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February 20, 1966 - Image 8

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1966-02-20

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Seventy-Sixth Year

President Firm on Four-Year

'here Oinion Are Free,
Truth Will Prevail

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

Students Are Losing
On Voter ,Requirements

lege towns throughout America is,
without qualification, a fact of life and an
injustice. It is a product of legislators and
officials who refuse to recognize the na-
ture of the student community or ap-
praise student needs in establishing resi-
dency requirements.
It is frustrating because denial of vot-
ing to students is based on state statutes
and high court decision, laws all-power-
ful until changed. And. it is distressing
because those laws are not reviewed or
even studied for change often enough.
A very respectable process denies stu-
dent voting power. Many of them have
not reached 21 years of age, a large seg-
ment of students are excluded from con-
sideration under statutory law. Those who
Jare left may be undergraduate seniors
and graduate students. . But even this
small group is restrained.'
COURT DECISIONS and interpretations
Of Michigan statutes by local officials
find attendance at the University insuf-
ficient as residence of Ann Arbor, and
such thought is public philosophy in
other college towns in Michigan. Students
who are not married, whose parents do
not live in Ann Arbor, or who cannot
News Needs
THE ASSOCIATED Collegiate Press has
awarded the Michigan State News one
of its top honors. The News has been
named "Al-American"=one of 12 papers
(out of 300 entries) to win the honor.
ACP Judge G. D. Hiebert told News edi-
tors, "you cover the campus like a thick
A few months ago the News had plan-
ned to print charges and countercharges
in a trial between MSU faculty and Paul
Schiff, who had been denied admission to
MSU's grad school because of political
activities. Editor-in-chief Charles Wells,
after talking to the adviser, Louis Ber-
man, decided not to run the story.
As a result of the decision, the entire
senior editorial staff resigned, with the
exception of Wells-as did a large group
of other News staffers.
THE PAPER 'covered the campus like a
thick blanket, and. of course, like the
MSU administration wanted it to. Editor
Wells backed off from printing what
should have been printed.
Congratulations are in order for the
award extended to The News. But a much
greater award would have been in order
had The News defied the MSU adminis-
tration and immediately printed the
Schiff testimony in full.
Acting Editorial Staff
Managing Editor .Editorial Director
JOHN MEREDITH ........ Associate Managing Editor
LEONARD PRATT .. ....Associate Managing Editor
BABETTE COHN .. .......... .... Personnel Director
CHARLOTTE WOLTER .... Associate Editoral Director
ROBERT CARNEY ........ Associate Editorial Director
ROBERT MOORE ................. Magazine Editor

CHARLES VETZNER ................. Sports Editor
JAMES LaSOVAGE .......... Associate Sports Editor
JAMES TINDALL ............Associate Sports Editor
GIL SAMBERG ........... .Assistant Sports Editor
Kobn, Dan Okrent, Dale Sielaff, Rick Stern, John
Dreyfuss, Susan Elan, Shirley Rosick, Robert Shilier,
Alan Valusek.
Business Staff
CY WELLMAN, Business Manager
ALAN GLUECKMAN ........... Advertising Manager
SUSAN CRAWFORD ..... Associate Business Manager
JOYCE FEINBERG ................. Finance Manager,
MANAGERS: Harry, Bloch, Bruce Hillman, Marline
Itueithau, Jeffrey Leeds, Gail Levin, Susan Perl-
stadt, Vic Ptasznik, Elizabeth Rhein, Ruth Segall,
Jill Tozer, Elizabeth Wirnan.
A flfltTYAmrf r 1kA1JiA flflflO Ann. Rr..ll AR Aadflvn TJfl

