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February 20, 1966 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1966-02-20
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* It * *

t

.

The

Consequences of

Dissent

UNIVERSITY REACTION:,

The Consequences
Of Dissent

What Happens to the Public
University When Students
Protest Public Policies?

by ROGER RAPOPORT
"IN 1915 such students would have been
railroaded out of town," admonished
Californian W. C. P. Class of 1915.
Like hundreds of other alumni and
concerned individuals who recently took
time to write the University. He was
voicing opposition to recent campus pro-
test demonstrations.
The letters have not gone unnoticed by
an administration presently involved in
a $55 million fund drive. But unlike 1915
the University has refused to run its
protestors out on a rail.
"SOME FEW are fearful that student
activism is so unpopular with the
public that support for higher education
may level off or even decline," notes
President Harlan Hatcher in the current
Michigan Business Review.
"I have no precise measure for the
popularity . . . But I submit that popu-
larity is not the issue here. The question,
rather, concerns the rights of citizens ...
to prohibit expression of student opinion
with which we disagree, or because we
dislike the manner in which students
choose to express their opinion, would be
a violation of the Constitutional freedoms
so precious to all of us."
Thi sattitude has come to the fore-
front in light of the protests by campus
activists during the past year. The teach-
in last March, the draft board sit-in and
the efforts of the Committee to Aid the
Vietnamese this fall have caused an un-
precedented amount of criticism to be
heaped upon the University.
The University has accepted the abuse
with equanimity. For example, officials
have declined to release the grades of
arrested protestors to local draft boards
without the student's consent.
MOREOVER, during the spring a high
administrator publicly expressed ad-
miration for one of the most controversial
groups in the protest movement, the Stu-
dent Non-Violent Coordinating Commit-
tee.
One prominent alumnus, a prominent
Washington, D.C., lawyer, read the state-
ment and fired off a letter to President
Hatcher: "Little wonder our great, uni-
versity is having trouble getting ample
state financing. When the Vice-President
in Charge of Student Affairs gives con-
gratulations and support to such groups
look for less support from the state leg-
islators, alumni, corporate backers, and
the Federal Government."
But this same university, which is cur-
rently beating the philanthropic bushes
for $55 million, did not waver under
pressure.
President Hatcher set the tenor of the
administration reaction in a speech de-
livered in November before 75 top Mid-
western businessmen in Chicago, which
formed -the basis for the Michigan Busi-
ness Review article. At that time, criti-
cism was pouring in from across the
country. Many alumni insisted that the
school crack down on the protestors lest
they hurt the fund drive. Others were
threatening to cancel contributions be-
cause of the protestors.
T HE PRESIDENT replied succinctly: "I
do not believe that universities will
suffer in the long run, because they guard
the freedom of their faculties and stu-
dents.. Free speech, right of assembly,
right of petition were not created by uni-
versities in this country, but were estab-
lished in America by those who wrote the
Constitution and the Bill of Rights. The
universities have the obligation . . . to

protect these basic liberties. In good con-
science, we cannot do otherwise."
Nor has it been doing otherwise. As
early as last spring the University effect-
ed a workable compromise with campus
activists on a Viet Nam protest.
- When a group of 20 faculty members
anounced plans to stage a one day class
strike to teach special sessions on the
Vietnam issue, the University received
criticism from the state legislature, state
newspapers and through phone calls and
critical mail.
The University added its voice to the
criticism but pushed for a compromise.
When the faculty members agreed to
abandon its strike plans and stage some-
thing called a "teach-in," the adminis-
tration rushed to aid the activists.
SPACE in the Angell-Mason complex
and all night permission for women
were immediately granted. The President
praised the faculty for its concern about
Viet Nam and for its new "relevant ap-
proach" to the issue.
The criticism continued to flow in but
the University backed the principle of
the teach-in which has subsequently been
replicated successfully at more than 100
universities.
After the teach-in the campus settled
down for final examinations and com-
mencement. But on May 14, soon after
the opening of the first summer session,
Vice-President Cutler took the offensive
in a statement praising the Student Non-
Violent Coordinating Committee..
Cutler took the occasion to "recognize
and congratulate this organization for its
'contributions to campus and national
life.'
EXPLAINING that "It is part of the
philosophy of the Office of Student
Affairs that involvement in meaningful
and significant activities outside the
classroom constitutes an integral part of
the total educational experience for our
students," Cutler went on to praise the
efforts of students, "to deal with the
problems of relationships between the
two major races in America."
"THE UNIVERSITV has
not merely defended its
activists in the past year,
it has taken the offensive
and argued for their
rights and for the legiti-
mnaey of their cause. The
adhnin istration Ias nt0t
hidden behind an official
policy of silence, nor has
it been apologetic when
such a policy might have
been the most convenient
soit iont before an anta-
onistic public."
Citing SNCC as a significant civil
rights organization Cutler said, "SNCC
has based its activities upon principles
which are honored in the University and
the society: non-violence, compassion,
patience and the brotherhood of man.
The goals of- its programs . . . are con-
sistent with the purposes of an enlight-
ened and moral democracy."
He added that SNCC had given many
students, "an opportunity to test one's
principles, express one's altruism and,
idealism and participate in a signiicant
aspect of our national life. In this,-it has
served for these students the goals of

