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FAIR AND COOLER
Partly cloudy tonight
with a chance of showers
Seventy-Six Years of Editorial Freedom
VOL. LXXVII, No. 57S
ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, SATURDAY, JULY 29, 1967
Poor s Despair Brings Riot to
By AUSTIN SCOTT
Associated Press News Analysis
DETROIT-Black fists pound-
ed the steering wheel in anger
as the Negro driver sped along
the new Chrysler Freeway less
than a mile from downtown De-
Turning east, the driver swore
at the towers of new middle in
come housing projects rising from
acres of grassland created by
"Space!" he shouted. "Look
at all this space!' this used to be
Hasting Street, a teeming, im-
pacted Negro area. Hundreds of
thousands of Negroes lived here.
Where did they go, man? Where
a did all these pedple.go?'
The cleared land was galling
to the man who once lived near
by acres - of tumble down single
As buildings were condemned
over a dozen years, large num-
bers of families streamed into
the small apartment and room-
ing houses of 12th Street, help-
ing it to become the most heav-
ily populated, solidly Negro neigh-
borhood in this integrated city of
A week ago it was the Negro
community's sin strip - an area
of 22 bars and 15 liquor stores,
pawn shops and barbecue joints.
Today it is a 17 block ruin of
jagged, fire scarred walls, ceil-
ings collapsed into basements,
broken water pipes dripping in-
cessantly onto pretzeled remnantst
of steel beams.
From this initial trouble area,
violence leap-frogged helter-
skelter across 20 per cent of the
nation's fifth largest city. Thirty
nine died, 2,000 were wounded and
nearly 5,000 were arrested in what
was to become the nation's cost-
liest riot. Property and long-term
business damage soared to an
estimated $1 billion.
Detroit, a city that prided it-
self on advanced race relations,
asked over and over again. Why
The Motor City seemed to have
a good reason for asking. Its 33
per cent Negro population is gen-
erally scattered over the entire
city. Poor Negroes live next to
poor whites in the slums, while
middle class teachers, clerks, and
city employes live in a pepper-
salt pattern in modest frame
homes throughout the tree lined
streets of the mid-Northwest side.
Near the city limits, it is im-
possible to say whether the doc-
tor, lawyer or other professional
who owns one of the old but beau-
tifully maintained 15 r o o m
homes, set well back from the
streets amid tall oaks and pop-
lars, will be Negro or white.
"They've got to live with us,'
said a Negro man. "That's why you
didn't see Negroes out to 'get
Whitey.' They see him every day."
Detroit has built a unique job
pattern around the auto industry,
which makes short term work
available for even un-skilled Neg-
roes. Federal statistics show they
will earn $400 to $600 more a year
than Negroes on similar jobs any-
where in the country.
A record number own their own
homes. Negroes enjoy heavy par-
ticipation in government civil
service. Mayor Jerome Cavanagh
and Police Commissioner Ray
Girdardin have won nationwide
praise for quick use of federal
urban aid funds, and for an open
door policy toward Negro views
There are Negro congressmen
John Conyers and Charles C.
Diggs Jr., Negroes on the board
of education and one Negro city
The sullen young man on the
corner of 12th and Pingree,
watching a bulldozer reduce a
burned out hulk to a pile of char-
red bricks, frowned when he
heard the question.
"I'll tell you, brother, but you'd
better not put my name in the
paper," he said. "I cain't speak
for nobody but me, man, but I
decided aint no one giving me
nothing' like them Uncle Toms
has out where they live, and I
just went and got some of what
He looked to be no more than
18, the same dark walnut color
as the schoolteachers, barbers and
undertakers who head home each
night to their spacious, integrated
But neither he nor the dozens
of ypung men and women, from
mid-teens to mid-twenties, who
hung around similar corners, were
the same breed of cat.
That was clear in the way the
"Cat" on 12th Street talked about
how "Whitey' is holding him down
by setting up education and job
qualifications which he can't pass
while training unqualified whites.
It was clear in the way he
sympathized with some idea of
the black nationalists who warned
that "Whitey is out to kill you,
you got to get him first."
It was clear in he way he talked
about how "beautiful" the riot
was, while Negroes of his par-
ents' generation huddled in their
darkened, crowded apartments
and tenements just off 12th Street
and deplored the destruction.