pledge to live in the city for years be-
yond their college experience are denied
voting rights.,
Students are, in fact, judged for resi-
dence on grounds that would not apply
to any group of the population. The fact
of their presence in Ann Arbor is not dis-
puted, but their intention as to future
residence is questioned. They must prove
Ann Arbor is a permanent home if they
are to be given the vote.
Such procedure is unfair when the rapid
turnover of workers is considered. Sub-
urban populations undergo frequent
changes when relocations through trans-
ferral of businessmen or businesses oc-
cur. The movement of workers and man-
agers around the country has been con-
sidered the sign of a healthy economy,
and no area can be certain of maintain-
ing its'population permanently.
BUT STUDENTS are handicapped by
their lack of roots. When an entire na-
tion is in flux, to penalize students for be-
ing in transit is unjust.
Such procedure is also unfair because
it asks the student to return to his home
town to vote, implying that he is more
qualified by residence to vote there. But
is he? He resides there for a shorter per-
iod of time than he does at school, and
will probably move shortly after gradua-
tion from there to the place of his em-
ployment. Of course he can't anticipate
that move at this time, and therefore his
intention under the present law makes
him more qualified to register at home.
City Attorney Jacob Fahrner has said,
"... One does not change his former resi-
dence to Ann Arbor when his presence
in Ann Arbor is due to the sole purpose
of receiving the educational benefits con-
ferred here." This attitude reflects an un-
warranted haughtiness, for it denies Ann
Arbor's dependence on the University as
the largest establishment in the city.
JUST AS STUDENTS are bound to Ann
Arbor, private citizens are involved in
the city for the sole purpose of receiving
the benefits conferred here. These bene-
fits include, above all, work opportunities
supplied by the University. Would the city
attorney believe that employes of the Uni-
versity should be denied the vote because
of a loyalty to the, school?
Of course employes of the University
can be considered residents of the city
because the University is established in
Ann Arbor, and thus, their working-and
remaining-in the city is fairly certain.
But the commitments of students to the
University cannot be belittled. They mean
up to four or more years of residence, and
almost always more than the six months
demanded in the statutes.
City officials stress the fact that stu-
dents are bound by municipal laws while
at the University; and Ann Arbor police
reinforce that opinion. It would appear
that University attendance really does
constitute Ann Arbor attendance, except
when voting is involved.
with ideas of raccoon-coated under-
grads from their own college days. They
may not understand the extent of off-
campus housing, established recently be-
cause of expanding enrollments. In short,
officials may not recognize how close stu-
dents are involved with citizenship.
The distinction between private hous-
ing and University residence halls, fra-
ternity houses, or co-ops is likewise un-

real. Students living in Ann Arbor, stu-
dents having concern for the community,
students with ties in Ann Arbor equal to
their ties to the University must be resi-
Discussions about lowering the voting
age from 21 to 18 only camouflage the
essential issue of residency. The real ques-
tion, a question considered in City Coun-
cil, courts, and in every city office is
whether the student is a city resident or
THE QUESTION cannot be left to city
officials. There must be a court or ses-

Acting Editorial Director
State of the Union address,
advocated changing the term of
office for members of the House
of Representatives from two to
four years. While the proposal
drew wide applause during the
speech, its future now seems to
be in serious doubt.
That the terms should be ex-
tended seems a fairly obvious and
important amendment to the
present system. Two years is sim-
ply not enough time for a legis-
lator to become familiar with the
workings, of government. To make
a judgement on a bill, it must be
studied in depth, and thistakes
a good deal of time. To do an
effective job takes a good deal of
experience in the workings of gov-
ernment and in the workings of
the House itself.
The last ,three Congresses have
averaged over 74 freshmen each.
This is not a healthy 'situation, as
these men bearly have time to
get their bearings.
Thus it would seem to me that
such a situation would tend to
neutralize new members to the
House by generally putting them
in a position where opposition to
the old guard party and faction
leaders could dominate them.
Further, the legislative volume
facing members of the House, and
the additional personal paperwork