This picture of Stanley Nadel, '66, selling stamps and pins for
the campus Committee to Aid the rietnamese was published
widely throughout the country last October. A deluge of cri-
ticism against the University resulted.

personal, social, and moral development
which are part of the total educational
experience."
W HEN the Washington attorney un-
leashed his objections, the vice-pres-
ident responded in a moderate but firm
tone:
"I am well acquainted with most
of the U students who are associ-
ated with SNCC and I am convinced
that they . . . are motivated by a
genuine desire to improve the Amer-
ican way of life by means of non-
violent protest.
"The dilemma of our young peo-
ple today involves finding morality in
what is not a totally moral world;.
. . In expressing their deep con-
cern over the evils which they see
about them and developing appro-
priate means for combating these
evils; and finally, for participating
in the society in a way which is both
meaningful to them and useful to us.
In this dilemma, they need our un-
derstanding and support. To -find a
reasonable ground for communica-
tion between their generation and
the adult society which is the most
challenging task I face, and it is
certainly one upon which the stabil-
ity of the university community de-
pends. I hope that you will join with
me in this effort ... to help bring
together the diverse points of view
that exist between these students and
the society at large.
By the fall, the increased scale of the
American war effort in Viet Nam led to
some of the most militant protest tactics
ever employed in Ann Arbor.
THE INTERNATIONAL.Days of Protest
Against U.S. policy in Viet Nam on
October 15 and 16 were part of a protest
heard in more than 100 cities across the
country.
The organizers of the protest had called
for civil disobedience but in only two
cities, Madison, Wisc., and Ann Arbor,
was the sit-in tactic long associated with
civil rights used. Thirty-nine University
students and faculty members sat in at
the Ann- Arbor draft board until they

were carried to the Washtenaw County
jail by Ann Arbor police. The protestors
were subsequently sentenced to 10 days in
jail and fined $65.
The widely-publicized event spurred a
deluge of critical responsed. "I say draft
these leaches and let them see what it is
like . . . Get the reds out of our wonder-
ful U. of M.," wrote a woman from Clio,
Michigan.
"Your admissions office would know
better than I how many hundreds and
thousands of decent boys and girls have
been refused admission to the U simply
because there has not been room for
them. Well here are 39 places," wrote a
man from Boston.
"IT IS a shame we are encouraging them
to destroy themselves and call it "free-
dom" wrote a wife of a screw manufac-
turer in Fort Wayne, Ind.
In reply, Vice-President for University
Relations Michael Raddock used a stand-
ard letter that said in part:
..When the forms of dissent vio-
late the laws, those engaged in the
acts are subject to prosecution. But
sensibilities and taste are not always
transcribed in law. And surely, in a
University within a country rooted in
rights of free expression and petition,
we would not want to stifle dissent
within the law because we object to the
form.
Some persons who have written to
the University have raised questions
about treason, patriotism, cowardice,
communism, etc. By and large, these
are extraneous questions unrelated to
the motivations of the protestors
PERHAPS the most vociferous comment
received from concerned individuals
throughout the country came in late Oc-
tober because of the widely publicized ef-
forts of the Committee to Aid the Viet-
namese. A picture of Stanley Nadel, '66,
displaying Viet Cong postage stamps and
pins his group sold to raise money for
medical supplies for the Vietnamese was
apparently good art for major papers. It
brought in letters and clippings from
across the country.
(Continued on Page Seven)

