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February 10, 1966 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1966-02-10

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* ~ ~ -4 DIgi a~t3n tt
Seventy-Sixth Year



Where Opinions Are Free, 420 MAYNARD ST., ANN ARBOR, MICH.
Truth Will Prevail

Nrws PHONE: 764-0552

Editorials' printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.



Congress Should Approve
'Reverse Peace Corps' Plan


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CONGRESS WILL SOON decide upon a
proposal to establish a "reverse Peace
Based on an experimental program now
under way in Maryland, the proposal
would bring foreign volunteers to America
to participate in programs similar to those
undertaken by the present Peace Corps
The plan deserves congressional sup-
A product of ex-director Sargent Shriv-
er's innovation, the idea took shape last
July when Indian Prime Minister Shastri
sent five of that country's most talented
social program veterans to Annapolis,
Md., to teach and work with future Amer-
ican corpsmen there. After three months
in Maryland, teaching American Peace
Corps volunteers who were preparing for
Work in India, the five joined VISTA
workers in social welfare projects in
American cities.
The project is aimed not only at test-
ing the feasibility of 'Shriver's plan but
also at providing Indian officials with
information on which they can decide
whether to establish a peace corps of their
While the second of these aims requires
several months for fulfillment, the first
has already been achieved. The success
of the project has prompted Peace Corps;
officials to submit the plan to Congress
now, even before the one-year project is
AS HARRIS WOFFORD, associate direc-
tor of the Peace Corps, puts it, "The
program will help to make the Peace
Corps a two-way street, what we've al-
ways hoped it would be."
The proposal bill calls for the foreign
volunteers to perform functions similar
to those of the five Indian volunteers:
to teach in American schools and to work
in community development projects in
other parts of the poverty program, pref-
erably with VISTA volunteers. Wherever
possible, they would participate in Peace
Corps training programs as the Indian
volunteers did.
The proposal provides for administra-
tion of the two-way flow by the American
Peace Corps, in cooperation with the Of-
fice of Economic Opportunity at home,
and governmental and private agencies
abroad. Foreign volunteers would be paid
base wages like U.S. workers overseas.
The plan deserves the support of the
American government, for several rea-

FIRST, because the emphasis on mutual
understanding-implicit in the plan can
only improve the communication between
Americans and peoples of other lands. The
problem of the "white man's burden" ex-
perienced by Peace Corps volunteers over-
seas would be lessened in an exchange
program of this type. The foreign volun-
teers would be exposed to some of the
beneficial experiences and learning proc-
esses that have made Peace Corps duty
for Americans so valuable.
Secondly, the exchange program would
encourage volunteers to return to their
own countries with the knowledge and
experience gained to participate in their
own welfare programs. This has been the
result in the case of American volunteers.
Thirdly, the two-way program would
gain acceptance by several countries
presently unwilling to participate in the
one-way flow.
Fourth, it would provide more teachers
for this country's 30,000 secondary schools
and employes for the poverty programs.
The response to the plan overseas has
been "electric" according to Wofford. Un-
fortunately, some of the reaction here has
been less than enthusiastic.
ONE OPINION-expressed by Senator
Everett Dirksen-is that the volunteers
are not needed, that America has man-
power enough to take care of its problems.
We are a prosperous society and we don't
need Peace Corps from other countries.
But indeed, one of the most beneficial
aspects of the proposal is that it would
prove to other countries that we are will-
ing to accept help and advice.
Other opponents have argued that we
have no reason to impress upon visitors
the seamy side of American life, when
the country has so many good things to
offer. Again, facing the problems of the
country-and honestly offering the vol-
unteers of other nations a chance to help
-can only create more understanding
between this country and others. This
quality has been especially evident in the
Maryland experiment.
Skepticism surrounded President Ken-
nedy's .proposal establishing the Peace
Corps. Since that time the program has
grown from 1000 to 9000 volunteers, and
has led to the establishment of 20 other
such programs around the world. The new
"Reverse Peace Corps" has the potential
of duplicating that success.


