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July 12, 1967 - Image 3

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Michigan Daily, 1967-07-12

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L l1 LI L 1111

Ex-Generals Claim


Will Lose Nuclear Leat

WASHINGTON (P) - A report
signed by former top military of-
ficers asserted yesterday that the
United States will lose its lead
over the Soviet Union in terms of
deliverable nuclear punch this
And by 1971, the report stated,
"it appears that a massive mega-
tonnage gap will have developed."
Megatonnage is the term used
* to describe the atomic force of
strategic weapons-the firepower
in the nuclear age, as the report
put it. One megaton equals one
million tons of TNT.
The list of those who endorsed
the study-which challenged cer-
tain policies of Secretary of De-
fense Robert S. McNamara in
places-reads like a Who's Who
of recent American military his-
Among the signers were Air
Force Gen. Bernard A. Schriever,
who was head of the nation's in-
tercontinental ballistic missile de-

velopment program for 12 years
until he retired last August.
Schriever served as chairman of
a special American Security
Council subcommittee which, ac-
cording to the report's foreward,
prepared the strategic military
study for the House Armed Serv-
ices Committee at the request of
Chairman L. Mendel Rivers (D-
S.C.). The council describes it-
self as a non-profit association
engaged in national security re-
search and education.
In addition to Schriever, the
report was signed by Gen. Curtis
E. LeMay ret., former Air Force
chief of staff; Gen. Paul D.
Adams, U.S. Army ret., former
commander in chief, U.S. Strike
Command; Gen. Thomas S. Pow-
er, USAF ret., former commander
of the Strategic Air Command;
Adm. Robert L. Dennison ret.,
former commander of the Atlantic
Fleet; and Dr. Edward Teller, the
nuclear scientist.

In addition to voicing concern
over the impending "megatonnage
gap," the officers outlined the
case for development of a U.S.
antimissile system, presented evi-
dence that the Soviets may be
building orbital nuclear bombs
and blamed civilian leaders for a
deliberate decision to allow the
Soviet Union to slice the U.S. lead
in terms of long range offensive
The United States, according to
Pentagon figures, presently leads
the Soviet Union <in numbers of
missiles by a 3 to 1 margin.
But discussing the megaton-
nage yield, or payload, of those
missiles, the council subcommittee
recalled McNamara's own recent
testimony to Congress: "We
should bear in mind that it is not
the number of missiles which is
important, but rather the char-
acter of the payloads they carry;
the missile is simply the delivery

The 100 page report declared:I
"The preponderance of evidence
points to the conclusion that the
Soviet Union is succeeding in its
massive drive toward strategic
military superiority and that the
United States is cooperating in
this effort by slowing down its
side of the arms race."
This year, the report said, the
Soviet Union will reach a range
of between 16,000 to 37,000 meg-
atons in terms of deliverable
atomic destruction, equalling or
exceeding the United States' es-
timated range of 8,000 to 29,000
In four years the Soviets will
have 30,000 to 50,000 deliverable
megatons, compared with the an-
ticipated U.S. range of 6,000 to
15,000 megatons.
"On the basis of this projection,
the U.S. and USSR will have re-
versed their roles in a 10 year
period," the report said.

As for the antimissile issue, the
subcommittee said:
"In the absence of an ABM
(anti-ballistic missile system) and
with our offensive weapons re-
stricted to a wholly defensive role,
the danger of a general nuclear
war is greatly increased."
This was a reference to the
administration's present decision
to hold off deployment of a mis-
sile system designed to intercept
incoming enemy war heads.
By placing sole reliance for de-
terrence on offensive missiles and
a dwindling bomber force, "the
United States places itself in the
dangerous position of having only
one option left if it is faced with
a Soviet ultimatum to surrender,"
the officers said.
"It must either fire its offen-
sive nuclear weapons or give up
its sovereignty," the subcommit-
tee added. "An ABM would at
least strengthen the hand of the

