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January 22, 1966 - Image 1

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1966-01-22

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See Editorial Page

C, , r



Ogcasional snow flurries,
and overcast skies

Seventy-Five Years of Editorial Freedom
Researchers Study Games or Peace Appli


This sequence represents, in an
extremely microcosmic sense, a
very real paradox of international
conflict. The name of the game is
"Prisoner's Dilemma," but, for re-
searchers at the Mental Health
Research Institute, the game is a
part of a life's work and an at-
tempt to gain > insight into the
essence of the type of conflict and
cooperation situations which sur-
round an international peace.
In the Prisoner's Dilemma, each
of two players is given a reward
on the basis of the cooperative re-

sponses of the pair. If Player A
answers favorably while Player B
answers unfavorably, A is penaliz-
ed severely while B gets a large
reward. If both answer unfavor-
ably, each gets a small punish-
ment. If both answer favorably,
each gets a reward, but one which
is smaller than the reward for a
single unfavorable response.
Thus a single player will get
his largest reward for answering
"no" all the time if his opponent
continually answers "yes." The
largest' total reward may come,
however, when both cooperate by
answering a favorable "yes" to
each other at every point in the
According to Dr. Anatol Rapo-
port, senior research mathemati-
cian of the MHRI, most men begin

the game with a 50 per cent level
of cooperation. This percentage
usually declines through 30 trials,
at which point cooperation begins
to increase until, by the end of
the game, cooperation is up to an
average 70 per cent level. The
span of the game usually involves
about 300 trials.
Results tend to show, that under
normal gaming situations, toward
the end of testing, pairs of players
begin to make all cooperative re-
sponses or all uncooperative re-
sponses. This is what Rapoport
terms a "lock in." Rapoport cited
an emotional involvement in the
game as a possible explanation for
players' refusal to change their
responses either way.
Another interesting phenomenon
is the "martyr" response, in which

one player wil continually repeat
the severely punished cooperative
responses while the other refuses
to cooperate. The longest run of
unrequited cooperative responses
Rapoport reported was 72.
There are obviously a myriad
of psychological interpretations
one would be inclined to make
from these games. Rapoport, in a
recent paper entitled "Directions
in Peace Research" he prepared
for a seminar to be held in Swe-
den this summer, defines the
theory of the games as "a theory
of conflict conducted according to
rational strategic considerations."
"In real life, conflicts (except
possibly parlor games like chess,
bridge, etc.) hardly ever satisfy
the criteria which define a game."

This is because, in complex real
life situations, neither the parties
to the conflict nor the alternatives
of choice, nor the relative utilities
involved in choice, are, by any
means, clear.
Thus, conversely, it is noted that
game theory cannot be a descrip-
tive theory of complex conflict,
but rather only a formal or a pre-
scriptive one.
The formal theory is concerned
only with the logical construction
of the models themselves, while
it is the prescriptive theory, the
theory which, in the context of the
situation, prescribes the player's
best course of action, to which the
researchers turn for their bridge
from the games to behavior in
the "real" world.

Yet if the simple games cannot
be a reproduction of ultra-
complex real life conflicts as such,
they can approximate the essense
of some conflicts.
Some two-person "zero-sum"
games, where the conflict is de-
fined as "what is good for A is
automatically equally bad for B"
will correlate well in the situation
of, say, a lone destroyer hunting
a lone submarine.
"The crucial limitation of game
theory as a prescriptive theory
lies in the circumstance that most
real life conflicts cannot be model-
ed by two-person zero-sum
games." Ambiguities and complexi-
ties involved in real life complicate
the issue. Concurrently, "real"
situations appear not as zero-

sum games, but rather as non-
zero-sum games in which the util-
ity gained by one player does not
necessarily correspond to the same
amount of disutility experienced
by the other. Thus further com-
plications must be accounted for.
Consider, for instance, A and' B
having the choice to "strike" or
not to strike. The striker wins, the
recipient loses. Thus the rational
choice is to strike, but if both
make this choice, both will lose.1
Thus the concept of "rationality"
becomes ambiguous.
Add to this the complexity of
disarmament. It is rational for B
to remain armed whether A is
armed or not, and vice-versa. But
if each arms, each may well be
worse off (at least economically,