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Educational P rogress: A Joint Effort

By DICK WINGFIELD quantities of those negative com-
modities we have at the Univer-
tyITH Aliberal arts education sity have been rehashed to the
as the goal and today's Lit- extreme. Most interested and in-
erary College as the means, the telligent persons (by now) will
achievement cannot be complete, note that there are gaps in edu-
But there are programs and plans cational continuity under our
afoot which lend optimism to the present system; that the irmper-
critics of this situation. sonal nature of lecture halls is
The approach to a better edu- detrimental to scholarly objec-
cational institution is a joint re- tives; that grades are poor meas-
sponsibility of faculty, students ures of educational achievement;
and University officials and more ad infinitum.
and more it is being considered in Likewise, it is fairly clear that
this light. a more personal approach to edu-
What education is not, and the cation is needed, that better meas-
Debate over Isolation
Yields Exaggerations
a critical bearing on the at-T
tempts to bring about some kind
of negotiation. There are several
parallel attempts now under way andlt
-by Secretary General U Thant r i,
of the United Nations, by Pope Toimorrow
Paul VI, by a group of unaligned B
governments as well as various By WALTER LIPPMANN
private diplomatic explorations.
The status and the role of the come to the two Vietnamese lead-
Viet Cong, or, as it calls itself, the ers was full of righteous indigna-
National Liberation Front, in the tion and scorn for those of us who
negotiations is the key problem still adhere to the long-established
which must be solved in order that American military doctrine, fol-
any kind of talks can begin. For lowed by every President until
inasmuch as the Viet Cong is in Lyndon Johnson, that we must re-
military control of a large part frain from becoming involved in
of South Viet Nam, a peace can- a land war fought predominantly
not be negotiated if the Viet Cong by Americans against Asians on
does not participate in the nego- the Asian continent.
tiations. They believe, as W i n s t o n
There are, I understand, under Churchill is reported to have said.
consideration two formulae for that we must not jump into the
dealing with the Viet Cong. One water to fight the sharks.
is that a reconvened Geneva con-
ference should consist of the five EVEN Gen. Douglas MacArthur,
great powers-China, the Soviet who fought the Korean land war,
Union, the United States, France insisted repeatedly that the old
and Great Britain-plus represen- American doctrine was sound. This
tatives of the North Vietnamese was also the view of Gen. Matthew
government, plus two delegations Ridgway and of Gen. James Gavin
from South Viet Nam, one repre- and of their Commander-in-Chief,
senting the Saigon government President Eisenhower.
and the other the Viet Cong. No one needs to be abashed
This formula reflects the actual because he adheres to this doc-
military situation, for there are trine. Nor need he refrain from
in being two powers in South Viet pointing out tawh eat is going on
Nam.Neiher an e igore inin Viet Nam has been demonstrat-
Nam. Neither can be ignored ininththedcreisou.
the making of peace. ng that the doctrine is sound.
I do not think that the Presi-
THIS FORMULA has been ve- dent is a good historian when he
toed by the U.S. because it refuses says that those who are looking
to give the Viet Cong any recogni- for ways to liquidate as humanely
tion as a government. There is and honorably as possible what
now under consideration, there- has proven to be a gigantic mis-
fore, a second formula. take "belong to a group that has
The reconvened Geneva con- always been blind to experience
ference would consist of the Big and deaf to hope."
Five, the two governments in The historical truth of the mat-
Hanoi and Saigon, plus a delega-ter is that those who think the
tion from the Viet Cong. It may President is mistaken base their
be, as Ambassador Averell Harri- creidti mion aengbofethe
man eemd t suges ina rdio conviction- on a reading of the
in erviemed to suggest that rado history of our era, particularly of
formula would be acceptable to the relations between the Western
the administration. It would be white governments and the peoples
very good news indeed if it were of Asia.
also acceptable to the other gov- In this historical perspective it
ernments concerned. is Lyndon Johnson who has brok-
n noto, since we are in- nly with the old American
any eventwisdom, but also with the new
formed that no new importantwidmbualo itthne
military decisions are being taken knowledge of the world as it is.
in Honolulu, the most important "WE CANNOT ACCEPT their
thing we need to know is what "WloNO CEP hi
understanding the Pr s ident logic," said the President, "that
reaches with Gen. Ky about the tyranny 10,000 miles away is not
format of the negotiations which tyanny to concern us." The Pres-
we have asked the UN to promote. ident's critics are not saying that
The fanfare of the reception tyranny 10,000 miles away does
could mean that the President has not concern us.
decided to commit this country toan They are sol saying that we can-
liquidate the Viet Cong and to and should not set up alone as
establish undisputed rule by Gen. judges, juries and policemen
Nguyen Cao Ky or his successors wherever there is tyranny on the
over all of South Viet Nam. face of the globe. They are saying
that we have enough to do within
BUT IT MIGHT also conceiv- the undoubted areas of our vital
± tat he i minterests in Europe and in this