President if he is confronted with
such a fateful decision, and it
might stay the hand of an enemy
at a critical moment in history."
The report said that since the
United States has declared it
would never initiate nuclear war,
the Soviets retain the option of
launching the first atomic strike.
"Yet we have no defense other
than our threat to strike back."
A U.S. decision to deploy anti-
missiles "would now tend to sta-
bilize the strategic balance and
ultimately reduce tensions," the
report said.
The Soviet Union, the subcom-
mittee said, apparently is develop-
ing orbiting mobs and other stra-
tegic space weapons. The United
States has stated publicly it will
not engage in an arms race in
Both the United States and the
Soviet Union have signed the
United Nations treaty banning

the orbiting of nuclear weapons
in space. But, the report said, the
official Soviet publication Izvestia
has noted the pact by no means
prohibits "the manufacture of
such missiles."
When on Nov. 7, 1965 the So-
viets displayed a weapon de-
scribed by Soviet news agencies
as an orbital missile, the State
Department asked Moscow for
assurances that the Kremlin
would remain by its U.N. pledge.
"The Soviet answer was that
the agreement did not bar de-
velopment of such weapons," the
report said.
Now, the report said, the United
States, along with the Soviet
Union and other countries, is en-
tering a new treaty formally out-
lawing nuclear weapons in space
but containing no provision for
The subcommittee stated:
"The only known effective ways

to assure the world that none c
the nuclear rocket powers ar
orbiting nuclear weapons are t
inspect s p a c e rockets befor
launch, or to rendezvous with th
orbiting rockets and open ther
to inspection in space-'go u
there with a screwdriver' as on
AEC authority put it."
The subcommittee said that a
Rivers' request its informatio
was gleaned from unclassifie
sources only - books, treaties
journals, trade and technical pub
lications, news magazines an
While this date may not b
entirely accurate in all instances
the subcommittee said, "We d
believe the 'ball park' figure
from these unclassified source
are adequate to support thought
ful evaluation, and that they wi
indicate trends and strategi
postures which could not other
wise be revealed."

Israelis Refuse
To Yield Old Cit
Agree to Posting of UN Observers
In Potentially Dangerous Suez Area

McNamara Recommends Need
For Effective Use of Troops

Israel ,rejected yesterday a de-
mand by the U.N. General Assem-
bly that it rescind annexation of
the Old City of Jerusalem. But
the Israelis agreed to posting
U.N. observes in the tinderbox
Suez area, thus matching a simi-
lar step by Egypt.
The twin Israeli moves were
disclosed in advance of a resumed
session today of the 122-nation
assembly on the Middle East sit-
uation. It had recessed a week
ago in the hope of resolving a
deadlock on resolutions asking
Israeli troop withdrawals from
Arab territory. No face-saving
compromise was in sight.
Jobless Rate
Rises During
June Period
WASHINGTON (P) - The na-
tion's unemployment rolls swelled
by 1.2 million in June, pushing
the jobless rate to 4 per cent of
the labor force in the higgest
jump in more than two years, the
Labor Devartment said yesterday.
But at the same time total em-
ployment rose 1.7 million amid
signs that "economic activity is
beginning to pick up" said the
Bureau of Labor Statistics.
However, Asst. Commissioner
Harold Goldstein declined to spec-
ulate on whether this held hope
of bringing the jobless rate back
down under 4 per cent again
later this year. It depends on
what happens in sluggish con-
struction work, declining durable
goods production and future de-
fense procurement, among other
factors, he said.
The rise in the number of
Americans out of work was 200,-
000 greater than expected in June,
while the employment increase
was 850,000 greater.