(Continued from Page Two)
Cutler received the following letter
from an army man with the Defense
Communications Agency in San Fran-
cisco:
Esteemed Doctor, I have reference to
a recent press article stating that an
organization at your University calling
itself the Committee to Aid the Viet-
namese, has been selling postage stamps
of the so-called Vietnamese National
Liberation Front, i.e., the Viet Cong.
As a philatelist, I am able to tell you
that United States code-prohibits the
importation into and sale in the United
States of certain stamps of govern-
ments unfriendly to the Wiited States
among these . . . North Vietnam.
I hope this information will be of
assistance to you in dealing with your
problem.
A CHICAGO businessman enclosed a
clipping from the Chicago Sun-Times
with a picture of Nadel captioned: "At
Ann Arbor, Michigan U. of M. senior
Stanford Nadel displays Viet Cong post-
age stamps being sold to raise money for
communist troops." The marn wrote: "To
me this is outright treason and I cer-
tainly feel that this sort of action coupled
with this sort of publicity is casting a
black eye on your good university."
In reply the University explained, "Mr.
Nadel has said that his purpose was not
to raise money to provide military aid to
the Viet Cong but medical assistance
aid for Vietnamese civilians under the
Viet Cong control. In response to criti-
cism and suggestions Mr. Nadel has said
that he will channel future contributions
through the International Red Cross."
Perhaps the most significant corre-
spondence on Nadel was between a Har-
risonville, Mo. mother and Cutler. The
woman wrote:
As the mother of a fighting Marine-
a Man-in Viet Nam I feel it is my
privilege to request an explanation of a
news item I read in the Kansas City,
Mo., Star on 28 October . . concerning
a group of grossly stupid jerks who are
attending your University-the Com-
mittee to Aid the Vietnamese . .. The
universities of our great country have
always held such high esteem but this
esteem is fast becoming pure disgust-
not only by me, but by every true and
loyal American, and the vomit is hot in
our throats and particularly by us
who are military service veterans. The
sad part is that our sons ... are dying
not only to protect their loved ones and
their country - but also for these
mindless undeserving nothing creatures.
Do you . . . condone the actions of this
group or are you with the majority of
us truly true Americans. All of our edu-
cators can and must take a major part
in preserving. a free America.
In reply Cutler wrote:
You are quite correct in stating that
'educators can and must take a major
part in preserving a free America.' . .
The educational process inevitably and
by necessity involves conflict and con-
troversy. We must allow the expression
of differing points of view or we would
be impeding this search for truth. If
these students have violated the ... .
laws they will be accorded due process
in our legal system. ... we are person-
ally and professionally obligated to pro-
tect their academic freedom and con-
stitutional rights. This is the American
way which yu, your son and we are
so eager to protect.
VICE-PRESIDENT Cutler was bemused
by a letter from a Los Angeles woman
who said that she had read of his "un-
dying support of the war in Viet Nam,"
and adding that she hoped he would back
up his support "by losing no time in en-
listing."
Cutler wrote back explaining that he
had made no public statement covering
his views on the policy of our govern-
ment. Recapping his public actions, Cut-
ler wrote he had advocated "The staunch
defense of the right of students on the

University of Michigan campus peace-
fully to assemble, freely to- speak and
debate, and to make whatever sort of
peaceful protests guaranteed by our con-
stitutional form of government. I doubt
that parallel guarantees exist in either
North or South Viet Nam."
Naturally many members of the univer-
sity have been enthusiastic over the Uni-
versity's unflinching stand. President
Hatcher and other administrators have
received a large number of letters of
thanks from students and faculty.
ONE department sent a letter with 50
signatures that said, "At a time when
it is tempting to give in to pressure to
demands that everyone support U.S. for-
eign policy, your courageous stand de-
serves applause."
Certainly among those endorsing the
President's stand were faculty veterans
who recall a period when he took a dif-
ferent view -toward the rights of faculty
and students.
At the height of the McCarthy era in
1954 President Hatcher recommended the
firing of two University professors for
refusing to answer questions before the
House Un-American Activities Commit-
tee. Hatcher explained to the professors
that their refusal to answer HUAC ques-
tions, ". . . raises serious questions as to
your relationship to the University ,and
to your colleagues . ." Both men were
fired by the Regents.
BUT IN THE eleven intervening years
the University's policy has shifted
radically. When the Selective Service be-
gan the reclassification of 13 University
students who had participated in the
Vietnam protest sit-in, the administra-
tion quickly implemented the principles
outlined by President Hatcher in his Chi-
cago speech.
Cutler, and Vice-President for Aca-
demic Affairs Allan F. Smith took the of-
fensive on December 1, writing that "As

