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January 07, 1966 - Image 4

Resource type:
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Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1966-01-07

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Sev enty-Sixth Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS

On Curing the Ills of South America

Where OpinionP Are Free. 420 MAYNARD ST, ANN ABO, MICI.
Truth Will Prevai 4

Nrws PHONE: 764-0552

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
FRIDAY, JANUARY 7, 1966 NIGHT EDITOR: JUDITH WARREN
St. John's University:
l Conflict

THE CRISIS at the nation's largest
Catholic uiiversity-St. John's in New
York City-has brouht to a crucial point
some of the most fundamental issues in-
volving religion, education, the layman
and the relationships between them. The
unprecedented faculty strike, in which at
least one-third of the school's teachers
are participating, illustrates a conflict
between paternalism and freedom, rigid
tradition and innovative change, religious
dogma and the ecumenical, secular spirit.
St. John's University is, in many ways,
typical of the traditional parochial in-
stitution of higher learning. Students
must conform to harsh standards of con-
duct and dress; free inquiry and dissent
is discouraged by administrators who fear
disruption of traditional concepts and
modes of operation. Political activity by
students and faculty is frowned upon.
Furthermore, and even more important,
faculty members themselves (once large-
ly consisting of priests, now mostly lay-
men) have virtually no voice in helping
to shape basic university policies. There
is a closed hierarchy, and faculty mem-
bers are only one small notch higher
than the student body.
It must be pointed out that these prob-
lems are not exclusively limited to the
Catholic or the parochial university. To
some degree, these problems are present
in most universities, including our own.
BUT 'HE RESOLUTION of the conflict
at St. John's will be closely watched
by other Catholic schools, indeed by all
universities. For, in the strike which be-
gan Monday with the support of the Unit-
ed Federation of College Teachers and
the American Association of University
Professors, there is a dramatic, clear-cut
confrontation between faculty and ad-
Draft Stands
Merit Praise
TWO MICHIGAN legislators are taking
the lead in challenging the draft re-
classifications of the 12 University stu-
dents who staged a sit-in, with others,
in October at the Ann Arbor draft board
in protest against the war in Viet Nam.
Senator Philip Hart sent a letter on
Dec. 23 to Attorney General Nicholas
Katzenbach requesting an investigation
of the reclassifications-which came after
national Selective Service Director Lewis
Hershey wrote the students' local draft
boards suggesting a review of their status
-and asked Katzenbach's opinion on
whether "until a change is made ... and
judgment reached, . . these men are pre-
sumed to be innocent of trespass impend-
ing the selective service law."
Ann Arbor's Congressman Weston Viv-
ian has been in continuous consultation
with the American Civil Liberties Union,
the ACLU has been studying the compli-
cated legal aspects of the selective service
law, which now permits local draft
boards, acting autonomously, to reclassi-
fy registrants, but gives vague criteria. If
a court test does not clarify the law's
mention of "delinquency" as a basis for
reclassification, Vivian-who believes that
the "Selective Service laws should not be
used to enforce conformity of expressed
opinion or to punish dissent"-is prepar-
ed to consider amending the law itself.
IT DOES NOT TAKE an opponent of the
war in Viet Nam-both legislators gen-
erally support it-to perceive the dangers
of the present situation. The Selective
Service System, acting in a unique com-
bination of judge, jury, prosecutor and

witness, apparently reclassified the stu-
dents because they were "delinquent"
for having "disrupted" the functioning
of the System. Given the vague criteria
of the selective service law and the equal-
ly indefinite boundary between punish-
ment for unlawful activity and punish-
ment for expression of an unpopular be-
lief, the process of judgment, as Senator
Hart's letter noted, should be left to the
courts-not the Selective Service System.
And if "delinquency" on the basis of
"disruption" of the Selective Service Sys-
tem, with the threat to the expression
of opinion this implies, is not clarified
by the courts, then changes in the law

