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February 16, 1966 - Image 3

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1966-02-16

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Trial Illuminates Soviet Fear of Criticism

By The Associated Press
Reaction to Moscow's show trial
of two writers adds up to general
agreement that the Soviet leader-
ship damaged itself badly. It il-
luminated once again, for the
world to see, a weakness of Com-
munist dictatorship: Fear of even
the breath of criticism.
Communist leaders outside the
Soviet Union indicate they have
been jolted and that they expect
their parties to be hurt by the
conviction of the two writers on
charges of slandering the USSR by
publishing books abroad.
Communist parties in Britain,
Denmark and Italy deplored the
terms at hard labor given to
Andrei D. Sinyavsky and Yuli M.

Daniel because of novels and
stories critical of the Soviet Union
they published abroad under pen
names. Writers' organizations and
others also criticized the trial.
Sinyavsky was sent to a "strict
regime corrective labor colony"
for seven years, and Daniel was
given five years. There can be no
The Soviet news agency Tass
said the spectators at the trial
applauded the verdict and added:.
"The slanderers got what they
The official press had declared
them guilty from the beginning.
The event brings up the specters
of forced labor camps, of thought
control and other aspects of Stal-

inism which Soviet leaders had
professed to reject.
The prosecution attacked the
writers on the assumption that
they served Western anti-Soviet
propaganda. Between the lines, the
real fear of the Soviet leaders
seems to shine through.
Defendant Daniel got to the
heart of the matter when the
judge accused him of slandering
the USSR with unbelievable im-
putations. Retorted Daniel: "If it
is clear that no one could believe
it, how could you suggest that any
slander is involved?"
It appears that fear of Western
propaganda disturbed the party
leaders less than fear of the ef-
fects of questioning and skepticism
on the Soviet public. If only West-

ern propaganda had been involved,
the Soviet leaders might have im-
proved their image as men with
confidence in their own system by
ignoring the two writers.
But the leaders have been en-
tangled in a struggle for more
than 10 years, since Nikita S.
Khrushchev opened a Pandora's
box by destroying Stalin's hero
stature. The struggle arrays party
leaders against a large element of
the Soviet intellectual population.
The trial demonstrated how
fearful the party leaders are that
their large personal stakes in the
system were imperiled' by the
searchers, the skeptics, and the
disillusioned who want to remove
the old taint of Russian barbarism
which stands out in sharp relief

on the doorstep of cultivated
Whatever the party does now, it
must accept as a fact that there
are substantial forces among So-
viet intellectuals who have a
strong influence for social change,
who demand a reasonable amount
of individual freedom and a right
to think.
The trial was, in a sense, a
reversion to Stalinism. Telling
writers what to write and every-
body what to think is Stalinism,
but the party evidently wants to
avoid going back to the old ter-
roristic repressions.
Thus the see-sawing struggle
in the background in which, every
so often, the party has felt im-

pelled to crack down to insure its
future authority.
Pravda, the Communist party
paper for example, has complained
periodically about such things as
"ideological immaturity" among
university students and other in-
tellectuals who tend to question
and even reject gibberish aspects
of Marxist-Leninist theory. Thou-
sands of students have been evict-
ed from higher education institu-
tions on such grounds alone.
Restlessness among the rising
Soviet generation is obvious, along
with growing skepticism and dis-
illusion with an older generation
which accepted excesses for so
long. Writers probed for reasons
for the restiveness, and often
probed too deeply.

The doctrine that the party is'
master of everything has been
questioned. Its claim at least in
the field of mastery over indi-
viduals' thinking, now clearly is
challenged, despite the punish-
ment of the two writers.
Reports circulated that Kon-
stantin G. Paustovsky, 74, con-
sidered the dean of Soviet liberal
writers, had written a letter to
Sinyavsky's attorney protesting
the conditions under which the
trial was held.
Westerners in Moscow speculat-
ed that the case might provoke
Soviet writers to various forms of
protest in an effort to help their
colleagues and to discourage the
government from further repres-

Communist parties in Italy,
France, England and elsewhere in
advanced countries are embar-
rassed. If this still is the image
of communism projected by the
leading Communist power, the
parties will have a tough time
explaining to people they most
want to attract-intellectuals who
mold opinion.
Thus, Communist parties in
Europe and elsewhere have felt
obliged to join a chorus of revul-
sion. The Italian Communists,
aware of the fierce independence
of Italian intellectuals, found the
nub of the problem to be the
Soviet party's internal battle with
its own people. Other Western
Communists found the whole per-
formance incomprehensible.


