WEDNESDAY, MARCH 30, 1966
THE MICHIGAN DAILY
lit t rl tr MVVIMV"lm
THE MIHIGANf v sl
AP News Analysis
Kremlin policy-both internal
and external-can be expected to
harden in a drive by the Soviet
leadership to: reassert iron party
control over the whole country.
Even the word "Politburo," long
a synonym for total, centralized
Kremlin power, has been revived.
On balance, this makes the first
day of the long-awaited 23rd con-
gress of the Soviet Communist
party bad news for the Soviet pub-
Rules adopted under Nikita S
Khrushchev at the 22nd congress.
in 1961 are going to be shelved or
drastically revised, primarily to
protect the positions of those oc-
cupying the highest rungs of the
The dilemma posed by the exist-
ence of those rules likely was one
of the reasons why the calling of
this congress was delayed six
The reversals are not likely, by
any means, to presage a return
to all aspects of Stalinism. But
there is enough retrogression in-
dicated in the opening report of
First Party Secretary Leonid I.
Brezhnev to suggest that the par-
ty leaders want to tighten and
insure their grip on the nation.
A summary by Tass of Brezh-
nev's opening report before 5000
party delegates and 1000 foreign
guests in Moscow quotes the par-
ty chief as saying: "It is moved
to rename the Presidium into the
Political Bureau of the CPSU-
Communist party, Soviet Union-
Central Committee, which will re-
flect more fully the character of
the work of the highest political
organization of our party."
That makes the ruling party
group once again the Politburo, a
name it has not borne since No-
vember 1952, when the 19th con-
gress broadened its membership
and retitled it "Presidium."
Brezhnev goes further, too, in
reasserting the control of a small
tightly knit group at the top.
According to Tass, he said:
"It is also proposed to adhere to
the long-standing party principles
of systematic renewal of the com-
position of party organs and con-
tinuity of leading cadres and to
delete from the rules the quotas
regulating this process."h
This refers to the rules intro-
duced by Khrushchev in 1961. Un-
der those rules, at each congress
once every four years, no less
than 25 per cent of members of
the ruling party Presidium, the
Central Committee and other top
bodies were to be removed, and a
third of the members of republic
and regional ruling bodies would
be likewise removed.
Khrushchev had protected him-
self by adding that the rules need
not necessarily apply to those who
"by virtue of their generally rec-
ognized authority and high politi-
cal, organizational and other abil-
ities," could be re-elected to more
than a statutory limit of three
However, in a collective leader-
ship there probably would be con-
siderable argument about which
25 per cent would have to step
aside for new blood.
Brezhnev also sounded ominous
when he announced that "the
struggle against bourgeois-capi-
talist--ideology must under all cir-
cumstances, be uncompromising
for this is class struggle." He
handed a sharp warning to the
restive intellectuals and young
people-by his estimate, half the
Soviet population is 26 or under-
when he warned that all art must
serve the party and state first of
all. That, too, is bad news after
periods of relative relaxation.
Brezhnev made the familial the West together had disappeared ism to satisfy its Peking critics.
promises: That would be an effort Perhaps the Soviet leadershir The North Viet Nam delegation
to raise living standards, raise was still trying to impress upon was headed by Le Duan, the
wages and farm income and so the Red Chinese that there wer( most important Communist leader
forth. more ways than one to skin a' cat! in Hanoi under President Ho Chi
But because of the internation- A shift back in the direction of Minh. It included Deputy Premier
al situation, he said, the Soviet Stalinism-while it was likely tc and Foreign Minister Van Kinh,
leaders are "compelled to divert dismay Soviet intellectuals and. Politburo member Nguyen Duy
additional considerable means foi young people-might be helpful in Trinh and Hoang Tung, candidate
strengthening the defense might br inging about a summit meeting member of the Central Committee
of the country." between the Moscow and Peking and chief editor of the newspaper
On the international scene, Bre- leaders for which Brezhnev ap- Nya San.
zhnev returned to the worn out cry E pealed and perhaps clear the way The North Viet Nam govern-
of the Communist past: That the for a world Communist meeting ment has been trying to stay in
capitalist system around the work looking toward some semblance of the middle in the dispute between
as a whole was in "a general unity. the two Communist giants, both
crisis." He credited much of thij The Chinese will not be easily of which provide it aid.
supposed gain for Communism tc impressed. It seems doubtful that Red China has not publicly in-
the Soviet policy of peaceful co- the Soviet regime, at this stage sisted that other Communist goy-
existence, since he said the "myth' of U.S.S.R. development, could ernments follow its example and
of Soviet aggression which held reach far enough back into Stalin- stay away from the congress.