ministration which has been seen only
rarely in the past (and, notably, at Berke-
ley in 1964 and last year).
The issue of freedom of intellectual
inquiry and dissent versus adherence to
a specific ideological and/or political line
becomes even more complex when ap-
plied to a parochial institution. Parents
send their sons and daughters to such
institutions in order to receive basic in-
struction in the ethos of their chosen re-
ligion, as well as to obtain a liberal higher
education.
Thus, if a faculty member of such a
university deliberately defies religious
teachings and orthodoxy, he is courting
disaster. By refusing to conform to the
narrow canons of thought proscribed by
the university's administration-made up
primarily of priests wito view themselves
as all-knowing and vested with the power
to dictate patterns of thought and atti-
tude-the faculty member of a univer-
sity such as St. John's risks the charge of
heresy.
Yet,sto conform to dogmatic tenets is
inimical to the very nature of education
-to inquire, to probe deeply, to recog-
nize the possibility of personal error on
any issue, to acquire respect for the
viewpoint of another individual, and to
attain a certain humility and perspec-
tive regarding one's own accomplish-
ments.
MOREOVER, has not the recently con-
cluded Ecumenical Council at the Vat-
ican endorsed these very concepts as ap-
plied to religious affairs. It seems clear
that the St. John's administration is at-
tempting to hold on to outmoded con-
cepts, endorsed by the Vatican at one
time, but now clearly replaced by a new
ecumenical spirit which is sweeping the
wprd's religions, even the most tradition-
bound one of all, Roman Catholicism.
Thus, the faculty members who were
suinmarily dismissed from St. John's for
attempting to challenge the iron-handed
control of the administration are com-
bining the new spirit of modern Cathol-
icism with a still developing and increas-
ing spirit of inquiry and dissent which is
sweeping many of the nation's leading
universities. Similarly, the faculty mem-
bers who are protesting this grotesquely
unjust action by the administration by
staying away from their classrooms are
rendering the St. John's administration a
valuable service, although the Vincentian
priests are apparently totally unaware of
it.
St. John's is being given an opportuni-
ty to assert to its own faculty and stu-
dents, as well as to closely watching edu-
cators across the country, the fact that
freedom and independence in a univer-
sity community are to be encouraged, not
shunned, no matter whether the school
is public, private or parochial. Here is an
opportunity for the powers at St. John's
University to retreat from the intellectu-
ally numbing confines of monastic, Dark
Age overdiscipline, to publicly endorse
the very simple truth regarding the role
of an educational institution.
IT IS CLEAR that the striking' teachers
and their union will not compromise
on the basic issue involved, an issue of
principle: the ousted teachers must be
reinstated, quietly and without publicity
if necessary, but with the full rights and
privileges which their colleagues at oth-
er universities now enjoy.
The most basic of these rights-free-
dom to question the powers that be, free-
dom to honestly and conscientiously ex-
press differences on any issue, large or
small, that affects the university, the
community, the nation, the world, and
the Church, must be extended to the St.

John's faculty, just as it has been grant-
ed, for the most part, to the faculty at
Fordham University in New York City,
Mundelein College in Chicago, Webster
College in Illinois, Duquesne University in
Pittsburgh and the Immaculate Heart
College in Los Angeles-all Catholic in-
stitutions, all progressive, willing to ques-
tion their own policies, willing to listen
to suggestions and criticism from their
own faculty.
The attention now focused on St.
John's University can thus be beneficial
for other Catholic institutions, American
higher education in general, and St.
John's itself.

ALTHOUGH MY WIFE and I
visited Brazil a few years ago,
this has been our first visit to
Spanish South America. I do not
speak Spanish, which is a severe
handicap, and I am a considerable
novice, having only a reading
knowledge of inter-American af-
fairs.
But by talking to a good many
people in Argentine, Chile and
Peru I have learned much that
to me at least is new and bears
directly upon the prospects of the
Alliance for Progress and of our
role in Latin America.
In our travels I very soon be-
came acutely aware of something
which I have always known but
had not directly observed-that
Latin America is not merely one
more among many weak, under-
developed and threatened regions
of the world, not merely another
one of those commitments to pro-
vide foreign aid, technical and
politicalrguidance and military
defense. South America, both Por-
tuguese and Spanish, is an in-
tegral part of the Western so-
ciety to which we belong.
NORTH. AMERICA, that is to
say Canada and the United States,
is, like South America, the child
of Europe, and all the Americas
take their law, their culture, their
languages and their religion from
the same primary European
sources. All the Americas are, in
fact, the product of a great Euro-
pean transatlantic migration, the
southern stream coming chiefly
from the Mediterranean world.
It is, therefore, a mistake, if
not worse, to think of the prob-