and practically in many other
ways) than if each disarmed.
The paradox can be resolved
with the introduction of another
variable dimension - arbitration.
But since the intuitively under-
stood concept of "rationality" now
no longer suffices, the term must
be redefined - subdivided into
types of rationality, "or else ex-
tended to include features not
found in the theory of games, e.g.
Now the limits of the game
theory seem to come into clearest
relief. With the breakdown of the
applicability of "rationality" one
sees introduced the necessary in-
clusion of new features which
have a "clearly psychological,


- _._.


At 764-1817
The University Republican Club and the Republican Student
Advisory Committee are sponsoring a civil rights conference at
the University February 4 and 5. Governor George Romney and
Lieutenant Governor William G. Milliken will serve as honorary
Speakers at the conference will include Dr. John Morsell,
assistant director of the NAACP, Commissioners Irene Hernandez
and Samuel Jackson of the Federal Equal Employment Practices
Committee, and representatives of the Southern Christian Lead-
ership Council.
The conference will discuss the role of civil rights legislation
in securing equal rights and opportunities, the impact of the
Southern confrontation on the lives and aspirations of Southern
Negroes and the challenge of urban unrest in the North.
Vice-President for Academic Affairs Allan Smith yesterday
confirmed that the University will maintain its tradition of
not releasing information about the student's grades without
the student's consent. This policy, which never has been officially
formulated, made news Thursday, when the Office of Academic
Affairs refused to submit a transcript of a student's grades to
his draft board after the board had requested for the student's
academic transcript. The student had asked that his transcript
be withheld.
Smith said he thinks the University has the right to with-
hold all students' grades from the Selective Service, but added
that he didn't think this would be done. Voice Political Party
had asked Thursday that such a policy be instituted.
Informed sources in Lansing revealed yesterday that Michi-
gan State University President John Hannah decided to readmit
graduate student Paul Schiff after being pressured by members
of the school's board of trustees. Several members of the govern-
ing board had told Hannah that they did not support the
university's position that Schiff should be denied readmission
because he had previously urged student disobediance of MSU




Plan Search
For Hatcher
Full Statement of
Selection Process
Forthcoming Shortly
The Regents have begun the
process of selecting a successor to
President Harlan Hatcher when
he retires on Dec. 31, 1967, ac-
cording to a statement issued at
the monthly Regents meeting yes-
The announcement went on to
say that the Regents will "shortly"
set forth a complete statement
on policy and procedures, but did
not clarify this statement any
In other action taken at yes-
terday's meeting, Professors Wil-
liam Bishop Jr. of the law school,
David Dennison of the physics
department, Donald Katz of the
chemical engineering department
and Paul McCraken of the busi-
ness economics and public policy
department of the business ad-
ministration school were awarded
the rank of "Distinguished Uni-
versity Professor." At present, only
five faculty members hold this
The Regents also approved con-
struction of the C. S. Mott Chil-
dren's hospital at the University
Medical Center, authorizing the
University to enter into contracts
totalling $7.5 million dollars.
According to Vice-President for
Business and Finance Wilbur K.
Pierpont, competitive bids, opened
last December, were about 20 per
cent higher than estimated. Since
then, effortsrhave been made to
reduce the requirements and in-
crease the funds available.
Pierpont added that the C. S.
Mott Foundation of Flint, Mich.,
which had given the original $6-
million gift for the hospital, of-
fered an additional $.5 million, and
the federal government increased
its Hill-Burton grant to $661,915.