Living Costs Rise Steeply,
Johnson Hints at Tax Hike
Russia Desires Improved
Retoswt .S. hn
Says U.S. and China
Should Alter Present
Policies in Viet Nam
MOSCOW ( -The Soviet Com-
munist party called yesterday for
better relations with the United
States and Red China but set
conditions that both countries
The party first secretary, Leo-
nid I. Brezhnev, said the Soviet
Union is already to develop rela-
tions with the United States if
Washington abandons its present
policy in Viet Nam.
The Moscow-Peking dispute will
be overcome in the long run, Bre-
zhnev said, but he indicated that
China must give up many of its
present policies. He, offered to
talk over the dispute in Moscow or
Speaks to Congress
Brezhnev spoke for more than
four hours at the opening of the
Soviet Communist party's 23rd
Congress. Almost 5000 delegates
representing the party's 12.4 mil-
lion members were joined in the
Kremlin's Palace of Congresses by
1000 guests from 86 other- Com-
munist and Marxist parties.
His remarks on therUnited
States and Viet Nam repeated
comments he made last Septem-
ber about better relations with
Washington being blocked by the
war. 'The remarks yesterday were
milder than previous Soviet cri-
ticism of the U.S. role in Viet Nam.
"Our relations with the United
States have deteriorated with
American aggression in Viet Nam
and- other aggressive actions by
U.S. imperialism," Brezhnev charg-
"The responsibility for this rests
with ruling quarters of the United
"We have expressed more than
once our readiness to develop our
relations with the United States
-but this demands that the Unit-
ed States end the policy of ag-
Brezhnev took a conciliatory line
on China, which refused an in-
vitation to attend the congress.
Albania and the Communist par-
ties of Japan and New Zealand
followed suit but two of China's
Asian neighbors, North 'Viet Nanm
and North Korea, are represented.
There has been speculation that
some of the foreign delegations
would not have shown up if they
had expected to be forced to take
a stand against China. A Soviet
effort last year to organize a
world Communist meeting against
the Chinese ended in indefinite
Brezhnev repeated the formula
used since then, that the world
meeting should be held "when con-
ditions become ripe for it." But
for the meanwhile he proposed bi-
lateral talks with China. I
China has said it has nothing
in common with the present Soviet
leadership that can be discussed.
Relations with China and Alban-
ia "unfortunately remain unsatis-
factory," Brezhnev said.
"We deeply regret that the dif-
ferences, which benefit only ou
common adversaries, have not yet
been overcome," he declared. "We
are convinced that in the long run
our parties, our peoples will over-
come all difficulties."
Students Bring Down
To Head New Regime
QUITO, Ecuador () - Armed
forces leaders yesterday deposedI
the ruling military junta and a'
Quito economist, Clemente Yerovi
Idaburo, was proclaimed provi-
sional president of Ecuador.
The change was made swiftly
after the military high command'
announced it was taking over tof
restore calm following a wave of
anti-junta demonstrations and
The three-man junta was re-
ported to have fled to Brazil
aboard a Brazilian air force plane.
The three men were reported with-
out official confirmation to have
landed in Rio de Janeiro.
The high command met with
political leaders to select Yerovi
62, within hours of announcing1
they had taken over. He was pro-1
posed for the job by his former
superior, ex-President Galo Plaza
Yerovi, politically independent, 1
considered a liberal. A minister of
agriculture in Plaza's administra-
tion, he was given much credit for
increasing Ecuador's banana ex-
Yerovi was the first president of
the National Planning Council and
Ecuador's ambassador to the Unit-
ed ' Nations Education, Scientificc
and Cultural Organization in Par-1
is. He also represented his coun-f
try at the Common Market in Eu-
As news of the junta's ouster
spread, students who had demon-
strated against what they called
military dictatorship poured into1
the streets of Quito and Guaya-
quil crying "the junta has fall-
en!" Some students in their ex-
uberance tried to enter the na-
tional palace but military guardsI
slammed the gates.
Others gathered outside Garcia'
Moreno Prison in Quito where
the junta had jailed many politi-
All students taken in custody
during demonstrations were freed.I
At least seven persons had been
killed in student demonstrationsf
against the junta since violence
broke out last Friday. There have
been clashes between demonstra-
tors and troops since.
The communique dissolving thea
junta was signed by Gen. Telmo
Vargar, armed forces chief of
staff; Rear Adm. Carlos Monte-1
verde, navy commander; Gen.