GRADUATE STUDENT being pulled o2
Office during Oct. 15 Viet Nam prott
students were arrested on the same da
"traitor" and "pinko" in letters sent
administration offici

educators we still believe that . . . sat-
isfactory educational progress by the
students is . . . the controlling, if not the
sale factor upon which deferment should
be based. To introduce other factors into
the decision makes possible either indi-
vidual favoritism or individual punitive
action, either of which is clearly unwise
and potentially discriminatory."
Several days later President Hatcher
amplified upon the statement saying that
the reclassifications, "degrade the con-
cept of the draft," and adding that "A
student should be drafted out of a clear
cut necessity . . . Selective Service should
not be used as an instrument of punishing
dissent."
HENCE, the University has not merely
defended its activists in the past year,
it has taken the offensive and argued for
their rights and for the legitimacy of
their cause. The administration has not

hid behind
nor has it
policy mig
venient sol
The stud
not been i
tion that,,
cism. Rati
students t
chosen to
campus di
Apparen
impact of
was unnec
Goebel rer
half-way
raised, mo
the year-e
Who kn
protestors
the fund c
hind sched

War With the Wrong Wea

(Continued from Page Six)
In short, the Woodlawn experience
demonstrates that, by determined or-
ganization - by a diligent practice of
democratic principles - the poor can
organize and conquer many of the prob-
lems both of the psychology of poverty
and poverty itself.
For this reason, the Congress in the
Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 de-
fined a community-action program by in-
cluding a requirement that it be "de-
veloped, conducted and administered with
the maximum feasible participation of
the areas and mgembers of the groups
involved." And Congress put about 45
per cent of the $1.5 billion of anti-
poverty money into community action
programs (CAP) - the most of any pro-
gram in the War on Poverty.
THE WOODLAWN experience, however,
demonstrates something else as well.
The usual community of the poor accepts
the idea that "you can't fight city hall"
to try to get action for decent schools,
better housing or realistic assistance.
An organized community of poor peo-
ple fights city hall and gets action. The
Woodlawn experience has not been lost
on the Daley administration; HARYOU-
ACT's activities have disturbed the tran-
quility of a good many agencies in ad-
dition to the parks department.
[or this reason, one Office of Econ-
omic Opportunity official says candidly
of organization of the poor as a prom-
inent aspect in the war on poverty, "If
the mayors of this country knew what
they were letting themselves in for they
never would have signed on." But while
they are stuck with the War on Poverty,
the mayors have been gaining in the bat-
tle against organizing the poor.

IV
C HICAGOis the apotheosis of the idea
that City Hall's concessions need not
amount to anything at all, that City Hall,
not the poor, should dictate the destinies
of the poor. Ironically, the site of Alin-
sky's greatest accomplishments in organ-
izing the poor has the community action
program which has organized them the
least.
The city-wide Chicago Committee on
Urban Opportunity is directed by Dr.
Deton J. Brooks, who previously worked
in the welfare department.- The commit-
tee is dominated by businessmen, politic-
ians and public officials, most of whom,
like Brooks, are beholden or friendly to
Major Richard J. Daley.
CHICAGO'S mayor has also tried to
avoid the pitfall of neighborhood
centers run by poor people, so deadly to
City Hall in San Francisco. The mem-
bers of Chicago's seven councils, called
Urban Progress Centers, 'are appointed
by their directors, who are appointed by
Brooks - and Brooks also has a veto
over the members the center directors
pick.r
TWO - composed of 105 groups and
which represents most of the 90,000 peo-
ple in Woodlawn - hoped to name 13 of
the 25 council members for Chicago's ur-
ban progress center. Mayor Daley, ac-
cording to TWO's president, the Rev.
Lynward Stevenson, promised the organ-
ization 13. TWO nominated 21, expecting
13 to be chosen; all 21 were -a but so
were 54 others.
"TWO nominated 21, and they got 21,"
Mayor Daley said blandly. (Daley also
took over seven months to approve a
TWO application to OEO for poverty
funds, and told reporters during the

Powell hea
an antipoi
telling the
the city ed
IN OTHEI
In New
the Unites
independe
"the group
major role
gram. Cit
they were
Newark's r
top-level c
seats wen
ness and :
agencies.
The Cc
ciation of
beleagered
poor. Spo
sity's Coin
- which i
whose comr
poor have
has been i
liantly. It
Authority
list of den
voters, 80
which cau:
Republicai
recently a:
While t
praised th
can do if"
- the offi
Housing
Mayor, W
successful
training c
CDA's dri
Walsh ha
(4

ROGER RAPOPORT is a sopho-
more majoring in Journalism and a
Night Editor of The Daily.
Page Two

THE MICHIGAN DAILY MAGAZINE SUNDAY, FEBRUARY 20, 1966

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