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March 24, 1966 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1966-03-24

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ol 4r mir4ligau Bal-Ig

Taking a Second Look at Academic Policy

Seventy-Sixth Year

Lere Opinions Are Free. 420 MAYNARD ST., ANN APBOR, MICH.
Trutht Will Prevail

NEWS PHONE: 764-0552

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the inidividual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

Viet Nam Blood Driv'e:
Cause for Both Sides.

AS TIE WAR in Viet Nam teaches us a
hard lesson on the pitfalls of global-
ism, some of its domestic manifestations
teach us perhaps a gentler but equally
valuable lesson.'
Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity and
Kappa Alpha Theta sorority are spon-
soring a blood drive this week. The blood
supplies collected during this drive will
be sent, through the Defense Department
to South Viet Nam, primarily for Ameri-
can soldiers, but also, for civilians in-
jured in military operations.
Those who support, the war will, nat-
urally, contribute if they are able. For
them, this is a chance to aid an.effort
which they consider vital for their coun-
try's safety.
FOR THE MANY who do not support the
war, the decision will be more diffi-
cult. They do not wish to further a war
that they think is unjust, yet do not wish
at the same time to withhold aid from
another human being. This editorial, then,
is written in the hope that it may help
them to solve this dilemma.
While it would be better if this blood
FOR THE PAST four weeks I have read,
edited and submitted for publication
letters to the editor written for the SGC
I am sick.
"The boldness to advise . . . aerial bal-
loon . . . personal favoritism . . . political
irrelevance . . . s 1 a n t e d language ...
friendship contest . .. personality defects
isolationist . . . egalitarian . . . esca-
The petty criticism and personal abuse
that occurred under the guise of "clarify-
ing the issues" was simply ridiculous and
could have been avoided with a little
thoughtful pressure from the candidates
selves too seriously at the time $o
consider such action. As one of those
same candidates admitted frankly, "I
never thought I'd send a letter like this.
I had to get drunk to do it."
Many of the letters, of course, were
written by members of the opposing "poli-
tical" groups and then signed by someone
Weighed against the divisions this type
of tactic has created within SGC, against
the image of SGC it must have present-
ed to the campus, was it really worth it?
A FLIP OF A COIN two weeks ago might
have been just as informative and a
lot less destructive.
Acting Associate Editorial Director
Acting Editorial Staff
subscription rate:$450 sprnester by carrier 1$5 by
inati: $8 yearly by carrier t$9 by maA ,
Second class pstage paid at Ann Arbor, Mich.

were distributed through a relatively
impartial organization such as the Inter-
national Red Cross, all is not lost if it
goes through the Defense Department.
First, any medical aid going to Viet
Nam, no matter which organization han-
dles it, eventually will benefit civilian
and military alike. Second, it is true
that the armed forces have often used
their own doctors, medical supplies and
facilities to treat injured civilions.
though they may be, do not complete-
ly resolve the dilemma of those who are
opposed to the war. "What is the prob-
lem?" you might ask. "If you are helping
people, what difference does it make?"
The "difference".lies in the distinction
between theory and practice, in the ques-
tion that every conscientious objector
must answer for himself when he chooses
medical work instead of combat duty in
the military.
His reasoning might run something like
this: I am opposed to war and killing in
the name of national goals. I have been
given several alternatives under the law
some of which do not require that I join
the military. However, in affirmation of
my devotion to humanity, I choose to
work where, perhaps, I am needed most.
The decision, obviously, remains diffi-
cult. The rationale does not answer all
questions, yet it suffices if one has faith
in the worth of what he is doing.
REGISTRATION for appointments to
give blood will be conducted today and
tomorrow on the Diag, in the Fishbowl
and on Main Street. These appointments
will be Thursday and Friday, March 31
and April 1 in the Union.
Hopefully, there will be many "End
the War in Viet Nam" buttons on those
who register in the next two days.
Acting Associate Editorial Director
Cooing It
SEVERAL MEMBERS of the Board of
Regents who use the intramural build-
ing swimming pool have ordered the
physical education department to keep
the water in that facility at a temperature
which is not conducive to teaching var-
ious swimming techniques.
An instructor of "drownproofing" told
this reporter that several regents use
the pool regularly for recreational pur-
poses. "In order to make the water stim-
ulating, they have ordered that it be kept
at a temperature much less conducive to
learning swimming techniques than water
of higher temperature," the instructor
"The needs of the students should come
first," the source continued. "The depart-
ment is definitely too weak if a few men
in influential places can use the pool for
20 minutes a week and make it ineffec-
tive for the rest of the week," he con-
HOPEFULLY reform will soon be forth-

