
Johnson's advisers figure that no
matter what kind of constitution-k
al or election procedure may be
worked out, the backbone of real
power in Saigon will remain for a
long time to come with the mili-
tary leaders. This is because the
army has the real physical pow-
er, has exercised it in the past,
and a genuinely civilian assump-
tion of control cannot develop in
a country such as Viet Nam over-

AN AMERICAN HYDROGEN BOMB was publically displayed for the first time yesterday aboard
the USS Petral. The bomb was recovered yesterday after being lost in the Mediterranean since Jan-
uary. Officials on the scene are, from left to right, Antonio Vellia, a Spanish atomic scientist, Span-
ish Gen. Arturo Touzet, Rear Adm. William S. Guest, USN, and Maj. Delmar Wilson, USAF.
Soviet Communist Congress
Produces No Major Changes

Vietnamese Riots Dim Negotiation Hopes

AP News Analysis
A year ago, President Johnson
made his Baltimore offer of un-
conditional discussions for peace in
Viet Nam. Almost simultaneously
the Communists laid down their
all-or-nothing terms. Develop-
ments this week may have made
the prospect of a negotiated peace
more distant than ever.
The Communists cannot see a
prospect of producing against the
Americans a military Dien Bien
Phu such as the victory which
ended French rule. But perhaps
they now see a bright prospect for
a political Dien Bien Phu.
Rioting in South Viet Nam
probably has done incalculable

damage to whatever slim hopes
there might have been for an ap-
proach to the Communist North.
These demonstrations, threaten-
ing the military committee gov-
ernment in Saigon, could persuade
the Communist side that even with
U.S. military progress against the
Viet Cong, the Communists can
win the war on the political front.
The Communists over the past
decade have infiltrated virtually
every organization and element in
South Viet Nam, so they undoubt-
edly have influence among the
mobs and the Buddhists who have
inspired the demonstrations.
The eruptions, in fact, recall
the confident words of the Com-

munists last year, just after Presi-
dent Johnson spoke.
It was then that Nguyen Huu
Tho, chairman of the National
Liberation Front which is the
Viet Cong's political organization,
announced that the war in the
South was entering "a new phase,
a decisive phase, the phase of the
most difficult and acute struggle."
This was quickly echoed in Hanoi
and elaborated.
"New conditions" were develop-
ing, said the Hanoi press, and it
was time to "cleverly associate the
use of armed and political forces.,,
There would be two forms of
struggle-armed struggle by guer-
rillas in the countryside and "poli-

Saigon Hit by Anti-U.S. Rioting


tical urprisings by the city people."
This would "attack the enemy's
rear, shake and weaken him and
prevent him from leading a calm
life in a safe rear, prevent him
from using his whole strength."
To this, a North Vietnamese
strategist, Maj. Gen. Hoang Van
Thai, added in the journal Hoc
Tap that an effort should be made
in South Viet Nam to make the
U.S. rear "permanently unstable
Directed Toward Young People
The propaganda appeals were
directed specifically to intellec-
tuals, stueents and ┬▒oung peoaple
in general. It is the young people
who have been pouring into the
streets to riot.
It would be surprising if this
week's events did not have the
effect of confirming the Com-
munists in their political-military
strategy and of stiffening their op-
position to any concessions which
might lead to a conference table.
If there have been brief signs
of weakening in the North in
recent months, these are likely to
vanish now. The Communists
again are stonily inflexible behind
the four-point stand laid down
to the North's National Assembly
a year ago.
Communist Terms
Those terms were withdrawal of
all U.S. troops and material and
an end to acts of war against the
North; pending reunification, a
ban on any alliance by either side
with a foreign power; settlement
in South Viet Nam "in accordance
with the program" of the Libera-
tion Front, which simply meant on
Communist terms; and reunifica-
tion without foreign interference.

MOSCOW (P)-The 23rd con-
gress of the Soviet Communist
party ended yesterday and was
described by a ranking diplomat
in Moscow as "the dullest in
Soviet history."
The congress produced no rad-
ical change in leadership or policy.
The Politburo wound up with 11
members instead of the 12 who
manned its predecessor, the ruling
Presidium. One was a new member.
Two old Bolsheviks were dropped
in what appeared more retirement
than demotion.
The congress denounced the
United States for its policy in Viet
Nam, but some diplomatic sources
in Moscow saw this as more face-

saving than truculence. It may
have been done, these sources said,
to avoid forcing the 86 foreign
Communist delegations present to
face a showdown choice between
Communist China and the Soviet
Union. The congress began and
ended with, the Moscow-Peking
dispute apparently irreconcilable.
Leonid I. Brezhnev went out of
his way-as did other leaders-to
avoid direct criticism of the Com-,
munist Chinese. Peking had re-
jected an invitation to the con-
No Details on Five-Year Plan
The congress ended without
shedding any light on details of
the Soviet Union's new five-year

(Continued from Page 1)
American military police com-
plicated the work of U.S. re-
porters. The MP's said they were
under orders from the U.S. Em-
bassy to move all American news-
men from the streets. In one case
they drew pistols to keep news-
men from scenes of violence.
A high official at the embassy
said the orders were issued at the
request of Vietnamese authorities
to keep Americans out of "cord-
oned areas." He said the Vietna-
mese wanted to keep people away
from demonstrations and riots.
It appeared American news me-
dia alone were so restricted.
Vietnamese security f o r c e s
checked credentials and passed