Ele ports



-Daly-John Pollock

-Daily-John Pollock

A GROUP OF STUDENTS IS SHOWN above right picketting in front of the administration bldg. during yesterday's Regents meeting.
The picketters carried signs indicating their displeasure with a report prepared by Vice-President for Student Affairs Richard Cutler,
shown at far left conversing with Vice-President for Business and Finance Wilbur Pierpont in the Regents Room. The report opposed
formation of a student bookstore and did not ask that the Regents rescind their 1929 Regents ruling against student enterprises
competing with private business. Picketters said they are especially angry over the second aspect of the report.
University o Chicago Professor
Appointed U Law School Dean,

Kill Student
Proposal on
1929 Ruling Not
Rescinded; Original
OSA Report Modified
Student protests raged yester-
day as Vice-President for Student
Affairs Richard L. Cutler not only
recommended to the Regents that
a discount bookstore not be es-
tablished but also failed to ask
that the Regents rescind their
929 ruling prohibiting Universi-
y competition with private busi-
There was no surprise at the
scuttling of the bookstore propos-
al, but Cutler had been expected
to request that the ruling be re-
Thedfirst draft ,of Cutler's re-
port, approved by the other ad-
ministrative officers, asked the
Regents "not to consider them-
selves bound in this context by
the ruling of 1929." However, the
Regents would not agree to the
report until the recommendation
had been changed to read that
"this action (disapproval of the
bookstore) is based not on the
Regents' ruling of 1929 . . . but
upon the merits of the case."
Report Attacked
Donald Resnick, '68, of the Stu-
dent Government Council book-
store committee, attacked Cut-
ler's action with: "It's a shame
that Cutler buckled under Re-
gental pressure and changed his
report.. The only thing he did for
us in the original report was rec-
ommend that the ruling not be
considered binding; now that has
been changed, and we are ex-
tremely angered."
While Cutler's report was be-
ing presented, about 30 students
picketed outside the Administra-
tion Bldg., carrying such signs as
"the Regents hear no students,
see no students, speak to no stu-
dents" and "Students want a
Regents Answer
Regent Carl Brablec of Rose-
ville contended that the wording
change was not really important
and said that the Regents "should
not feel bound by the 1929 rul-
However, students told Regent
Irene Murphy of Birmingham aft-
er the meeting that some Office
of Student Affairs officials still
have the misunderstanding that
the 1929 ruling remains binding.
Mrs. Murphy then assured the
students that she would propose a
motion at next month's meeting
that the ruling be officially re-
Bookstore committee members
still maintain that, contrary to
Cutler's report, a discount book-
store is economically feasible and
point to Pronf. Freud C. Shr'

Regent ugene Power of Ann Arbor was questioned at length
by the Michigan attorney general's office last week on his
business relationships with the University, according to an
informed source. Power and his attorney spent several hours on
January 13 answering questions in Lansing. Power agreed at
that time to submit specific material to the attorney general's
office. The attorney general's office is currently waiting for the
additional materials to arrive and which will complete the
investigation. A public opinion is then expected shortly.
The attorney general initiated an investigation of Power at
the request of Rep. Jack Faxon (D-Detroit) after an article
in the Michigan Daily indicated a possible conflict of interest
involving Power's financial interest in University Microfilms,
a company which has business dealings with the University. Last
December the legislative auditor's office released a report based
largely on a document prepared by the University, the auditor's
report revealed on conflict of interest-minor in financial terms
-in Power's relationship with the University.

Prof. Francis A. Allen of the
University of Chicago Law School
was appointed dean of the Uni-
versity's law school yesterday by
the Regents at their meeting.
Allen was the unanimous choice
of a six-man law school faculty
advisory committee lead by Prof.
Richard Wellman. He had taught
at the University during the 1961-
62 academic year. His new ap-
pointment is effective July 1.
According to Vice-President for
Academic Affairs Allan Smith,