"It seems as if the young people
are leading the old,' said Harold
Brown, a community organized in
the West Central Organization
set up several years ago by pro-
fessional organizer Saul Alinsky.
"The young people don't want
to accept things as they are. They
are coming up with new ideas.
They don't like the way the gover-
nment is run. They want to do
something about it."
But why riot?
Negro leaders say the answer
may lie right in the middle of
the good race relations the city
thought it enjoyed. Good, yes, but
Whey refuse to call the violence
a race riot, terming it instead a
war uetween the haves and have-
"The people down there have
been forgotten by the power
structure,' said Robert Tindall,
executive secretary of the Detroit
National Association for the Ad-
vancement of Colored People.
"The Negro can't get up to the
lower-middle and middle-middle
classes from the bottom. There
are education and job standards
he can't meet. If you continually
give people the impression they
can move when in fact they can't,
you're going to have an ex-
On 12th Street, it's the have
nots who set the tone, apparently
in part because most Negroes who
do manage to "make it' on 12th
Street move away.
"They are a leaderless com-
munity," said U.S. Rep. Conyers.
"They're alienated from us. We
don't speak their language. We
,throw $100 dinners and some of
these people don't see $100 in a
. NO UNITED FRONT:
Board of Education Asks
3-Mill School T ax Boost
By JILL CRABTREE
The Ann Arbor Board of Ed-
ucation at a special meeting yes-
terday approved a proposal to seek
a three-mill school tax increase in
the city millage election slated for
August 28. The only Trustee to
cast a "no" vote was Paul H.
The meeting had been called
after attempts at unanimous pas-
sage failed at a board meeting
last Wednesday. At that time
Johnson spoke out in favor of a
one-mill levy and use of a $766,000
"working balance" contingency
fund to make up the difference.
A motion by Trustee Joseph R.
Julin to put three mills on the
ballot was withdrawn at the Wed-
nesday meeting because board
members said they wanted to pre-
sent a "united front" to the voters
on the issue.
A proposed .5%/ -mill increase,
designed specifically to obtain ex-
tra money for teacher's salaries,
was defeated by Ann Arbor voters
The new, lower. increase pro-
posed yesterday, if passed, will -be
earmarked to restore cuts in ed-
ucational programs in the city's
,jvin A1iri~t u ~iLg
ALAN N. CONNOR, of the school of social work, has been
appointed as interim director of Ann Arbor's Human Relations
Commission. He replaces David C. Cowley, whose resignation
takes effect August i. Connor will hold the position for approxi-
mately six weeks, until a permanent director is found.
City standards require that the new director have a "master's
degree in social sciences or related areas, supplemented by at
least three years' experience in inter-group relations work, or an
equivalent combination of experience and training."
A TEAM OF FACT-FINDERS Thursday declared conditions
are good in a Washtenaw County Jail cell-block in which one of
48 Detroit riot prisioners died.
The six-man team, including three Negroes, inspected the
cellblock and said it found "no cause for complaints about
treatment of these prisioners.
"Right to a man, these prisioners had praise for their treat-
ment in the Washtenaw County Jail," said John Burton, Negro
mayor of Ypsilanti who spoke for the committee.
A THREE MAN QUAKER action group asked the State
Department yesterday for passports to travel in North Vietnam
aboard the peace yacht Phoenix.
"We want," they said, "to deliver medical supplies and pos-
Bible hospital volunteers to Hanoi."
The Department agreed to consider their applications, a
State Department officials indicated that the question of
medical aid to civilians in North Vietnam is one of the issues to
be weighed in considering the passport validation. There is no
provision for inspection teams or other verification of the des-
tination of medical supplies, it was noted.
Cuts tentatively planned by the
Board of Education include plac-
ing first grade classes on half
days and eliminating several elec-
tive courses at Ann Arbor High
The Ann Arbor Teacher's As-
sociation (AATA) last week pass-
ed resolutions condemning these
cuts. One resolution stated that
placing first-graders on half days
would "cause serious damage to
the elementary school children's
education . . . and, in fact, in-
crease the first grade teacher's
"Therefore be it resolved that
the Board of Education be urg-
ed to reconsider this cut and to
seek alternatives that do not ad-
verselly influence the education-
al program or wvork load."
