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September 24, 1965 - Image 3

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The Michigan Daily, 1965-09-24

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India, Pakistan Decide War

Too Costly

By The Associated Press
NEW DELHI, India - Strong
pressures from abroad and utter
astonishment at home over what
they had started were among the
factors that led India and' Paki-
stan to call off their war after 22
Except for Red China, almost
every power of note in the world,
plus the United Nations, was call-
ing for a cease-fire. Neither In-
dia nor Pakistan had the diplo-
matic or economic power to re-
But, perhaps more important, it
was becoming clear in both na-
tions that people can get hurt in
a war and this one wasn't going
to be a pushover.

As they huffed and puffed at
each other throughout the 1950's
and early 1960's, they gave con-
flicting estimates of how an all-
out conflict would go.
The Indians, reflecting their
conviction that they were morally
right, spoke of swamping Paki-
stan, destroying its armed forces
and perhaps even causing such an
uproar that Pakistani President
Ayub Khan would be tossed out.
Not a few Indians had visions of
victorious Indian columns whip-
ping into Lahore, Karachi and
The Pakistanis were overconfi-
dent too. For years, visitors to
Pakistan were told that one Mos-
lem Pakistani was worth five or
10 Hindu Indians.

Pakistan's generals talked of
riding their American-made Pat-
ton tanks, under a canopy of
American - made jets, s o u t h
thrciugh the Punjab plains to
knock on Delhi's city gates -
just as their Moslem forefathers
did periodically for centuries.
None of the dreams came true.
The Indians did not fold up.
The Pakistanis didn't either.
Armored offensives involving'
scores - perhaps hundreds -- of
tanks hit all of five miles into
Pakistan and bogged down.
Soon both sides began talking
of blunting the other's offensives
and the armies settled down to
what was called a "campaign of

attrition" designed to pull the
other fellow's military teeth.
The cost skyrocketed-by New
Delhi's count, 3,840 Pakistanis
were killed, and 449 captured,
along with 1,157 Indians killed.
Pakistan says 7000 Indian troops
were killed and more than 800
This alone made the war pall a
bit, but in addition international
pressure was getting extremely
The United States and Britain
cut off military aid. Pakistan and
India feared that economic aid,
seemingly essential to the econo-
mies of both, might also be re-

The Soviet Union, which New
Delhi considered to be a friend,
publicly called for a quick peace-
ful settlement. Then the United
Nations Security Council demand-
ed a cease-fire.
Atop all this, China got into the
quarrel, backing Pakistan and
making menacing gestures at In-
dia. Fear of Chinese intervention
was a powerful influence on New
Delhi's final decision to call off
the fighting.
Despite the lessons learned in
this conflict, there is no assurance
that fighting won't erupt again.
The basic hatreds and jealousies
underlying it have not been

Of Design





Chinese Mass More
Troops, Build Wall
In Strategic Pass
NEW DELHI (M)-A threat of
sustained g u e r r il a operations
within the Indian ruled segment
of Kashmir cast a shadow yester-
day over the United Nations-spon-
sored cease-fire that stopped the
shooting war between India and
Both nations, though silencing
their guns, opened a battle of
words that forecast a sorry road
ahead in the search for genuine
In the north, China was report-
ed setting up a Himalayan ver-
sion of the Berlin wall near Je-
lep Pass. This would be a new
phase of the frontier military
buildup that accompanied the
battle action of India and its Mos-
lem neighbor.
The threat of further trouble
within Kashmir was broadcast by
the Voice of Kashmir radio,
speaking for a Revolutionary
Council that promoted a series of
attacks against Indian authori-
ties in the disputed border state
last month.
Decision To Fight
"It is for us to make the deci-
sion and that decision is to con-
tinue the fight," the broadcast
Indian Defense Minister Y. B.
Chavan charged that Pakistan is
still infiltrating guerrillas into In-
dian Kashmir. Pakistan has de-
nied sending in the guerrillas,
whose operations touched off the
war three weeks ago.
The shooting stopped on Secur-
ity Council orders at 3:30 a.m.
Indian time and Indian authori-
ties said last night not so much
as a rifle shot was heard through-
out the day along the thousand-
mile front.
Neither was there any air ac-
From both sides, however, came
bitterly w o r d e d recriminations
which reflected the long-stand-
ing mutual distrust.
Claim Bombing
The Indians charged three B-
57 Canberra bombers and three
F-86 Sabre Jets, jettisoned a doz-
en 1000-pound bombs in a civil-
ian quarter on the outskirts of
the city, killing 50 villagers and
wounding 600.