T HE PRESENT University grad-
ing system, the defects of
which we pointed out in this
space last week, merits close
evaluation by the administration.
There are some good possibilities
for alternative systems which
might help provide more intel-
lectual meaning to the average
student's university experience.
Several major universities, in-
cluding Princeton and Stanford,
have already considered adopting
partial pass-fail grading systems
on an optional basis. The advan-
tage of this system as currently
outlined would be to permit stu-
dents to elect one course per
semester in which they would re-
ceive a flat passing or failing
Hopefully, such a system would
encourage students to take at least.
one course per semester outside
their basic specialization area. At
the present time, many students
shy away from these courses be-
cause they fear a low grade which
would hurt their accumulated
BUT UNDER THE partial pass-
fail system engineering students
could take an art history course
and humanities majors could elect
a natural science laboratory with-
out fearing the consequences.
Under the Stanford and Prince-
ton plans, courses in a student's
major and all distribution courses
would be graded through the tra-
ditional system.
These proposals do not go far

enough. A radical reorganization
of the garding system is necessary
in order to substantially improve
the academic atmosphere on this
campus. Although the addition of
one pass-fail course per semester
would definitely help, the basic
gradepoint pressures-particularly
in the student's field of concen-
tration-would remain intense.
THE BRITISH grading system
is an alternative which should be
discussed. As described by visiting
Prof. H. C. Allen of the history
department recently, most British
students take a series of three-
hour "papers," or exams, that
cover their entire college career,
with particular emphasis on the
student's field of concentration.
It might be argued that these
exams would create pressure dur-
ing a student's final terms which
would be far more serious than
the periodic exams which Ameri-
can students face every four or
five months.
But these examinations would
offer good preparation for those
students planning to take master's
degrees, which require similar
types of examinations.
With an increasing percentage
of students bound, for graduate
school, a series of penultimate
examinations in the student's last
term would serve as an education-
al experience-the claim which is
now falsely made for most semes-
ter finals-and would also enable
the student to spend time attempt-
ing to unify the material he has

absorbed during his education.
IT MIGHT ALSO be contended
that, if a student fails his final
examinations, his entire under-
graduate education would have
ended in failure and he would
thus be disqualified from further
higher education. In order to avoid
this type of disaster, a student
should be given an additional
study period-perhaps another
month or two, and then be given
the opportunity to take the exam
In order that the student might
intellectually integrate his under-
graduate education, the last term
of his senior year should have a
light academic load.
To this end, the University
should grant four hours of credit
for most of the courses which are
now worth three. Upperclass stu-
dents have more assignments per
week in most of these courses than
in four-credit survey courses. Some
departments, notably psychology,
are already adjusting credit hours
for many of their upper-level
three-hour courses.
THIS CHANGE should be made
in most humanities and social
science departments. Some lecture
courses which now meet three
hours per week could institute a
fourth hour of discussion while
maintaining the same work load.
In this way, most students
would take four courses for 16
hours of credit each term. During
some terms, theymight take a

combination of courses which
would grant more credit hours,
since some students might be cap-
able of taking five courses, some
worth four credits, others worth
two (such as science labs) for a
total of 17-19 credit hours.
Thus, the student could amass a
total of close to 120 credit hours in
seven terms, leaving the final
term free for a self-initiated re-
view of subject material and an
intellectual appraisal of what he
has absorbed.
OF COURSE, many adjustments
would be necessary in this type
of academic reorganization. Pro-
fessors would undoubtedly still
assign term papers, which could
be evaluated in a more meaning-
ful fashion than by letter grades.
Freed of the time-consuming bur-
den of recording exam grades and
preparing mid-terms and finals,
many professors might be able to
read their students' papers rather
than consigning this function to
a teaching assistant.
Similarly, the professors might
be able to write a critical evalua-
tion of each paper, devoid of the
letter grade which is usually ra-
tionalized as a sufficient appraisal
of an academic piece of work.
Many students undoubtedly re-
member the feeling of having a
major examination or paper which
has required long hours of effort
returned to them with a grade of
"A" ora"C" and no explanation of