Viet C


F FTC Calls Unnoticed Decision
Setback for Anti-Trust Action

Fall Hits UseN
Of Quotes in
Professor Complains
Administration Used'
His Book Incorrectly
WASHINGTON OP)-The profes-
sor cited in a Johnson administra-
tion memo on Viet Nam yesterday
reacted against the conclusions
reached in the document.
Prof. Bernard Fall of Howard
University 'said yesterday quotes
about the National Liberation
Front the administration used and
attributed to him came from a
book he published several years
ago, but he complained "one can-{
not use a 1962 statement to back
a 1965 fact."
In its memo, the administra-
tion came to the conclusion that
recognizing the NLF as an inde-
pendent party to negotiations
would make it difficult to keep...
the group from subsequently gain-
ing a role in South Viet Nam's 4
government. The memo also said
the NLF was created and controll-
ed by North Viet Nam as a politi-
cal front for the Viet Cong guer- U.S. SC
rillas in the South.
Among other sources, it quoted
a statement by Fall that the NLF
was an artificial creation that
came into being after a 1960 meet-
ing in Hanoi urged its establish-j
In contrast to this, Fall said
yesterday the United States should B
treat the NLF in the South as a
separate entity from the Hanoi re- KARAC
gime. "Splitting off the opposi- President
tion" in this way would tend to announce
divide and then weaken the ene- lion U.S
my. nance th
Fall also said the administra- His ar
tion had failed to note, as his of 'a day
book had, that Communist guer- Ayub Kh
rillas had begun fighting in South tations t
Viet Nam some three years before the wor
the NLF's birth, and this "was resuming
caused by real grievances exist- militarya
ing inside" the country.
The memo to which Fall object- LONDC
ed had been requested by John- ment de
son after his conference with American
South Vietnamese leaders. The form the
Saigon chiefs opposed negotiating strategic
with the Vlet Cong. The de


Secret Talk ,
To Senators
Made Public
Says U.S. Has No
Plans for Offensive
On North Viet Nam
WASHINGTON (P)- Secretary
of Defense Robert S. McNamara
has cautioned senators that the
Viet Cong have increased their
strength and given "every inten-
tion of raising the intensity of the
conflict" in Viet Nam.
And, he said in censored testi-
mony made public yesterday, the
United States is making prepara-
tions, should the need arise, "for
substantially increasing our de-
ployment in South Viet Nam and
raising the rate of activity of our
air units there."
But McNamara, in his closed-
door testimony late last month
and early this month before the
Senate Armed Services and Ap-
propriations committees, said the
United States has no plans to
mount an offensive against North
Viet Nam to crush the Communist
regime of Ho Chi Minh.
As to concerns the war might
escalate into a nuclear showdown,
McNamara said "I don't believe
any commander, and certainly not
I, has anticipated any possible use
of nuclear weapons in South Viet
Pressed about whether this in-
cludes North Viet Nam, McNamara
said: "It is not our intention to
carry on military operations in
North Viet Nam that would re;
quire the use or make desirable
the use of nuclear weapons."
As McNamara's testimony was
released, eight House Democrats
urged a slowdown in military ac-
tivity and commitment in Viet
Nam, and called for admission of
Red China into the United Nations
They said the National Libera-
tion Front, of which the Viet Cong
is the military arm, "must be
recognized as a principal bellig-
erent in the war and as a neces-
sary party to any peace conference

WASHINGTON OP)-A virtually
unnoticed court decision, which
would wipe out the enforceability
of antitrust orders against nearly
400 corporations, was called a
"serious setback" by the Federal
Trade Commission yesterday.
If any of the companies should
violate the orders-mostly price
discrimination cases under the
Clayton Antitrust Act-the FTC
would have to start all over by
filing new complaints against
Although the ruling, handed
down by the U.S. Circuit Court of
Appeals in San Francisco, was a
finding in favor of Jatzen, Inc.,
makers of swimsuits and apparel,
it is of utmost importance to many
other major firms.
These include General Motors
Corp.; P. Lorillard Co.; Crosse &
Blackwell Co.; General Foods
Corp.; National Biscuit Co.; Sher-
win-Williams Co.; The Bulova,