involved in a congressman's life
render a two-year term simply
too short for good service.
In addition, the Congressional
workload itself has served to
nearly double the length of each
Congressional sessionrsince the
Constitution was written. This
means that Representatives today
do not have time enough between
the end of Congressional sessions
and bienniel elections to both
campaign effectively and do the
work of government. Some are
thus faced with the choice of
either doing a good job as a
legislator and not being re-elected,
or spending their time campaign-
FURTHER, re-election costs
quite a bit of money. While on
the one hand this may be, as
Katzenbach termed it, a "waste
of resources," on the other we can
see an unfair advantage given in
election campaigns to those who
have a lot of money at their
These election costs, some run-
ning as high as sixty thousand
dollars per election, may well keep
men out of our legislative system
who are highly qualified but who
lack extensive financial resources;
a situation which brings into fur-
ther question the idea of putting
men in our government who are
generally from the same socio-
economic class.

Unfortunately, however, the
President has presented the new
amendment in a poorly-calculated
manner which threatens its even-
tual adoption. The Presidential
proposal provides that all Repre-
sentatives be electedat the same
time, and in the same election year
as the President. Katzenbach
favored this system because it
would promote executive-legisla-'
tive solidarity.
fendinglitself, however, has claim-
ed that four years is long enough
for legislators, no matter whose
"coattails" they rode into office,
to gain a good measure of inde-
pendence from the chief executive.
Katzenbach also pointed out that
one-third of the Senate face re-
election in each off year.
This is a strangely ill-advised
proposal coming from an admin-
istration which has time and again
been criticized for its high-handed
means and expansion of executive
power. Indeed the chief objections
to the proposal have come from,
those who fear increased executive
One possible alternative is .set-
ting elections for the four-year
terms, in the Presidential off year.
But this would have the effect,
of seriously weakening Presiden-
tial power. Political parties in
power generally fare poorly in off-
year elections, and to have the

entire House elected in the off
year might prove too serious a
drain on House-executive coopera-
THE OBVIOUS solution is to
split the four-year terms so that
one half the House comes up for
election every two years. This
system would combine the benefits
of hearing the public voice in off
years while allowing the President
to bring in support in election
The administration has worked
against this measure. The main
objection stems from the fact that
under the alternating system, half
the House would always be elected'
with the President, and half the
House, would never be elected with
the President. Thus there might
well tend to develop permanent
factions in the House, one sup-
porting and one opposing the,
Here the administration has
badly erred, and in its misjudge-
ment it has at least outwardly
threatened the life of a very im-
portant and beneficial measure.
Katzenbach, while downgrading
the importance of the "coattail"
issue to promote the program of
concurrent Presidential elections,
uses that same argument to oppose
the alternative proposal.
IN STATING one of his objec-
tions Katzenbach says, "The mem-

ber running in off years. free to
ignore the Presidential banner and
platform of his party, might well
campaign solely on narrow local
issues and thus abstain from po-
sitions on national issues."
This, of course, is one reasons
why off-year elections tend to
weaken Presidential power in the
first place, and merely serves as
a necessary check on executive
Whether the creation of a situ-
ation in which half the House is
permanently freed from Presiden-
tial election years would seriously
weaken the party structure, and
if it did whether that weakening
would be a bad thing, both remain
to be seen.
AT ANY RATE, it seems very
likely that the electorate will be
convinced of the danger which the
administration's original proposal
contains in adding to the power
of the president, and that the bill
as it now stands will be defeated.
If for no other reason, therefore
the administration should modify
its stand for practical reasons.
Four-year terms for Represen-
tatives is an important reform
which should be brought about as
soon as possible, and which would
have little trouble becoming law
if the Johnson administration
would only ease its stand.