what made the work a solid intel-
lectual accomplishment or an ap-
parently unworthy endeaver.
idea of comprehensive senior-year
exams because they will create a
period of intense "cramming"-
thus defeating the purpose of the
new system. In answer to this, it
must be emphasized that these
final examinations would not take
the form of the traditional, mul-
tiple-multiple choice objective
tests, but would be in essay form,
enabling the student to demon-
strate his power of intellectual
analysis and perception as applied
to the body of knowledge he has
acquired during his education.
The aim of a university educa-
tion should not be limited to the
acquisition of a professionally use-
ful body of specialized information
along with a smattering of ex-
posure to pseudo-intellectual gen-
The primary goal of a liberal
education should be the acquisi-
tion of intellectual wisdom-the
ability to think and reason clearly
without irrational bias-rather
than a huge mass of information
which is useless unless it can be
properly applied to complex issues.
Certainly the acquisition of wis-
dom is a long process which cul-
minates only in an individual's
intellectual maturity. But unless
the process begins during college
education, it may never have the
chance to take root in the stu-
dent's psyche.




Leaders' Failure Aids Anti-Semi'tism

'INCE THE END of the war,
anti-Semitism in Europe has
generally sunk below the surface
of events; the pandemic diseace
of a millenia is not often seen.
Within the past couple of years,
however, tthe bitter prejudice has
reappeared in many countries,
jutting above the surface enough
to prove without a doubt that it
is far from dead. In Austria, Ger-
many, in Poland, in Russia-and
in the Roman Catholic Church, a
few minor and several major
events have proved that the tragic
crime of the Nazis is rapidly being
The most recent of the occur-
rences was in Austria, which last
week held its seventh national
election since the end of the war.
Campaigning at a giant rally, a
former minister of the interior,
Franz Olah, set a crowd roaring
with approval when he referred to
the alleged Jewish origin of mem-
bers of a party he had quit, inject-
ing anti-Semitism in Austrian poli-
tics for the first time since the
THIS IS A recent develop-
ment-but Austria's failure to
prosecute her war criminals is not.
In the most recent case, two
naturalized Austrians went on
trial for having participated in
the mass murder of Jews-and
were acquitted when the jury,
whose foreman had been a Nazi
party member, decided all the
witnesses had lied.
This is one incident in a pat-
tern that is responsible for the
fact that out of 550,000 Nazis in

Austria at the end of the war,
three are in jail today for war
But it is Germany where the
most dangerous developments'
have taken place. Three times in
the last year Germany has fallen
into diplomatic or political crises
over its relationship with Jews.
The largest of these was the
fight within Germany over the
extension of the statute of limita-
tions for war criminals, which
was scheduled to run out in May
of 1965 (twentieth anniversary
of the German surrender); the
battle almost toppled the Erhard
government, and seriously strain-
ed relations with the Jews of Ger-
many and Israel.
ously 4urging extension of the
statute the country split on the
issue,, ostensibly on its constitu-
tionality. Justice Minister Ewald
Bucher headed the opposition,
claiming that the law would be
unconstitutional, that as a result
it would weaken respect in Ger-
many for the law, and that "we
should neither depart to the left
nor to the right from existing
He said in a radio broadcast
that it would not be Germany's
fault if "some" Nazis escaped pros-
ecution because of the statute's
expiration. He asked "what are
other nations doing to prosecute
crimes committed against Ger-
mans during the war?"; he threat-
ened to resign if the bill was
On February 24, 1965, the cab-

inet came out in support of legis-
lation to extend the statute-but
said it would not initiate any bills
to this end.
A POLL SHOWED that over
two-thirds of the German people
favored an end to the war crimes
trials, giving as their reason that
it would hurt Germany's reputa-
The outcome of all this was that
extension was voted, by almost
four to one-but it was the weak-
est of the bills proposed that was
passed. The statute now extends
to January 1, 1970.
A crisis of almost equal mag-
nitude came when the secret de-,
livery of arms to Israel was un-
covered. Knuckling under to pres-
sure from the Arab states, Bonn
ended the shipments. i
But the furor that was touched
off in Germany was not due to
any feeling that aid to Israel was
morally required; it was due to the
belief that by bowing to Arab
demands the country had been
humiliated, it had been given a
slap to its status as a great nation.
RELATIONS with Israel and
Jews throughout the world were
given another turn for the worse
when Germany refused to force
the several hundred German
scientists and technicians that
were working on rockets for Nas-
ser to leave Egypt-rockets which
will probably be aimed toward
Israel, which Nasser has vowed
to "annihilate."
And as in Austria, a great num-
ber of Nazis and war criminals are