Elgin and Gruen watch com-
panies; \Anheuser-Busch, Inc.;
Borden Co.; Curtis Candy Co.;
six leading book publishers, and
several foremost tire, candy, cos-
metics and drug supply companies.
In presenting its case to the
San Francisco court, the FTC had
argued unsuccessfully that Con-
gress "did not intend to grant
amnesty to the almost 400 law
violators under order."
The commission said that unless
its views were upheld, "4$ years of
Clayton Act enforcement and al-
most 400 orders to cease and de-
sist would be wiped from the
books." All the cease-and-desist
orders affected were issued be-
tween 1914 and 1959.
FTC officials reaffirmed their
concern yesterday. One called the
situation a "real mess." But James
B. Truly, assistant general coun-
sel in charge of appeals, said he
could not predict whether the case

would be appealed to the United
States Supreme Court.
However, some antitrust lawyers
predicted that the Supreme Court
would almost certainly accept the
case if FTC decides to seek a re-
view, because of the importance of
the question involved and the
great segment of industry directly
In the San Francisco arguments,
attorneys Edwin S. Rockefeller
and Joel Hoffman of the Wash-
ington law firm of Wald, Hark-
rader & Rockefeller had contended
that the U.S. Circuit Court lacked
jurisdiction to enforce FTC's 1959
ruling against Jantzen. The court
The case involved charges by
FTC that Jantzen violated the
Clayton Act by paying advertising
allowances to some favored deal-
ers without making them available
to competing dealers.

CBS President QuitsOver
Coverage of Viet Hearings

-Associated Press

SOLDIERS PULL IN a reluctant Viet Cong guerrilla. The Americans, of the 1st Air Cavalry
Division, were on a search operation some 20 miles southwest of Bong Son.
WorldNewfl~fs Roundup]

NEW YORK (AP) - Fred W.
Friendly, president of CBS News,.
resigned yesterday in a top-
management disagreement over
live coverage of the Senate For-
eign Relations Committee hear-
Dr. Frank Stanton, president of
the parent Columbia Broadcasting
System, announced the resignation
with a statement which said in
"Mr. Friendly feels that he is
unable to continue in his post as
a result of a decision made by
the recently appointed group vice
president-broadcasting, John A.
Schneider, not to schedule live
television coverage of the testi-
mony of George F. Kennan before
the Senate Foreign Relations
Committee last week."
for information call
Tickets are available
at Travel Bureaus or
the Michigan Union

Schneider's decision was to con-
tinue regular programming--soap
operas, game shows and reruns-
during the day, a period when
NBC pre-empted its daytime shows
to pick up the Washington hear-
Friendly's letter of resignation
to Stanton and William Paley,
CBS board chairman, called
Schneider's decision on the hear-
ings "a , business, not a news,
judgment" and said it "makes a
mockery of the Paley-Stanton
crusade of many years that de-
mands broadest access to congres-
sional debate."
A CBS spokesman later an-
nounced that the network planned
live coverage of the Senate hear-
ings Friday night.

**. ahh,
according to
that is!
7:30 P.M.--FRIDAY
Meet in front of the SAB

y The Associated Press
CHI, Pakistan-U.S. Vice-
t Hubert H. Humphrey
ed last night a $50-i-
. loan to Pakistan to fi-
e import of commodities.
nnouncement, at the end
of talks with President
han, fell short of expec-
hat Humphrey would tell
ld the United States is
general economic and
ON-The British govern-
ecided yesterday to buy
n supersonic bombers to
main thrust of Britain's
nuclear strike force.
ecision was reached dur-

ing a sweeping review of defense
policy for the 1970's carried out by
Prime Minister Harold Wilson's
Labor cabinet in 6/2 hours of dis-
cussion Monday and yesterday, of-
ficials said.
WASHINGTON-Gross National
Product-the value of all goods
and services produced in the econ-
omy--surged to a record $676 bil-
lion last year, the Commerce De-
partment reported yesterday.
Last quarter figures pushed to
even higher levels than project-
ed by the department because of
accelerated defense spending and
continued large gains in consumer
spending and business investments,
the department's Office of Busi-
ness Economics said.

DURHAM, N.C.-A conference
coordinated by eight Democratic
congressmen urged yesterday that
the U.S. stop its bombing of
North Viet Nam and that the
Viet Cong be included in peace
talks to end the conflict in Viet
DETROIT-Doctors reported a
slight improvement yesterday in
the condition of Rabbi Morris Ad-
ler, critically wounded Saturday
when shot in the head and arm
by a member of his congregation,
but said they were "extremely
guarded" in their prognosis for
his survival.
Providence Hospital reported no
change in the critical condition
of Rabbi Adler's assailant, Rich-
ard Wishnetsky, 23.


College Republican Club
7:30-Thursday-Feb. 17th
at Michigan Union, Rooms KLM&N
State Senator Gil Bursley will address club


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I ' . : 33 U I -oat~


I ttt


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