Education:,' Belated Step in Right Direction


ON FEBRUARY 2, President
Johnson sent Congress a spe-
cial message outlining broad pro-
posals for action in international
The proposals include establish-
ment of a Center for Educational
Cooperation in the Department of
Health Education and Welfare, ap-
pointment of a council on inter-
national education, and creation
of a Corps of Education Officers
in the Foreign Service.
Also presented were plans for
an exchange peace corps, where
citizens of other countries would
come to work in the United States,
and an expansion of the Summer,
Teaching Corps, a program in
which American teachers and pro-
fessors participate in summer
w o r k s h o p s in underdeveloped

If these proposals, which were
presented in the form of the
International Education Act of
1966, are to be effective in im-
proving international education
cooperation and cultural exchange,
sweeping changes will be required
in past American policy.
A BOOK published last week by
the Brookings Institution, a pri-
vate advisory body to the govern-
ment, sheds much light on Ameri-
can problems in international edu-
cation. Entitled "The Neglected
Aspects of Foreign Affairs," the
book is written by Charles Frankel,
a former philosophy professor at
Columbia who is now serving as
Assistant Secretary of State for
educational and cultural affairs.
He is also reported to have
been a member of the task force

the President appointed to diag-
nose the ills! of international edu-
Among the points made by the
report are:
be divorced as completely as pos-
sible from U.S. foreign policy.
For this reason, neither the Unit-
ed States Information Agency
nor the Agency for International
Development are suitable for ad-
ministration of the program. The
U.S.I.A., Frankel argues, is more
or less a propadanga arm of the
It is an agency "geared tightly"
to rather limited objectives and.
is designed to "inform the other
country." That U.S.I.A. operations
have not met with unmixed popu-
larity in foreign countries is dem-
onstrated by the fact that agency

installations are frequently the
first target of mobs outraged at
American policies.
It is significant that in his pro-
posal to Congress, Johnson spe-
cified that the program be put
under the control of the Office
of Education, effectively removing
it from the political control of the
State Department.
-THERE ARE also several non-
political considerations that have
diminishel the effectiveness of
past cultural exchange programs.
One is pure lack of incentive' for
scholars to travel abroad.
According to Frankel, university
presidents consider a desire to
study abroad "not as the per-
formance of academic duties but
an escape from these duties" and,
the scholars feel the pinch when
promotion time comes along.

The House has customarily cut
appropriations for scholar's de-
pendents to travel, further re-
ducing incentives.
the cultural exchange program
should be carried on independently
of other foreign relations opera-
tions for maximum success. He
adds that higher' education itself
should put more emphasis on for-
eign study Vand inake it more at-
tractive for American academics
to participate.
These suggestions, If imple-
mented as it now appears they
may be, could make the cultural
exchange and international edu-
cation project a viable force for
increasing international coopera-
tion. They constitute a long-
needed addition to American
foreign policy.

Campus Expansion Cuts College Quality

STUDENTS and other travelers
' who go through Pennsylvania
Station in New York City this
winter can enjoy one of the com-
ic experiences of our epoch. The
old monumental station, with its
astonishing vault, has been de-
molished, but the shell is being
kept for a more profitable struc-
Now winter i winds freeze you
while you wait and the ticket
salesmen huddle in fur coats.
Thunderous noises startle you and
the sparks of welders shower round
your ears. You cannot get a meal.
MEN and WOMEN are somewhere
in the bowels of the Long Island
R.R. below. The operation of the
trains goes on in makeshift tun-
Meantime, in glass cases (grimy
with dust) on a temporary wood-
en wall, there is a splendid dis-

play of pictures of the New Penn-
sylvania Station that is going to
happen many a moon from now. A
poster proclaims its virtues: "New'
Modernized Railroad Terminal at
2 Pennsylvania Plaza.
Electronic Train Information
Moving Stairs
New Ventilation System for Air-
Conditioning and Heat
Modern Lighting and Accoustics
Easier Access from All Points
Completion during 1966 or
It is a triumph of Madison Ave-
nue. It gives us the image and
the public, relations of a reality
almost as if we had the reality.
In the conditions, it is quite im-
possible to read this sign without
breaking up. (Incidentally, the
new design, by Charles Luckman
Associates, is banal and skimpy.)