Secretary - General U T h a n t
made public the Israeli reply to
the resolution on Jerusalem
adopted by the assembly on July
4 by a vote of 99 to 0, with 20
Term Out of Place
Abba Eban, the Israeli foreign
minister, told Thant by letter
that the term "annexation, used
by supporters of the resolution, is
out of place."
Eban said that civic, social and
health measures taken by Israel
after wresting the Old City from
Jordan in the war "relate to the
integration of Jerusalem in the
administrative a n d municipal
spheres, and furnish a legal basis
for the protection of the holy
places of Jerusalem."
Eban was expected to address
the assembly in further elabora-
tion of his country's position, but
many U.N. diplomats predicted
the assembly would adopt another
resolution reaffirming opposition
to annexation of the Old City.
The Israeli foreign minister de-
clared his government had em-,
barked on a "constructive and de-
tailed dialogue with representa-
tives of universal reliigous in-
Egyptian Bombers
In the Middle East, Israeli
antiaircraft gunners shot down
one of two Egyptian fighter-
bombers that crossed the cease-
fire line and flew over the Sinai
Desert yesterday, an army spokes-
man said in Tel Aviv.
Only Saturday the Israelis said
one of their planes had shot down
a MIG21 in a sharp renewal of
fighting along the Suez Canal.
This time the Egyptians sent
over two much slower Sukhoi 7
planes, first introduced in 1956
and which fly close to the speed
of sound, the Tel Aviv spokesman
The two Soviet-built planes
passed over the Suez Canal and
flew low over Israeli troop posi-
tions in the Sinai Desert. Antiair-
craft gunners opened up, the
spokesman said.

-Associated Press
EGYPTIAN WORKERS ARE SHOWN in launches around one of the eight Russian warships
that arrived in Port Said yesterday. This was at the northern end of the Suez Canal, close to the
area where Israeli and Egyptian jets and artillery fought Saturday.
Nigerian Civil War Continues;
Both Sides Claim Successes

SAIGON (P)-Defense Secretary
Robert S. McNamara said yester-
day, "there are many opportuni-
ties open to us to increase the
effective use" of the approxi-
mately one million servicemen the
allies have on hand in Vietnam,
including 466,000 Americans.
That could mean streamlining
of rear area operations and trans-
fer of surplus men to front line
duty against the 296,000 Com-
munist troops estimated to be
operating in South Vietnam.
McNamara has been asked for
a substantial rise in the size of
the U.S. armed forces in Vietnam.
Some additional GIs are expected
to be committed to the war, but
not the 100,000 to 140,000 that
Gen. William C. Westmoreland,
the U.S. commander, is reported
to have requested.
The defense secretary was said
to feel there is too much fat in
support units and that some of
these men could be used more ef-
fectively in combat battalions.
The U.S. Command has 80 such
battalions, with about 40,000 to
50,000 troops normally available
for field operations.
Under current procedure it
takes about eight Americans to
support one front line soldier. The
rest include administrative per-
sonnel, engineers, transport crew-
men, military police, clerks and
Limited Integration
McNamara was reliably report-
ed to have pressed for limited in-
tegration of Vietnamese troops
into American units to get the
Saigon government soldiers to
handle a bigger share of the!
He wound up a five day inspec-
tion tour-his ninth visit to Viet-

nam-with a news conference at
Tan Son Nhut Airport in which
he said that, on the question of
troops, "our po1ic y hasn't
"It's exactly what it was on
July 28 of 1965 when President
Johnson announced the plan to
add significant numbers of U.S.
combat troops to the forces in
South Vietnam," McNamara said.
'Provide the Troops'
"It was then, it is today and
I'm sure it will be in the future,
to provide the troops which our
commanders consider necessary.
Having said that, I want to em-
phasize a corollary that what is
necessary depends on the extent
with which we're using effective-
ly the resources we have avail-
able to us.
"We-the allies-have over a
million men here under arms and
there are many opportunities
open to us to increase the effec-
tive use of those men and we'll

set our hearts and minds to doing
McNamara suggested that op-
portunities had been bypassed in
the rapid expansion of the mili-
tary force in South Vietnam and
said he believed it is "one of our
responsibilities to insure that we
increase the effectiveness of the
manpower that is here."
In war action. U.S. Phantom
jets destroyed or damaged 38
North Vietnamese trucks, be-
lieved carrying fuel and ammuni-
tion, in an attack before dawn
yesterday on a 70-truck convoy
northeast of Mu Gia Pass, the
Air Force announced.
Official word of the results of
the raid on the convoy came out
after Defense Secretary McNa-
mara had remarked at a news
conference that the bombing op-
erations over North Vietnam "are
achieving their objective" of re-
ducing the flow of Communist
troops and supplies.