ures of educational achievement
must be forthcoming (producing
the discussion on grading systems
innovation or elimination), that
continuity and flexibility of study
is beneficial (prompting the re-
cent course requirements changes
and others under consideration),
again, ad infinitum.
Just as the fault of a lacking
educational system is mutual
(shared by students, faculty and
University governing bodies alike),
so the efforts to improve it are
also being shared.
Focusing on the inadequacies
of University education, President
Hatcher recently discussed his
feelings on University improve-
ment. "I see a closely knit edu-
cational environment as the real
answer to the problem of assimi-
lating knowledge and offering the
student continuity and perspec-
tive." There are a multitude of
approaches to this goal. The resi-
dential college, according to
Hatcher, is at the top of the list.
He cited the value of an open-
minded faculty with great respon-
siveness to students and their in-
tellectual curiousities as another
major vehicle of approach. The
abolition of grades will probably
not come in the near future, but
that there are considerations on
this measure. He noted that
changes in the grading system
will probably come first in the
graduate schools and the Honors
The students are hard at work.
A student-faculty academic con-
ference will take place this Satur-
day, sponsored by Student Gov-
ernment Council and the Univer-

sity Activities Center. Accompany-
ing the students in this effort, the
deans of the colleges, vice-presi-
dents, regents, faculty members,
and chairmen of student-faculty
committees will be present.
The areas of discussion for the
conference include:
-Course revision and innova-
tion by students,
-Ways to reduce academic
-Academic credit for students
involved in major campus activi-
ties, and
-Evaluation and alteration of
the credit and grading systems.
This project, combined with the
enthusiasm for the Free Univer-
sity (which is, according to most
indications flourishing), shows
that student leaders in the campus
community are becoming more
aware of the academic problems
of the University.
The participation of the faculty
in University improvement is more
"institutionalized" than that of
the students.
Faculty find outlets in a re-
search policy subcommittee for the
Senate Advisory Committee on
University Affairs (SACUA) which
is responsible for guiding research
to the extent that the knowledge
gathered can be used in class-
rooms, and the SACUA subcom-
mittee on Educational Policy
which meets with Vice-President
for Academic Affairs Allan F.
Smith to offer guidelines for
course structure.
James Morgan, chairman of
SACUA, said that a problem for
this subcommittee is the speed
with which new knowledge is built

into the educational system. "The
faster the body of knowledge
changes, the more difficult it is
to teach and test on the subject,"
he said. Morgan added that it is
easier to teach old knowledge, but
that the University strives to deal
with both the implimentation of
the new and a modus operandi for
dealing with the problems this
frequent turnover presents.
Morgan added that another
complexity for this subcommittee
is the fact that not all new knowl-
edge is not valuable. He said that
appropriate screening processes
have yet to be perfected.
Other faculty committee in-
clude the special committee on
the Conditions of Staff Excellence,
a special advisory committee to
Vice-President Smith. This group
works to find methods of properly
rewarding teaching excellence,
among other things.
Morgan added that there is
something to be said for the
theory of presenting a broad ex-
posure to the student and then
permitting him to concentrate
upon those areas of study which
interest him most.
But these joint and cooperative
efforts could be abortive if they
are not supplimented by general-
ized participation in University
improvement. That is, the student
who is passive, the faculty mem-
ber who is too pragmatic, the con-
servative University official serves
as supporters of an outmoded and
inadequate environment for edu-
cation. This must not happen.
Given the participation and sup-
port needed for programs under
way, it will not happen.

Senate Fails U.S. in Cloture Vote

SECTION 14B of the Taft-Hartley Act,
declaring a state's right to prohibit la-
bor agreements that make union mem-
bership a condition of continued employ-
ment, is currently under debate on the
floor of the Senate. When it will come to
a vote is still a mute question. A filibus-
ter, led by minority leader Everett Dirk-
sen, is currently keeping this from hap-
The dispute over cloture manifests the
*age-old dispute between labor and man-
agement, union and industry, urban and
rural, strict and loose construction, and,
what is here more relevant, North and
The votes for and against enforcement
of cloture are not difficult to interpret
in light of this ever-present dichotomy.
The Senate roll call showed 51 senators
in favor of cloture. Of these, 45 were
Democrats, but only three were from the
south. Of the 48 anti-cloture votes, there
were 22 Democrats, 19 of which were from
the South.
Basically, those votes which did change
from the first vote last October, were due
to absenteeism then. Five additional Dem-
ocrats voted for cloture of the adminis-
tration-backed bill. Two absentees from
the last cloture vote were added to the
ranks of those opposing cloture, both from
the Southwest. The only two real changes
were George McGovern (D-SD), who said
he felt it was "time to move on" and Al-
bert Gore (D-Tenn). Both voted for clot-