Students of several hundred col-
leges in the United States will rec-
ognize the analogy to the build-
ing boom taking place on their
campuses. The few years of their
careers in college are spent among
scenes of devastation.
This is supposed to be tradi-
tional; but before one reconstruc-
tion is finished there always seems
to be a new expansion in the
works; and the community shape
that used to exist-whether Yard,
Green, or Quadrangle - has been
irremediably destroyed. Also, it
would not astound me if by the

time the whole expansion has fin-
ally occurred, the idiocy of uni-
versal college-going might likewise
be over; in 10 or 15 years some
of these makeshift campuses may
look like ghost towns.
Usually, but by no means in-
variably, there is an esthetic plan
for the greater campus, namely a
picture or model rendered obso-
lete by the next federal or foun-
dation grant.
construction, of course, there are
the other concomitants of expan-
sion: the enrollment is excessive;
students are processed electrically;
they are housed three or four in
a room meant for two; the cur-
riculum is continually in process
of readjustment; and professors
are on the move, pirated away by
competitive offers.
I have seen all this now for 10
years and the immediate future
will be worse. A whole generation
is being sacrificed. I have no'idea
if the demolition and reconstruc-
tion of Penn Station is necessary
or useful.,But much of the cam-
pus expansion is both unneces-
sary and harmful.
To begin with, I am not sold
on the vastly increased college-
going as the best way to invest
more in higher education-rather
than underwriting more direct

means of access to many careers
and some professions; underwrit-
ing cultural enterprises like Little
Theatres, local TV and radio sta-
tions, independent newspapers and
design offices; giving more of the
research and development slush-
fund to small firms that can train
scientific apprentices.
WHEN INCREASED college-en-
rollment has been necessary, it
has usually, in my opinion, been
unwise to expand existing schools
rather than starting new small
ones. I do not believe in the puta-
tive advantages of academic cen-
tralization; there is a good deal
of rationalization to cover admin-
istrative imperialism.
Certainly in big cities like New
York and Chicago, it has been
immoral and anti-socialsfor uni-
versities to dislocate poor tenants
and swallow whole neighborhoods.
A very important defect of the
expansion has been to increase
and freeze the dormitory method
of housing'This is a poor way for
most students to live; it is nec-
essarily restrictive, and it. is al-
most invariably more expensive for
the students than sharing small
apartments or cooperative houses.
But it has been the inevitable
result of the federal subsidy for
Copyright, Paul Goodman, 1966

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Top Ten Storles-
A Year in Advance

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'1 '
f 1.' ' fy 1
! 9

EACH DECEMBER the Associat-
edPress and United Press In-
ternational select the ten top news
events of the past year. For a
change of pace we thought it'
might be interesting to pick the
ten top news events of 1966-in
1) 39 University of Michigan
students stage a sit in at the Ann
Arbor draft board in protest of
United States policy in Viet Nam.
Michigan Selective Service Direc-
tor Col: Arthur Holmes contacts
National Selective Service Director
to suggest reclassifying .the pro-
testors 1-A. "You touch one 'of
those kids and I'll have your job,"
Hershey tells Holmes.
2) The Regents appropriate $1
million from the $55 million Ses-
quicentennial Fund for the con-
struction of a new Student Pub-

University drops out of school.
Sources explain he had to marry
his 19-year-old girl friend.
5) The president of the Univer-
sity's Voice political party is forc-
edy to resign after it is learned he
has laryngitis.
6) The campus chapter of Sigma
Chi is suspended by its national
headquarters for pledging a white
7) A graduate student at Michi-
gan State University distributes
pamphlets in campus dormitories
critical of President John A. Han-
nah. Hannah responds by inviting
the student out to lunch to discuss
the issues involved.
8) 13,0'00 students at the Uni-
versity sign petitions requesting
the Regents to establish a student
bookstore. The Regents vote for
the establishment of the bookstore
and to forbid local commercial
ien- t Y t -- ... h~ . 1n±. AV+.1l. !-

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