lems of Latin America as foreign
in the sense that the problems of
Cambodia or of Zambia are for-
eign. The problems of Latin
America are internal problems of
the Western society quite as much
as are the problems of southern
Italy or of Greece or of Tunisia.
Latin-American problems can-
not be understood or managed by
North American officials who do
not realize the essential and radi-
cal difference between Indo-China
and Latin America. between the
problems of a quite different civili-
zation and the problems of our
own civilization.
AFTER THIS, my most poig-
nant impression is that the Al-
liance for Progress rests upon a
shallow foundation. Upon the
existing political and geographical
foundation of Latin-American af-
fairs the Alliance for Progress is
doomed to fail.
My reason for reaching this
disagreeable conclusion is that,
while on the maps South America
is a continent, in fact it is not
merely an underdeveloped but an
undeveloped and unopened con-
tinent. The member countries of
Latin America are a string of
islands surrounded on one side
by the oceans and the other by
an unpenetrated wilderness..
It is easier and cheaper for
these islands to trade with Eur-
ope or North America than to
trade with one another. Thus, for
example, in Lima I met a Peru-
vian pioneer who opened a mine
in a valley just across the moun-
tains. There is a large forest only
75 miles away from his mine. Yet,

TodIay
a 11(1
cI lit(I
1110I OW
By WALTER LIPPMANN
so he told me, it is easier and
cheaper for him to import the
timber he needs for his mining
from Seattle, Wash., than from
the nearby Peruvian forest. The
reason is that there are no roads
through the wilderness.
I VENTURE to think that South
America cannot flourish until this
central wilderness is conquered.
The situation today is as if on
this continent there were two
strips of settled life, one. along
the Pacific west of the Rocky
Mountains and the other along
the Atlantic east of the Alleghe-
nies-with the whole land be-
tween, the great river system of
the Mississippi, the Missouri and
the Ohio unusable, without roads,
railroads, canals, electric power
and telecommunication.
If in the United States there
were wilderness between the Rock-
ies and the Alleghenies there would
be no affluent society, there would
be no economic base for political
stability.
The undeveloped heartland of
the South American continent and
the fragmentation of the peri-
pheral nations is, I venture to
believe, the paramount deficiency.
Until this central difficulty is
made up, the financial and tech-

nical aid provided by the Alliance
for Progress and the valiant re-
forms of the more enlightened of
the governments are, I am afraid,
no more than palliatives for the
pains of what are, in fact, sick
societies.
AS PRESIDENT FREI of Chile
has reminded us, Latin America
has the highest rate of population
growth in the world. It had 200
million inhabitants in 1960. and
in 15 years it will have 360 mil-
lion. In 10 years there will be 38
million more persons in the work
force, but at the present rate of
employment growth only 5 million
new jobs have been created.
This growth of population is
the main, though not the only,
cause of the vast migration from
the rural to the urban areas, the
fastest migration, says President
Frei, in the world. The result is
that cities like Rio, Santiago and
Lima are surrounded by shanty-
towns of the most horrifying
squalor-where whole families live
in one room without light, water
or sewage disposal.
There is enormous illiteracy, es-
pecially in the rural regions, and
there are violent contrasts in the
standard of living between the few
rich and the many poor. It is no
wonder that these countries are
politically unstable. For the facti
is that they are more or less un-
governable because under existing
conditions their problems are so
largely insoluble.
ONE SOUTH AMERICAN who
understood the paramount task
said to me that there had not

been a creative and constructive
idea about Latin America since
the digging of the Panama at the
beginning of the century. His re-
marks throw a piercing light on
the central task that needs to be
done. It is not primarily ideologi-
cal or sociological.
The centraltask is to stir up
and finance the South American
equivalent of the opening of the
West in North America. It is in
the truest sense of the term an
engineering problem - to build
roads, to connect the three great
river systems of the Amazon, the
Orinoco and the La Plata, to build
landing fields, to make the jungle
lands habitable with modern re-
frigeration and modern medical
science.
The opening of the South rAmer-
ican heartlandwill openn more
land for the landless than can
possibly be provided by the best-
intentioned agrarian reform. It
will make possible a Common
Market which is essential if South
American industry is to develop
on the scale which makes pos-
sible low costs of production.
Above all, the opening of the
heartland will provide the Amer-
icas with an attractive and in-
teresting and hopeful job that
they can and will have to do to-
gether. It will offer something
concrete and substantial in place
of the unending generalities and
abstrations and legalisms which
occupy so much of the time and
attention of South American of-
ficials and inter-American con-
ferences.
(c), 1965, The Washington Post Co.