Sigma Chi National Bars Korean Pledge

Allen "has devoted himself to law2
reform and public affairs," spe-N
cializing in criminal, family, andr
constitutional law, and in sociol-I
ogy. He was the drafting chair-I
man of a committee which formu-f
lated the Illinois Criminal Code of
1961, which has since been copiedc
by several other states. In addi-
tion, Allen has served as chair-t
man of the Committee on Poverty
and the Administration of Fed-z
eral Criminal Justice. h h
"Frank Allen is a thoughtful,
articulate, well-informed scholar-I
a truly cultivated man. He reads
widely and retentively, and is fully
at home in the ablest intellectual
circles that grace the academic-
and legal professions. At the same
time, he is a frist-class techni-
cian of the law, a man of affairs,
-and a major contributor to works
of law reform," Smith said.
Allen's education includes an
A.B. (highest honors) from Cor-
nell College, Iowa; an LL.B.
(magna cum laude) from North-
western University, and honorary
A.M. and J.D. degree from Har-
vard University and Cornell Col-
lege respectively.
The law dean position was va-
cated last summer as a result of
the resignation of then Vice-
President for Academic Affairs
Roger Heyns. When Heyns left to
accept the position of chancellor
of the University of California's
Berkeley campus, Smith, then law
school e1pn was ,atmointed tofnthe

and Smith. A committee of six3
was selected from the group and
met with President Hatcher and
Executive Vice -President Marvin
L. Niehuss to "explore the quali-
fications of a number of potential
candidates both within and with-
out the law school," Smith said.
He said that the advisory com-
mittee attempted to ascertain the
sentiments of law school faculty
members toward various candi-
dates and determine the amount
of support each of the candidates
had from the faculty.
Smith presented Allen as the
committee's recommendation and
stressed the candidates's intelli-

gence, professional and academic
achievements, and personal quali-
ties which would enable him to
work with faculty and alumni.
Smith continued that, though
Allen lacks administrative exper-
ience, his committee responsibili-
ties at the Chicago law school and
personal qualities would enable
him to fill the new position effec-
RegenthWilliam Cudlip, a grad-
uate of the University law school,
presented the motion for Allen's
appointment. He said he felt that
Allen would be "an exciting dean
who would add lustre to our law
school, the finest in the nation."

Delays Decision on
U' Branch Meeting

Sigma Chi fraternity's national
membership committee has refus-
ed to approve initiation of a,
Lafayette College pledge of Ko-,
rean ancestry, the college disclos-;
ed this week.
The undergraduate chapter,
backed by its alumni and the col-
lege board of trustees, will with-
draw from the national Feb. 15
unless it receives permission to
initiate Chris Song Whun Choi,
a sophomore from Honolulu who

ing for a reply, Robert Pincus,
'66, chairman of the IFC mem-
bership committee, saidyester-
day. George Clark, '66, president
of the University Sigma Chi
chapter, said the reply will be
submitted "sometime within the
next week."
The IFC membership commit-
tee will attempt to work with
the local chapter to resolve any
inconsistencies with the IFC by-
law prohibiting discrimination
they may find, according to
C~n TC 1ii~-rass~istntotgrf he l

ity of a similar case occurring
here in the future," Judge ex-
IFC will work with the local
for a waiver of national interfer-
ence in membership selection, if
such awaiver is needed tocom-
ply with the IFC bylaw, Pincus
said. At this point the commit-
tee is on the side of the local in a
struggle against the national rath-
er than approaching the case as
a problem with the national of
which the local chapter is a
branch, he added.

ford chapter, had, however, de-
clared its independence of the
national on membership matters
before it pledged the Negro.
The national fraternity requires
that no chapter pledge or initi-
ate any member "who for any
reason is likely to be considered
as personally unacceptable as a
brother by any chapter or any
brother anywhere."
Unanimous Consent
Before initiating any pledge,
each chapter must submit infor-
mation about, him to the frater-

A Flint citizens committee yes-
terday tabled a decision on wheth-
er to meet with the State Board
of Education on the question of
the University's Flint branch. It
also approved a seven-point pro-
gram calling for the continuance
of the branch with a four-year
The committee, which lacked a
quorum at yesterday's meeting,
will wait until Jan. 27 to consider

a freshman class at Flint should
be allocated fob the 1965-'66 aca-
demic year, but emphasized that
the University branch should be
replaced by a new, autonomous
Although this recommendation
apparently was acceptable to the
governor and the Legislature,
neither the University nor the
Flint community has publically
indicated its willingness to support

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