-Associated Press
ARTHUR J. GOLDBERG, U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations, is shown addressing the 117-
member General Assembly yesterday,
Prelate Takes Big

Would Deny
Chinese UN
Ambassador Lauds
Current Cease Fire
Along Kashmir Front
U.S. Ambassador Arthur J. Gold-
berg accused Communist China of
launching a campaign to change
the world by force and violence.
He said the United States was
trying to prevent South Viet Nam
from being Peking's first victim
in its push to world domination.
In a major policy speech yester-
day to the 117-nation General As-
sembly Goldberg delivered a vigor-
ous defense of U.S. policy in Viet
Nam, saying it was intended to
oppose moves by Peking which
"can lead to the most disastrous
consequences for the entire world."
Negotiate Lasting Peace
Goldberg called on India and
Pakistan to negotiate a lasting
peace on the subcontinent. He ex-
pressed deep gratification for their
acceptance of the cease-fire or-
dered by the Security Council.
"But our task is not over," he
added. "It is now the task of the
two parties to exercise restraint
and to make earnest efforts to
establish conditions of permanent
peace in the subcontinent.
"And it is now the task of the
United Nations to seize this great
opportunity, this great and in-
escapable responsibility, to help
reinforce and solidify this gain, so
that the cease-fire will not be
transitory and ephemeral."
Goldberg also unveiled a new
proposal under which the Soviet
Union and the United States
would destroy nuclear weapons of
their own choice following agree-
ment to divert specified amounts
of fissionable materials to strictly
peaceful purposes.
He expressed hope also that the
underlying aims of Johnson's pro-
gram for a "Great Society" could
be applied to the United Nations
to build "a Great Society of and
for all men."
Delegates from the Soviet Union
withheld comment on the speech.
Andrei A. Gromyko, the Soviet
foreign minister, will deliver his
main policy speech to the assem-
bly today.
Deny Chinese Membership
Goldberg called upon the United
Nations to deny UN representation
to the Chinese Communists-thus
differing with Secretary-General
U Thant, who reiterated in a
statement to the assembly Wed-
nesday that Peking should be ad-
mitted as soon as possible.
Goldberg said the United Na-
tions should deny representation
to a regime that "denies, in word
and deed, the fundamental re-
straints on the use of force in our
Charter, and hurls insults upon
the peaceful efforts" of UN mem-
bers to reach a peaceful settle-
ment of disputes.
Lord Caradon, the chief British
delegate, praised Goldberg's "very
vigorous and spirited attitude to-

ward the whole range of U.N.
Ambassador Frederick S. Ark-
hurst of Ghana called it a good
speech, but said it contained noth-
ing new on Viet Nam.
Force and Violence
On Viet Nam, Goldberg said the
Chinese Communists had issued
"a call to change the world order
by force and violence in a period
when force and violence can lead

Battles Rage on in Viet Nam

SAIGON (P-U.S. and Vietna-I
mese troops fought sharp battles
with the Viet Cong hundreds of
miles apart yesterday and a U.S.
military spokesman reported at
least 18 of the enemy killed.
In the air war, U.S. planes kept
up the attack on targets in North
and South Viet Nam and show-
ered the area north of the Com-
munist city of Vinh with 300,000
leaflets saying the air strikes were
necessary so long as the Viet Cong
continues the war in South Viet
Although no major ground ac-
tivity was reported, the smaller
engagements were bitterly contest-
ed, spokesmen said.
A company of the U.S. Army's
1st Infantry Division reported it
encountered the heaviest fighting
since its arrival in July as it
launched a wave of assaults on a
seemingly impregnable Viet Cong
bunker system 40 miles northwest
of Saigon near Bien Hoa. The
Americans gave no estimate of
Communist dead.

The Americans mounted five as-
saults against the bunkers and a
sergeant declared: "I saw some
bunkers in Korea, but I've never,
seen anything like these."
The foot soldiers, after blast-{
ing the bunkers with recoiless rifle
fire cannon, grenades and flame
throwers, called for air support.
Air Force Skyraiders hit the bunk-
ers with 750-pound bombs, na-
palm and machine gun fire and
infantrymen resumed the attack.
Vietnamese troops, hit by four
Viet Cong attacks in the Mekong
River delta Wednesday struck
back far to the north yesterday
and killed 15 Viet Cong, a U.S.
spokesman said.
In Saigon, U.S. military offi-
cers tried to assess the latest lull
in ground fighting and the im-
pact of the buildup of 126,000
U.S. troops in South Viet Nam.
Said one adviser: "What may
be happening is that for the first
time our side will act and the
other side will react."

Another U.S. official comment-
ed: "If the Viet Cong begin weak-
ening, it will be because their
source of strength among the peo-
ple is drying up rather than be-
cause of what happens on the bat-
The head of the Viet Cong del-
egation to Hungary, Dang Kuang
Minh, told newsmen in Budapest
Wednesday the massive landings
by U.S. forces in Viet Nam have
caused the guerrillas certain dif-
U.S. spokesmen also, reported
these actions:
-Air Force planes made 220
sorties in South Viet Nam yester-
day, and pilots reported they dam-
aged or destroyed 241 structures.
In North Viet Nam, 124 U'S.
planes flew missions attacking
bridges, highways, barges and mil-
itary facilities. All planes return-
ed safely.
Radio Hanoi claimed Commu-
nist gunners downed two U.S.
fighters Wednesday.