Vietnamese photographers in and
out of the restricted areas. French
correspondents and other foreign
nations also were able to move
about after satisfying U.S. mili-
tary police that they were not
A group of at least 1000 demon-
strators, massing near the Bud-
dhist Institute, handed around
leaflets demanding the resignation
of Ky and the withdrawal of
American forces from Viet Nam.
They launched another march
toward the downtown sector, but
security forces pushed them back.
In the streets in front of the in-
stitute they overturned a Vietna-
mese civilian vehicle and set it

Da Nang and Hue remained cen-
ters of northern unrest.
Radio Da Nang, in the hands
of an antigovernment committee,
urged the people to withhold sup-
port of any Vietnamese regime
"influenced" by the United States.
Issue Statement
On the other hand a group of
officers issued a statement say-
ing Ky's government no longer has
the people's support and will col-
lapse, but they pledged to stand
by the country's allies, "especially
the United States," in the fight
against the Communists.
Two Skyraiders of the Vietna-
mese air force, which is under
Ky's command, buzzed Da Nang
for three hours in the morning
despite protests from the 1st Corps
commander, Maj. Gen. Nguyen
Can Chuan.

U.S. Protests Delay on Rhodesia

economic plan for 1966-70. The
plan already is months behind
schedule and is not expected to be
published before most of the first
year it covers is over.
The two last old Bolsheviks,
former Soviet Presidents Anastas
I. Mikoyan, 70, and Nikolai V.
Shvernik, 77, were retired as ex-
pected from the ruling party Polit-
buro. The only new member elect-
ed to that body, Arvid Y. Pelshe,
67, built a career on secret police
work before taking over as party
chief of Soviet Latvia.
The new Politburo was elected
by the party's new Central Com-
mittee at a separate meeting. The
Central Committee itself was
elected at the congress in secret
session Thursday. It consists of
195 members, 20 more than the
previous Central Committee, and
165 candidate or nonvoting mem-
bers, an increase of 10.
Drop Khrushchev
The new Central Committee
dropped Nikita S. Khrushchev
from membership. Past economic
failures were blamed during the
congress largely on Khrushchev's
flamboyant leadership. His suc-
cessors described their approach to
Soviet problems and the mood of
the congress as "businesslike."
Call for Unity
Soviet leaders called for Com-
munist unity behind Viet Nam and
supported Communist unity meet-
ings which Peking opposes. Some
diplomats here believe the Rus-
sians picked up points with for-
eign delegations attending by pre-
senting a face of sweet reason to
China's continued criticism.

United States yesterday rapped the
African president of the UN Se-
curity Council for delay in calling
an urgent council meeting on Rho-
desia requested by Britain.
But Ambassador Moussa Leo
Keita of Mali, former headmaster,
stood firm under considerable
pressure and set the meeting for
10:30 a.m. today. Britain had ask-
ed for a meeting a 4 p.m. Thurs-
day, seeking authority to use force
if necessary to prevent oil ship-
ments from reaching the rebel-
ruled Central African country.
Keita, the council president for
April, announced the meeting after
a talk of more than an hour with
Secretary-General U Thant.

His decision came after a morn-,
ing meeting of eight of the 15
council members, including U.S.
Ambassador Arthur J. Goldberg.
All eight took part in an unprece-
dented "sit-in" in the' council
.chambers Thursday aimed at forc-
ing Keita to call a meeting. They
did not go into the council cham-
ber itself yesterday, but conferred
in rooms adjacent to the chamber.
Britain asked for the meeting to
consider a resolution which would
give British forces authority to
use force to prevent the Greek
tanker Joanna V from unloading
18,000 tons of oil in Beria, Por-
tuguese Mozambique, for pumping
into landlocked Rhodesia.

A U.S. statement released at the
United Nations and in Washington
described as unprecedented Keita's
refusal to call the meeting Thurs-
day. It said that under the rules'
of procedure he does not have
arbitrary or unfettered discretion
in fixing the time for a meeting.
The statement added that under
the rules, the meeting cannot be
"unduly delayed, or obstructed
even by a majority of the mem-
bers, much less by a mere minor-
ity. Failure to comply with the
procedures and established prac-
tices of the Security Council will
have serious implications for its
effectiveness in this and future
cases, and is a cause of great con-
cern to our government."

world News Roundup

By The Associated Press
CAPE KENNEDY-A star-gaz-
ing satellite packing 10 telescopes
rocketed into successful orbit yes-
terday and scientists hope it will
open a new era in astronomy.
From its position high above the
earth, the Orbiting Astromonical
Observatory is to study secrets of
the stars and perhaps uncover
clues to the origin of the universe.
The satellite was hurled sky-
ward at 2:36 p.m. by an Atlas-
Agena rocket. The Agena upper
stage achieved a preliminary orbit
of about 100 to 500 miles and, after
coasting through space for 50 min-
utes, restarted its engine to cir-
cularize the orbit and kicked OAO

SAN 'ANTONIO - President1
Johnson proposed yesterday an in-
crease in Social Security benefits
for all recipients and a new pro-
gram to help pay for dental care
for youngsters.
Without specifying amounts or
total costs, Johnson said he will
ask the next congressional session
to: "increase insurance benefits,
across the board, for 21 million
beneficiaries: the aged, the dis-
abled, the widows and orphans -
including an increase in the
monthly minimum, the monthly
maximum and total family bene-



-- 6



He said too that medicare
not be just for people over
"That's where we started."



h I

C !iI



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