N
*
*

*

Imposed 'Order' Impedes Educa ion

HERE ARE some notes I pre-
pared for a philosophical sym-
posium on "Freedom and Order:
Focus on the University" (Con-
ference at Western Reserve-Case
Institute, in Cleveland). My po-
sition is classical anarchism.
Freedom and Order are not dia-
lectical or polar, but are related
as cause and consequence. Right
order is the form of free function-
ing. The conflicts that arise in
freedom usually produce creative
solutions. But imposed "order" is
chaos, and administered "har-
mony" destroys function and pro-
duces inanition.
In our present educational prac-
tice, we observe the following de-
structive impositions:
-School methods appropriate
for children are extended to'high
school and college years and hin-
der maturation.
-Restriction to schooling as the
one institution for education and
growing up results in miseduca-
tion for, probably, 80 per cent,
including most of the bright.
Consistency
On Smoking
Collegiate Press Service
T HE OFFICE of Rep. Edith
Green (D-Ore) sent out a news
letter recently that reports on
the strange things that go on in
government. In an article titled
"Consistency is the Hobgoblin of
Little Minds," the letter said.
"In oraer to produce more to-
bacco, the federal government
spent $5,280,000 in fiscal year 1965
to improve tobacco farming tech-
niques and methods of marketing.
In addition, the U.S. tobacco sub-
sidies to growers amounted to
$373.341 in 1965 and $11,517,064
in 1964."
It was then added:
"In order to warn the public
of the possible relation between
smoking andcancer, the federal
government spent $3,335 .300 on
researching tobacco health haz-
ards in the same year. U.S. law
requires as of Jan. 1, 1966,every
cigarette pack to carry a warning
to smokers, the wording of which
the industry will draft."

-Academic methods and en-
vironment take fhe life out of
subjects and activities that are
not properly academic..
-Imposed schedules and the
extrinsic motivation of grading
hinder learning, which is always
a concrete process and often in-
dividual in time and style. Most
school makes people stupid.
-When teaching and learning
are harnessed beforehand to ex-
trinsic national goals and the
drive to union cards and licenses,
the result is role playing rather
than task.
IT IS BETTER, with all delib-
erate speed, to let the present
university structures fall apart
into their simpler communities
and for their order to be recon-
stituted according to functions of
immediate teaching and learning
and the intrinsic motivations of
teachers and students. (This does
not necessarily mean scattering
the populations. A university city
of many thousands has great ad-
vantages. It does mean radically
decentralizing the administration.
First, in educational (rather
than school) policy, we ought:
-To open a variety of ways of
being educated, e.g. academic, ap-
prentice, technical training ad-
ministered by corporations, self-
study, work in subsidized non-
commercial real cultural enter-
prises,collegiate experiencenfor
the nonverbal and even illiterate
(as in the Danish Folk High
Schools), etc. There should be
public support of universal edu-
cation, but only a small part of
the money given to school ad-
ministrators.
-To open numerous opportuni-
ties for leaving and re-entry, to
encourage trying out and matura-
tion at one's own tempo.
SECONDLY, in school policy,
teaching and learning is a com-
plex ethical and psychological re-
lation, but it is sociologically
quite simple, consisting of small
face-to-face communities. There-
fore:
-Drop all administrative ma-
chinery of admissions, require-
ments, grading, etc. Restore these
functions to teachers and stu-
dents. The functions ofaadminis-
tration are janitoring, bookkeep-
ing and protecting the educational