"Come again .. ..

stone document charting Roman
Catholicism's approach to modern
problems-from birth control to
nuclear war-cleared its first hur-
dle yesterday at the Vatican Ecu-
menical Council.
The 2200 bishops meeting in St.
Peter's accepted in secret ballot
the basic outlines of the text.
They thus committed the coun-
cil to forge ahead and produce
for the first time in history a
Catholic Church declaration ad-
dressed to all mankind on con-
temporary secular issues. Despite
the initial acceptance vote, the
document, entitled "The Church
in the Modern World," still faces
a tough struggle.
Church leaders from all parts of
the world have turned a sharp
fire of criticism on various parts
of the text. The charges range
from vagueness to softness on
There also have been signs that

some bishops want the text to go
beyond its present general state-
ment praising "responsible par-
enthood" to take a specific stand
on contraception.
With yesterday's vote, the coun-
cil turned from general discussion
of the text to chapter-by-chapter
Objections to the text's treat-
ment of Communism came from
Brazilian Bishop Antonio de Cas-
tro Mayer. He complained the doc-
ument failed to "sufficiently un-
derline the intimate connection
between Marxist atheism and the
economic order espoused in the
works of Karl Marx. We should
make it clear that there can be no
compromise between Communism
and the Catholic faith."
Also voiced in the debate were
views that the document mainly
stressed problems common in the
highly urbanized industrial world,
creating the impression of lack
of interest in developing nations

of Asia, Africa and Latin America.
In addition to its action on the
modern world schema, the coun-
cil started voting on its draft de-
cree on the apostolate of the lai-
ty. This document defines a wider
role for nonordained men and
women in the life of the Roman
Catholic Church.
It was debated at the council a
year ago and many prelates com-
plained then it was too patroniz-
ing of the laity and too clerical-
ly worded. Since last year it has
been extensively revised.
Bishop Franz Hengsbach of
Essen, Germany, said the schema
was closely connected with the
document on the modern world
Approve First Six
The first six parts of the laity
schema were approved in the ini-
tial votes. Fewer than 20 of the
2200 council fathers voted against
portions of the schema on which
ballots were taken. Further votes
will be taken on other parts today.


Nasser May Mediate India-China Fight

By The Associated Press
CAIRO-India's Prime Minis-
ter Lal Bahadur Shastri has ex-
pressed hope that Egyptian Presib
dent Gamal Abdul Nasser can me-
diate the India-Red China dispute
over border areas, qualified sourc-
es said here yesterday.
Sources said V. K. Krishna
Menon, Shastri's personal envoy
who arrived here yesterday, deliv-
ered a message at a meeting with
Premier Aly Sabry saying Shastri
reiterated India's desire for a
peaceful solution to the border
Nasser, who has close diplomatic
relations with both India and Red
China, reportedly already has urg-
ed China's Premier Chou En-lai to
,..A m.il.4l.r *n'ninnr nlnra Tn

Before passage, the Senate de-
feated attempts to slash military
aid to India and Pakistan. The
amendment, proposed by Sen.
Wayne Morse (D-Ore) would have
cut by 50 per cent all such aid to
India, Pakistan, Greece and Tur-
key. Morse contended those na-
tions had used U.S. equipment
against each other.
The Senate also attached a rid-
er on the bill asking President
Johnson to deny aid to any coun-
try that does not take steps to
prevent its ships from transport-
ing strategic goods or other com-
modities to North Viet Nam.
* *.*
Education Association is expected
to lift its sanctions against the

million for teachers and other
school purposes.
WASHINGTON - U.S. officials
said yesterday that several tens of
thousands of youths probably will
have to be "recruited from the
streets," above the number taken
in recently increased draft calls,
to complete the military buildup
announced by President Johnson
last June.
By the phrase "recruiting from
the streets" they said they meant
encouraging more youths who vol-
unteer for six - month Reserve
service to go on active duty.
They said the blame for this
additional dipping into civilian so-
ciety should be attributed to con-
gessional refnsa tn ogn anng with

of debate on the usually con-
troversial measure. Administration
forces defeated all but one amend-
ment seeking to cut the bill.
By a vote of 45-35, the Senate
trimmed $50 million from the to-
tal approved last week by its Ap-
propriations Committee. That
brought the amount $142 million
below the figure approved by the
House and $217 million below the
aid ceiling set earlier in the for-
eign aid authorization.
The bill now goes to confer-
ence for settlement of differences
between the Senate and House
merce Department asked U.S. bus-
inessmen vesterday not to coon-


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