Jorge Aguinaga, army commanderE
and Col. Jorge Salgado, air force1
by The*Associated Press
WASHINGTON - The govern-
ment reported yesterday the steep-
est February rise in living costs
since the Korean War. The up-
swing was led by soaring food
prices, which in the case of meat
climbed off the top of Labor De-
Meanwhile, President Johnson
indicated that he may ask Con-
gress to increase taxes by $5 bil
lion "more or less," perhaps as
early. as next month, if prices
continue to rise.
He emprasized, however,athat
he has not yet made any final de-
Johnson, fielding questions put
to him by young people who have
been serving one year in govern-
ment posts, said no one likes to
call for a tax increase-especial-
ly in an election year.
But he Said he felt sure. "Con-
gress would rather have a modest
tax increase of 5, 6 or 7 per cent of
the tax bill, corporate and per-.
sonal, than see inflation and the
value of the dollar go down."
Johnson said most of his ad-
visers seem to feel that measures
taken so far to curb inflationary
trends will not prove strong
He said they are talking of
three alternatives: government
controls, a federal spending cut of
$5 billion to $10 billion or a tax
increase of roughly $5 billion.
The rise of one-half of one per
cent in the consumer price index
measuring typical. family living
costs put the index at 1.6 mean-
ing it took $11.16 last month to
buy items that cost $10 in the
1957-59 base period.
Meat prices went up another 2
per cent to 19 per cent above a
year ago, edging off the top of
the chart at 115.7 per cent of
Pork alone was 37 per cent
higher than a year ago.
Fresh vegetables soared 10.5
per cent, poultry 8 per cent and
eggs nearly 4 per cent to lead the
rise in food prices that made up
75 per cent of the February in-
Some food prices, however, were
down, led by a 30 per cent drop
from the unusually high potato
prices of February 1965. Prices of
citrus fruits, bananas and orange
juice were also down over the
year, the bureau said.
In other areas, medical services
rose four-tenths of 1 per cent
housing costs .were up two-tenths
ot 1 per cent and clothing was up
three-tenths of 1 per cent in Feb-
The only major items in the in-
dex that dropped was transporta-
tion, which edged down one-tenth
of one per cent, largely because of
lower auto prices. The decline in
transportation costs was less than
usual for February.
The overall jump in the consum-
er price index-only the third in-
crease of that size since 1958 -
chipped another half-cent from
the purchasing power of the dol-
lar, bringing it down to 89.6 cents
of its 1957-59 value.
Overall living costs were 2.5 per
cent above a year ago, the big-
gest annual increase since 1958.
"The worst of the increases ap-
pears to be over," Assistant Com-
missioner Arnold Chase of the Bu-
reau of Labor Statistics said of
the sharp rise in food prices over
much of the past year.
"There is no indication of pan-
ic buying," he said, such as there
would be if "inflationary psychol-
ogy" gripped the public.
Sularto Keeps Peace,
In Uneasy Indonesia
Party First Secretary Leonid Brezhnev opens the 23rd Congress of the Soviet Communist Party in
Moscow's Kremlin yesterday with an appeal to the Communist Chinese to join in new efforts to
resolve the split in wodld communism. Flanking Brezhnev are Premier Alexei Kosygin, right, and
Mikhail Suslov, the leading theoretician of the party, left.
SOUTH VIET NAM:
Warns of Strong Action
If Demonstrati ons Continue
SAIGON (P-Buddhist political
agitators drew a warning from
Premier Nguyen Cao Ky yesterday.
He threatened "very strong meas-
ures" if necessary to curb the or-
ganized unrest that has clouded
the Vietnamese war effort for
nearly three weeks.
The aim would be "not for the
survival of the government, but
for the survival of Viet Nam," the
chief of the Saigon military re-
gime told foreign newsmen.
In a situation which has taken
on some anti-American overtones
Deputy Defense Secretary Cyrus
R. Vance was flying to visit U.S.
and allied forces. He left Wash-
ington Monday night.
However, the unrest led White
tiouse Press Secretary Bill D.
Moyers and presidential assistant
Robert Komer, who had been ex-
pected to go along, to put off their
trip at least temporarily.
Ky talked with the visiting
newsmen of South Viet Nam's po-
litical situation after a meeting
of an undisclosed nature Monday
night with five Buddhist leaders
The chief demand of the agita-
tors is a quick return to civilian
A reliable source reported Ky
told the news conference that his
government will not make any con-
cessions to anyone and religious
coalition governments have never
Ky said very strong measures
will be taken, if necessary, to con-
trol the situation for Viet Nam's
survival. But he added the prob-
lems can be solved by discussions'
rather than demonstrations.