Donald Newsted, AATA presi-
dent, said yesterday that he was
"doubtful the 3-mill increase will
pass. Minor cuts won't threaten
the voters to vote yes, and -we
(the AATA) won't let the board
make the major cuts that will
The AATA has also drawn up
a master agreement on teachers'
salaries which has been approved
by the Board of Education and
will be sent out to all area teach-
ers next week for ratification. The
agreement asks for a $1.58 million
salary increase instead of the $2.1
million Increase originally sought
before last June's millage defeat.
The master agreement will be
mailed out to teachers on August.
1. Newsted indicated they have
10 days to return their ballots.
Newsted said he did not feel
the board's millage action will af-
feet the teacher's ratification of,
their salary agreement.
"I fully expect ratification," he
said. We won't have a large ma-
jority, but it will be a majority."
However Newsted said he would
not announce ratification of the
agreement until the board an-
nounces a definite list of cuts it
intends to make in educational
Ann Arbor teachers voted at
a mass meeting last April to strike
in the fall if they are not ablel
to negotiate a contract raising
their salaries to an "acceptable
Arrangements Made to Release
1000 Prisoners Without Bail
DETROIT UT)-Federal paratroopers relaxed their armored
grip on the riot ravaged auto capital of the world yesterday,
after two days of relative racial calm.
Ahead of the city of Detroit, now, as violence subsided
in its shattered streets, lay a massive rebuilding job-along
community relations lines as well as property lines.
Arrangements are being made for the courts to release
without bond as many as 1000 prisoners held on minor charges
in connection with the riot. Negro leaders complained that
high bail was set for nearly all the more than 3000 persons
arrested, regardless of the severity of their alleged offenses.
Some 4700 crack paratroopers from the 82nd and 101st
Airborne Divisions, helmeted, with gas grenades hanging from
their battle dress, were with-.
drawn from Detroit's East
Side.La sn ,.v
Cyrus Vance, President John-
son's emissary in Detroit, said Vote Aid or
lthey will Ic inTeserve... ..«
Police searched for arms, yesterday, at 14th and and Pingree in Detroit's riot area after they
flushed occupants of nearby apartments out on the street. They acted on the basis of a tip that
Negroes in a car bearing Ohio license plates got out and entered the building with arms. Only loot
was found and two of the men lying on the sidewalk were arrested.
Detroit Poverty Program Head
Describes ~oo-Natured Riot'
Demand Raises Salary Levels
Offered Recent U' Graduates
By AVIVA KEMPNER
and HACK NAGLERj
Special To The Daily
DETROIT-"None of the tradi-
tional theories that hide unem-
ployment, inadequate housing and
an administration insensitive to
the needs of the people cause a
riot as bad as the situation in De-
troit," Phillip Rutledge, director
of Detroit's poverty program, Hu-
man Resources Development, em-
Potentially explosive conditions
which cause the bitterness and
frustration seen in other troubled
cities, Rutledge contended, were
not evident in the "criminal in-
surrection" of the Detroit situa-
tion. He described much of the
activity as "good natured, inte-
From personal observations he
noted that the looters were inte-
grated racially and by economic
class. "Although many have-nots
were involved," Rutledge said, "re-
spectable, middle-class citizens
were sometimes caught up in the
hysteria of the moment."
Snipers Show Training
Asked if 'he thought outsiders
were involved, Rutledge said there
was an incredible degree of so-
phistication in the art of guerrilla
warfare among the snipers. He al-
so noticed that the looters fol-
lowed a somewhat professional
Critics might blame the occur-
rence of the riots on a failure of
caused by overcrowding in the vestigation including extensive in-
cities. terviews with those arrested is
Discussing the contributing fac- needed to illuminate the causes of
tors Rutledge mentioned the pub- the riot. "This study should be a
licity other riots had received scientific and quantative anal-
giving people the feeling that a ysis." he added.-
riot in Detroit was inevitable. The He referred to militant negro
final outbreak of violence was like leaders, H. Rap Brown, and Stoke-
a "self-fulfilling prophecy," he ley Carmichael as dangerous peo-
said. ple. "In giving these men such dis-
At this point any theories can proportionate publicity the press
only be speculation, occording to is doing a disservice to our coun-
Rutledge. A thorough local in- try," Rutledge stated.
Rioting Latest Political Blow
To Hurt Cavanaghs Career
they will be held in reserve
within the city limits, with1
the streets left to 10,800 feder-
alized National Guardsmen
and city and state police.