still at large. Several former Nazis
have been found in high govern-
ment positions-in one case, a war
crimes prosecutor was discovered
to be an ex-Nazi-and the govern-
ment, with the people's support,
is reluctant to push the search too
hard. Seventy thousand have been
prosecuted, but hundreds of thou-
sands remain undisturbed.
Thus has Germany shown an
amazing lack of concern for the
people it almost exterminated. Any
guilt that may have existed after
the war is now found only among
intellectuals and a few members
of government; the mass of the
people not only couldn't care less,
but they, are turning toward the
very thing which played a crucial
role in the holocaust of the war,
unfeeling nationalism.
THEY SAY Germany must not
suffer loss of honor or its reputa-
tion as a great nation, and in
saying so they wish to close the
book on he most unforgettable
tale of horror in human history.
It is a chilling story, but aside
from scattered acts-of vandalism,
little has happened-yet. It is to
the east, in Russia and Poland,
where anti-Semitism comes closest
to the surface. The prejudice is
widespread and deep, but the
Germans did an "efficient" job
and there are few Jews left to
hate. Where 2,000,000 Jews lived
before the war, 30,000 remain'.
Russia, very piou's on the sub-
ject of Nazi war crimes and very
scrupulous in its official policies
toward Jews, is guilty, at least,
of harassment of Jewish customs.

AND THE ONE institution above
all in which anti-Semitism should
have long been dead, the Roman
Catholic church, still has not
cleansed itself of prejudice. With
Italian conservative prelates lead-
ing the way, the clause exonerating
the Jews of the murder of Jesus
was deleted from the Ecumenical
Council's declaration on religious
In fact, Pope Paul has said that
the Jews persecuted' Jesus and
"they finally killed Him." It has
been claimed that this was a test
speech, aimed at sounding out
church opinion, but if the Pope,
were sincerely tolerant it would
never have been said.
In Germany, in Austria, in
Poland, in Russia and in the
Church anti-Semitism still re-
mains active, and as shown has
given signs of increasing strength.
It is well below the surface in most
places, but forced there not by
any feeling of goodwill toward
Jews, but by political and diplo-
matic necessity and prosperous
IT IS TRUE that anti-Semitism
is lower now that at any point
in recent history, and it is quite
possible it will never be revived to
the pitch of bitterness it has
shown in the past.
s But as the cataclysm of the
Second World War recedes and as
Europe comes upon political and
or economic hard times, the spec-
ter of the Jewish scapegoat may
yet be seen again.


Israeli's Speech: Nice .But Not Deep


To the Editor:
I WENT TO LISTEN to Israel's
ambassador to the United
States, Avraham Harman, speak
on "Israel, The Next Phase." I
managed to pin-point during the
question period certain points that
should interest the students of
politics, the Jewish community,
and those who are interested in
the understanding of modern poli-
tical conflicts.
AMBASSADOR Harman's com-
ments on Israel's problems and
goals were nice but not deep.
During his speech, he warned his
audience not to expect any "dra-
matic experience" with regard to
future Arab-Israeli relations, but
hoped that both sides would look
for a "patient, nerve-racking, un-
derstanding of each other, ac-
knowledging everybody's person-
alities and rights" to achieve a
peaceful agreement.
"Peace is what we want," he
said, "through understanding each
other and through peaceful dis-
cussion." BUT, he points out, "The
other side does not want peace,"
and "There purpose is to eliminate
us." Furthermore, he accused the
Arabs of breaking certain armis-
tice agreements signed in the
Security Council with regard to
the nonuse of force. Moreover, the
Arabs are trying to "steal" the
water of the Jordan river, and the
one million Arab refugees are
"frozen" in their miserable con-
dition because the Arabs refuse to
help them to move out and plant