Pauil
Goodman
community in the general society.
-Make the small communities
entirely self governing in both
academic and social matters.
-Let curriculum be determined
by what teachers want to teach.
By confrontation with free teach-
ers, students will sooner find
themselves and learn what is rele-
vant or irrelevant to their gown
interests.
-When a student finds a sub-
ject interesting to himself, let

him demand that the teaching
meet his present needs and pre-
pare him for the uses that he
wants to make of his studies in
the future. Such demand by the
student reinvigorates the teacher
and makes his thought relevant
to the present and future.
-These two principles, of fac-
ulty judgment of importance and
student demand for preparation
for life, are sufficient to relate
school and society. Society will
then get the best use of its uni-
versities as providing earnest and
intrinsically motivated profession-
als, experts and scholars.
OUR PRESENT educational
abuses are due to the imperialism'
of extra-mural demands and of
the School establishment that

seeks to aggrandize itself. A re-
sult is the immense inflation of
educational costs. I estimate the
markup as 3-400 per cent; it is
expensive to try to cement parts
that do not naturally cohere, and
to pay for administration that is
fundamentally irrelevant.
By its peculiar double think, the
School establishment will agree
to most of the above propositions.
(Indeed, they, are the truisms of
Lernfreiheit and Lernfreiheit.)
And nevertheless, the present
practices will be maintained and
become wprse. The inevitable
crises will be met by adding new
levels of superstructure - e.g.
Guidance or Honors courses -
without changing any of the mis-
taken, but administratively profit-
able, premises.

40
i

Letters: Med School Outdated

To the Editor:
HAVING ATTENDED The Uni-
versity of Michigan Medical
School for two years, I can sym-
pathize with the students' views
expressed in your recent article.
What I find surprising is Dr.
Gosling's inability to perceive the
inadequacies of the system. Lec-
tures to 200 students, multiple
choice exams, grade-point aver-
ages calculated to several decimals,
minimal student-faculty contact,
rigiddrequirements, etc, have pro-
duced physicians for years. Why
the antagonism now?
I think your article failed to
uncover the basic reason under-
lying this discontent, which goes
far beyond any of the above spe-
cific complaints, valid as they may
be. This reason is theefailure of
medical education to keep up with
the changing face of medical
science. Accumulated scientific
knowledge is doubling at a fan-
tastic rate, and distant disciplines
like basic physics, chemistry,
mathematics, psychology, etc are
all becoming more relevant to
medicine. Specialization is more
and moretevident as new frontiers
open in the biomedical sciences.
Meanwhile, the medical curri-
culum has not changed; as a
result, more and more divergent
material must be crammed into

the same old courses. Interdis-
ciplinary subjects are either repe-
titiously taught by several depart-
ments, or are inadvertently skip-
ped entirely. There is a tremen-
dous amount of overlapping, in-
efficiency and lack of coordination
in teaching medical science. Re-
gardless of an individual's educa-
tional background or special in-
terests, he takes the same courses
as everyone else.
IN OTHER WORDS, the medi-
cal student needs a flexible set
of required courses and electives
available to fit him as an in-
dividual: he must be more than
just an honor code number.
Courses should be offered at vary-
ing levels of complexity to fit
varying needs of the students. It
is no longer feasible to expect all
students to be experts in every-
.thing. Such a program would
have to be carefully set up and
coordinated, but the medical
school has a highly skilled ad-
ministration which is certainly
capable.
When I was a medical student,
I challenged people on the fac-
ulty and in the administration
about their policies, and they
replied that in spite of the com-
plaints, the majority of medical
students basically liked things the
way they were., If this is true, it

only points out that students 'may
not be the wisest people to ask.
When Victor Vaughan, one of
the great pioneer medical educa-
tors of this country, was dean at
Michigan, he faced a similar prob-
lem. To quote F. P. Mall, a dis-
tinguished alumnus who witnessed
the reformation of medical edu-
cation which occurred under
Vaughn, "The majority of the
students were seeking a certain;
quality of knowledge and preferred
to have it drilled into them. Little
did the solving of problems and
the development of reason appeal
to them . . . (However) An edu-
cational institution of the highest
order must carry one perpetual
warfare against drilling trades."
Medical education is now facing
a crisis similar to the one faced
by Vaughan. Will Michigan be
content to drill a trade? The con-
servative "leave things as they
are" attitude is not consistent with
the fine Michigan tradition of in-
novation started by Vaughan. We
were one of the first schools in
the country to meet the challenge
of medical education in the 1880's.
Why can't we be one of the first
to meet the new challenge of the
1960's?
-Lewis J. Kleinsmith, '64
The' Rockefeller Institute
New York City

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