UAW Talks to Ford;
Asks 'Equity Sharin


LAGOS, Nigeria

(AP)-NigeriaIstroyed last weekend. It put gov-

and secessionist Biafra claimed
successes yesterday on the sixth
day of their civil war as the Nige-
rian government said its forces
had killed white mercenaries
fighting with the secessionists and
had captured arms made in
The U.S. Embassy was skeptical
of the report on the mercenaries
because it said it did not believe
any were fighting on the side of
Biafra's ground forces.
The embassy expressed concern,
however, over a report that an
American was flying an old, U.S.-
made B26 for Biafra.
Biafra Advancing
Meanwhile, a secessionist broad-
cast said Biafra troops were ad-
vancing on all fronts.
A government statement said
the white mercenaries were among
three companies of 300 men de-

U.S. Mercy Flight Attempt Fails
As Casualties Rise in Congo City

ernment casualties at 6 dead and
12 wounded.
The government newspaper, New
Nigerian of Kaduna in northern
Nigeria, said 10 mercenaries had
been killed when the three com-
panies were wiped out near Nsuk-
ka, 15 miles inside Biafra.
The New Nigerian said a senior
officer in the Biafra army had de-
fected. He was named as Brig.
George Kurubo, who had' been
logistics officer for Lt. Col. Odu-
megwu Ojukvu's regime in Biafra.
Kurubo, who commanded Nigeria's
air force until last August, fled
when an army uprising brought
Maj. Gen. Yakubu Gowon to power
in Nigeria.
Ojukwu, the Eastern region's
military governor, proclaimed his
region the independent nation of
Biafra May 30. He claimed Gow-
on's reigme had not treated his
region fairly.
A government spokesman denied
that Nigeria had asked the United
States for military assistance. He
said the U.S. government appar-
ently had denied Nigeria permis-
sion to receive arms requested
some time ago.
He said the Nigerian govern-
ment "does not need any military
assistance from any quarter to
crush the rebellion in Enugu."
Two Rules
"The American position sur-
prised but did not anger us," said
the spokesman. "Apparently the
United States has one rule for
Nigeria and another for the Con-
He referred to the U.S. action in
sending three Air Force transport
planes to help the Congolese gov-
ernment put down a mercenary-
led rebellion in Kisangani and

Rail, Rubber Industries
May Face Strikes Soon,

BRUSSELS, Belgium (AR) - A
mercy flight by a U.S. Air Force
transport, intended to rescue ci-
vilian hostages held by mutinous
mercenaires in the Congo city of
Iisangani, failed yesterday, the
Belgian radio said.
There were reports of rising
casualties among both Africans
and Europeans in that Oriental
Province capital.
Congo President Joseph D. Mo-
butu said the hostages in Kisan-
gani -- formerly Stanleyville -
included women and children,
university professors and possibly
20 journalists. The rescue plane
was one of three transports sent
to Mobutu by President Johnson,
responding to a Congolese plea
for U.S. military aid.
Failure Confirmed
U.S. officials in Washington
confirmed the failure of the res-
cue effort, saying contact could
not be made with troops holding
the hostages.
Johnson's action in sending the
planes touched off sharp criti-
cism in Congress. Responding to
it, U.S. officials said that the
dispatch of the planes fell within
presidential powers as command-