ure but stated their desire to keep 14B
'HE VOTES CAST on the cloture issue
were disappointing, of course, to those
who wish to see 14B repealed. Yet the vote
did show that if the bill eventually gets
to a vote, the chances are very good it
will be passed. Passage of the bill re-
quires a mere majority.
The dichotomy in this country which
is plainly manifest in the roll call vote
on cloture is, perhaps, the strongest in-
fluence in politics and policy in this
country today. The 19 right-to-work
states are, for the most part, rural, Re-
publican, states' rights and anti-welfare
oriented. They are conservative, intro-
spective, and largely Protestant. The rep-
resentatives of such states are more slant-
ed toward constituent-responsibility than
national, long-range responsibility. In
contrast, the pro-cloture votes cast come
from largely urban, Democratic, pro-cen-
tralization and welfare .states. These
states are, on the whole, more liberal in
nature, more economically and political-
ly extroverted, and less a reflection of
the Protestant ethic in practice.
This basic dichotomy, though of course
not a political axiom, is invariably re-
flected in the policy-making and prece-
dent-setting of this decade.
The inevitable exceptions are due to
the aberrative senatorial "club" system
which serves to stratify and categorize is-
sues, decisions, and decision-making.
T HE SENATE "industry," whose purpose


LEGISLATORS who are con-
tinually issuing pleas for a
more equitable division of research
funds for colleges should take a
closer look at what their plans
Most present grants are awarded
on an individual, not an institu-
tional basis. This is the most
efficient and practical method,
because the projects are matched
to the researcher best qualified to
do the study.
Less than $1 out of every $20
awarded for research in the Unit-
ed States reaches the smaller col-
leges, which constitute 95 per cent
of the total number of schools in
the country. Considered only poli-
tically, this situation appeared to
require drastic and immediate ac-
Therefore, influenced by massive
political pressure, Congress added
a section to the National Defense
Education Act in 1958 which gives
block awards starting at $25,000
through the National Science
Foundation. These grants, how-

ever, give priority to requests from
smaller colleges, and they may be
divided in any manner the college
sees fit in order to increase its
research capabilities.
BY THEIR very nature, well-
established research facilities in
schools such as MIT, Berkeley,
Columbia, Stanford and the Uni-
versity draw the best minds, who
put their knowledge to the best
use with the finest equipment and
assistance. Their programs are
expanding and diversifying each
year, and many fine new discov-
eries are made.
More than 700 small schools in
the country, however, do not have
any active research program, and
most of them do not wish one.
The offer of several thousand
dollars for development of a pro-
gram which might make their
institutions more attractive to stu-
dents and teachers is indeed a
temptation. The administrations
of these schools may put in an
application for funds without any
real program in mind.


In its zeal to ; make sure the
colleges get research facilities,
NSF is actually tying -up funds
which could be given to another
school doing work on the "same
research program. Therefore, there
is duplication of efforts and the
small college may become the
proud owner of a worthless
Research is a highly intricate
big business, with many admin-
istrative responsibilities and the
smaller colleges may not have the,
ability to make many= additions to
their staff. It goes without saying
that if the college fails in its at-
tempt to stimulate research, it
will be hard for it to get a renewal
of the grant. If it fails to get a
qualified person to do the study,
the school will become disillusion-
ed and may abandon the entire
idea of research.
BUT, SOME ARGUE, this limits
the capabilities of' the nation. If
a great proportion of the research
funds are tied up in a small group
of schools, we must expand to keep
scientific knowledge expanding.
A simple scrutiny of the criteria
for awarding the average grant
shows that most of the money gets
into competent hands. The NSF
grants,. however, have gone to
several institutions in the past
with inadequate research facilities
and the money has been grossly
At the present time, many large
institutions often submit requests
for five times more money than
they receive. Almost all; of these
big-volume research schools can
and will expand, given the funds
to do the job.
When money is sidetracked to
small colleges experimenting with
research, the result is a slow down
in the degree of the nation's tech-

Research Is Big-School Business



Ode to The God
Of P re-Registration

To the Editor:
for the fall term beginning
this week it is appropriate to offer
libations to the god of scheduling
to assure the propititous allocation
of his beneficence. The suggested
accompaniment for this activity
is usually in the form of a chant
such as the one listed below.
The effects of this have never
been fully documented, but it
c t to ha ,. , nirk .. affinnnirc.

But cannot keep our classes
LARGE NUMBERS you can well
Your arithmetic we don't dispute,
While your memory far above
us towers,
Any jackass would pick better
well known,

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