Ky and the other ruling generals
want only to establish democracy
and get back to their military du-
Back in the States
In the United States a Defense
Department spokesman said yes-
terday four Army divisions in the
United States are below full com-
bat readiness because they have
been training recruits and draftees
This was the first public official
disclosure that any of the Army
divisions in the United States are
below full combat ready status. It
came after the Los Angeles Times
reported the situation yesterday. ;
The newspaper identified these
divisions as the 4th Infantry at
Ft. Lewis, Wash., the 5th Mech-
anized at Ft. Carson, Colo., and
the 1st and 2nd Armored Divi-
sions at Ft. Hood, Texas.
The Only Ones
These are the only regular di-
visions in the United States which
do not have some of their units
The spokesman said the four di-
visions, normally kept as a com-
bat-ready emergency force, were
given the training assignment last
year. It followed a decision it was
not to call National Guardsmen
and reservists to active duty, but.
instead, to build up the regular
armed forces gradually.
"It was foreseen that some of
these divisions would not be at
full combat status at this time,'
the spokesman said.
He said the divisions would be
returned gradually to full combat
readiness and that some of them
may be ready by June. '
Meanwhile, American armed
forces carried on, plaguing Viet
Cong hideouts with air power, nav-
al gunfire and ground controls.
U.S. Marines sought fresh con-
tact with North Vietnamese reg-
ulars in the Quang Ngai area, 330
miles northeast of Saigon, after a
battle Monday in which they esti-
mated they killed 150 men. South
Vietnamese troops in the same ac-
tion said they accounted for 67
of the enemy, reported to be ele-
ments of North Viet Nam's 1st
Other Marines, with naval and
air support, plodded through man-
grove swamps 18 miles southeast
of Saigon in the fourth day of
JAKARTA OP) - A show of
strength by Lt. Gen. Suharto, In-
dosenia's strongman, appeared yes-
terday to have forestalled student
demonstrations against the na-
tion's new cabinet.
As convoys of troops in armor-
ed cars and jeeps swung through
Jakarta, the main political forces
that supported Suharto continued
to criticize his Cabinet as con-
taining too many holdovers and
being too large to tackle the na-
tion's serious economic problems.
Radio Jakarta said Suharto met
with a delegation from one of the
three major forces, the Pantjasila
front, composed of several politi-
cal parties. ,
Suharto said he hoped the new
cabinet will be given an opportu-
nity to achieve its aims without
any lessening of support from the
people and political organizations
The main opposition comes from
Pantjasila; Kostram, a recently
organized front composed of mod-
erate Socialists and university in-
tellectuals; and Kami, the anti-
Communist student action front.
Kami, whose demonstrations
toppled President Sukarno's 100-
man cabinet, is looking for ener-
getic leaders who can bring quick
action in conquering Indonesia's
The student group had threat-
ened more demonstrations after
the new cabinet was announced
Sunday. But. Brig. Gen. Amir
By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON-Sen. J. W. Ful-
bright (D-Ark) said yesterday the
Senate Foreign Relations Com-
mittee will suspend-but not con-
clude-its public hearing on U.S.-
China policy after new testimony
Fulbright, the committee chair-
man, announced after a closed'
meeting that the China hearings
will resume after hearings on the
administration's $3.4-billion for-
eign aid bill, and a series of
hearings on administration efforts
to obtain a treaty banning the
proliferation of nuclear weapons.
. C * *
WASHINGTON - Senate hear-
ings on President Johnson's plan
to bring all modes of U.S. trans-
portation under a single new cab-
inet department began yesterday
with a warning that some forms of
transport are in shocking decline.
UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
Machmud, military commander of.
the Jakarta district, declared his
security troops would block any
attempt by the people to take the
law in their own hands. He warn-
ed such demonstrations "may en-
danger the revolution."
world News Roundup
That came from Sen. Warren
G. Magnuson (D-Wash), sponsor
of the bill, who spoke of a 50 per
cent decline since 1950 in railroad
passenger miles and declared "our
merchant mar'ine is in dire need
of improvement if it is to survive."
WASHINGTON - The Defense
Department issued a call.yesterday
for a draft of 34,600 men in May,
the highest' monthly quota since
All of the May draftees will be
assigned to the Army, the Penta-
LONDON-Britain's three duel-
ing political parties pledged yester-
day to lead the nation .into Eu-
rope's Common Market.
The issue of British entry built
up as the major international top-
ic of the thretr-week election cam-
paign ending Tidy with a na-
SENATOR PHILIP HART
REGENT IRENE MURPHY
PROF. ROSS WILHELM
DISSENT & THE DRAFT
FRIDAY, April 1 ... 3:15, Auditorium A
MEN'S GLEE CLUB
Student Legal Defense Comm.,
Graduate Student Council
.. 8:30 P.M.
CREATIVE ARTS COMMITTEE
UAC RECORDED CONCERTS
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