years, and I am interested in this
problem and want to know more
about it. But what I constantly
hear is "that the Arabs are hostile
to us"; the Arabs vow to "push
the Jews in the sea," and "the
Arab's purpose is to eliminate us."
Yet I have never been exposed at
all here to the reasons WHY the
Arab's hate the Israelies so much?
What is causing the Arab's to
continue this hostility for 18 years
"You said that you want peace
and that you seek it through un-
derstanding and mutual respect.
Yet you also spoke to this au-
dience with no attempt whatso-
ever to help us understand this
conflict and prepare the grounds
for mutual respect by at least out-
lining the causes of Arab hostility,
but rather you merely restated the
emotional effects of the conflict.
Why is it that I don't see such a
sincere and wise effort to augment
the willingness to solve this con-
flict by explaining the reasons,
the causes, of the conflict and
prepare the people and the gov-
ednments for peace?" This was
my main point.
The other point was that "I
would think that when people
are displaced from their homes
and land, they would want to go
back to it. The Jews themselves
strived for so long to accomplish
this and succeeded. Don't you
think that the one million Arab
refugees might also very much
want to return to their homes and
land on which they lived only 18

Arab's causes in this conflict. He
did, however, refer to the issue of
peace. He repeated his appeal for
peace and stated that "the ques-
tion of the existence of Israel is
not in question." The Arabs must
accept us as we are and we accept
them as they are."
I really felt then that I was
succeeding in penetrating through
the emotional derby and reaching
the crux of the matter. I followed
the ambassador down to the cof-
fee gathering.
"I believe that the Arab's main
contention in this conflict is the
legal and moral justification for
the existence of Israel, and wheth-
er the Arab's . rights have been
dispersed, That is why, perhaps,
they are not ready to "give us
peace," as you said, i.e. until the
issue is clarified. Yet you say that
the' Arabs MUST accept you as
you are now and talk about peace
and a friendly future. Isn't this
perhaps why there is this nonwar
and nonpeace? Are you willing to
get out of this deadlock and dis-
cuss with the Arabs this problem?"
The Israeli ambassador em-
phatically stated, "I refuse to dis-
cuss the question of the existence
of Israel." (And I know that the
Arabs will refuse to cooperate
with the Israelies unless these
moral and legal matters are dis-
cussed). We were then interrupted
by a member of the congregation
who pointed out that the ambas-
sador should really talk with the

Nam. Therefore, both these sides
refuse to sit down and negotiate
peace, both according to their
own askew reasons.
In this situation, neither the
loud appeal for peace and good
intentions nor the use of force
are the keys to these deadlocks;
but the awareness of the people
and the governments to the true
causes of' the conflict and the
willingness to compromise and be
realistic are the keys.
Personally, I am encouraged. I
have heard a few Americans say,
"Since we are in Viet Nam and in
trouble, let us win the war now
and get out of this mess." But
then there are those who took it
upon themselves to become aware
of the causes, the reality, and the
direction of this war and shout
other peaceful and wise solutions,
taking into account the historical
and moral aspect of the conflict.
For those who are interested,
I am going to elaborate upon and
answer the two questions, to which
the ambassador did not give me
any clear answer, in a speech,
"The Other Side of Exodus" next
Wednesday noon under the Book
Discussion Series sponsored by the
Office of Religious Affairs.
--Imad Khadduri, Grad
To the Editor:
DURING the past weekend my
husband and I were at Iowa
City cheering for the University

cheerleaders, and cannot serve the
same purpose cheerleaders would.
After asking some people we
knew, my husband and I found
that it has been the policy not to
send Michigan cheerleaders to
similar previous basketball tour-
naments. We do not understand
the reasoning behind this policy.
It seems to us that if moderate
sections of the band are able to
attend these games there should
be a way to get at least three or
four cheerleaders there also.
ALTHOUGH the presence of
cheerleaders will not make a third
division team a championship
rontender, in a close, hard-fought
game as was encountered on Sa-
turday night against Kentucky,
that little bit of extra spirit the
cheerleaders would have imparted
to the fans might have helped to
put that extra bit of oomph into
our team, and tip the scales in
Michigan's favor.
-Susan Samuels, '67N
" ONE OF THE MOST surpris-
ing and even alarming aspects
of the political picture= in Sai-
gon is that no one appears to be
giving serious thought to the war
being brought to an end through
"The Vietnamese government
has made it clear . . that it is
not prepared to negotiate with the
South Vietnamese Communists.


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