"The situation hopefully willf
allow withdrawal from the city
sometime next week," Vance said
of the paratroopers, many of them
blooded veterans of Vietnam.
High Cost Estimate
The troops realignment follow-
ed the quietest night in Detroit
since the ugly uprising began Sun-1
day. Estimates of overall damage;
rose to $1 billion, in this costliest
of riots in the nation's history.-
Thirty-nine lives were lost in
Detroit, where 30 per cent of the
population of 1.7 million is Negro.
there were thousands of injur-
ies and arrests.
Gov. George Romney asked
President Johnson to declare De-,
troit a disaster area-a designa-
tion allowing special federal aid,
including low interest property re-
building loans, to be allocated to
victimsof natural-not manmade
Rep. John Conyers (D-Mich),
ne of the state's two Negro con-
gressmen, said he talked to John-
Son on the telephone Thursday.
"He said the problem is that if
we start it as a precedent in De-
troit, every city in the country in-
volved in riots will want it."
The White House, however, of-
fered food, drugs and hospital
equipment-but avoided going to
the disaster designation.
Spokesman for Detroit's black
nationalists denounced selection
of a city reconstruction commit-
tee, charging it was composed lar-
LANSING (W--Legislative lead-
ers are willing to dip into Michi-
gan's meager anticipated budget
surplus to help the state's bat-
tered cities repair their riot dam-
House Speaker Robert Waldron
(R-Grosse Pointe) said he and
Senate Majority Leader Emil
Lockwood (R-St. Louis) will in-
troduce next week a resolution
allowing state agencies to extend
needed aid to violence-ripped
Among the expenses would be
overtime pay for state workers
such as state police, the cost of
extra National Guard duty, upper
welfare costs and added expenses
to prisons holding those arrested
during the riots.
"We'll just have to see where
we are," said Waldron, when asked
if the Legislature might consider
direct aid to riot-torn cities.
Waldron was asked if he ex-
pected any friction among House
members because of strong feel-
ings about the riot situation.
Rep. Arthur Law (D-Pontiac)
shot and killed a Negro youth
attempting to break into his store.
Rep. James Del Rio (D-Detroit)
was arrested for inciting to riot,
but later was released.
Waldron said he was "review-
ing" the work of the special com-
mittee headed by Del Rio to in-
vestigate the total action on his
poverty program in Detroit.
"We just want to see if it will
be fruitful at all," Waldron said.
New antiriots laws are needed
in Michigan, Waldron said, but
By HACK NAGLER
Increased recruiting and higher
starting salaries reflect greater
demands this year for graduates
of the University's schools of busi-
ness administration, engineering
and law according to the schools'
There are more job offers than
candidates to fill positions offered
ho iap smnrIwnLrr to Arthur S.
The Law School also reported
greater efforts had been made to
recruit their graduates with 236
firms interviewing law students
this year-almost 100 per cent
more than five years ago.
Greater competition for Univer-
sity engineers also showed in sala-
ry increases-last year averaging
pointments in the SAB reports a
total of 2,667 requests from various
governmental agencies for grad-
uates with a liberal arts back-
ground including a request from
the Peace Corps for 10 new grad-
uates from any field.
Holder of MBA's who studied
undergraduate engineering re-
ceived slightly higher average
salaries than those who were =in
DETROIT P) - "The die is
fairly well cast," Mayor Jerome
P. Cavanagh said yesterday.
"Let's face it," he said.
"There are a lot of people who
- even if we rebuilt this into a
model city in the next six months
- would have nothing to do with
The explosion of violence was
the latest in a series of trip-
hammer political blows to the 39
year old mayor - once among
the brightest stars on the Demo-
cratic party horizon.
"In no way could these events
be described as a plus," Cavan-
agh said. 'They're a negative.'
talk of an eventual confrontation
with New York City Mayor John
Lindsay for the presidency in
Since then, he lost in the Sen-
at Democratic primary to former
six-term Gov. G. Mennen Wil-
liams, who lost in the election to
Sen. Robert Griffin, the Repub-
lican who campaigned with Gov.
The city's rising crime rate led
to criticism of Cavanagh and a
campaign was launched to recall
him from office. Except for riot-
ing, looting and arson this week,
crime has diminished in the past
two months. The recall petitions
remain in circulation.