Usually well informed sources
in Brussels said more than 80 per-
sons, Africans and Europeans, had
died in the past week in Kisan-
gani area fighting between the
Congolese national army and re-
bellious mercenaries. Belgian For-
eign Ministry offilcals, trying to
obtain confirmations, said they
feared there were an important
number of deaths in Kisangani.
The Congolese Press Agency
said Col. Bob Denard, a French-
man who led the Kisangani re-
bels, was seriously wounded and
flown to Rhodesia last week.
The agency, as quoted by the

Reports from Washington Mon-
day said the State Department re-
jected an appeal for arms from
the Nigerian government.
A spoksman for the U.S. Embas-
sy in Lagos said the Nigerians had
not asked about the State Depart-
ment decision. If they do, he said,
they will be told the United States
is not a traditional supplier of
arms to Nigeria and, unlike the
Congo, is not committed in Ni-

Belgian radio, said Denard com-
manded the 6th white commando
unit of the Congolese national
army in Kisangani. An old hand
in the Congo, Denard was there
when the troubles began just after
independence in 1960, fighting for
secessionist Moise Tshombe of
Katanga. He later took command
of a mercenary unit when Tshom-
be was Congo premier.
A letter from Bukavu, quoted
in Brussels, said Belgian citizens
there now are virtually prisoners
of the Congolese army which has
been pillaging the town and cry-
ing for revenge.

By The Associated Press
Strikes threatened two of the
nation's major industries yester-
day. A United Rubber Workers
Union leader said in Akron, Ohio,
that a strike deadline had been
set for midnight Thursday for
Goodyear's 22,000 employes.
In Washington, Railroad Union
leaders told members of Congress
they would withdraw their pledge
against a nationwide railroad
strike unless the House and Sen-
ate soon agree on proposed legis-
Earl L. Givens said the rubber
strike deadline was set on the
recommendations of URW nego-
tiators meeting with the company
at Cincinnati. There were no
further details immediately, just
the terse announcement.
Reports Denied
Givens' statement yesterday fol-
lowed one Monday in which he
denied reports that Goodyear
workers at 11 plants across the
country were going out at mid-
night tonight.
If Goodyear rubber workers do
strike, they will join more than
52,000 others now idle.
Goodyear has continued to
work on a day-to-day basis since
the URW struck Firestone, Uni-
royal and Goodrich April 20.
General Tire was struck three
weeks ago.
It has been pointed out during
the strike, longest ever in the in-
dustry, that shutdown of all of
the nation's Big Five rubber
manufacturers would invite in-
voking the 80-day cooling-off per-
iod of the Taft-Hartley Act.
This could send URW employes
back to their jobs while negotia-

Ramsey said in a letter to con-'
gressional leaders.
He said the unions are not now
setting a strike date, but will
withdraw their no-strike pledge
if a Senate-House conference
committee makes no progress by
the end of this week on conflict-
ing versions of special rail strike
The Senate approved President
Johnson's proposed rail strike
legislation which would provide
for 90days of extensive federal
mediation in an effort to reach
a voluntary agreement, and a
binding settlement until January
of 1969 if necessary.
The House refused to include
any provision for a complsory
settlement in its version of the
The original

DETROIT (P)-Walter P. Reu-
ther opened contract talks with
Ford Motor Co. yesterday saying
his United Auto Workers union
would strike if necessary to win a
profit-sharing plan this year.
He called the plan essential to a
peaceful settlement of the 1967
auto-labor contract negotiations
and termed it "a rational and sen-
sible method of determining equity
for workers."
The emphasis Reuther placed
on profit sharing elevated it to
the level of a handful of other
major demands both sides of the
bargaining table privately rate
high in strike potential.
Action Surprising
His action surprised some since
the UAW's prebargaining conven-
tion last April didn't list profit
sharing as one of this summer's
goals. Reuther added it to .the list
Monday in opening contract talks
at General Motors Corp., largest
of the Big Three automakers.
But not until yesterday at a
crowded news conference in Ford's
offices in suburban Dearborn, did
Reuther reveal how determined he
was to win the goal the UAW re-
peatedly has failed to achieve at
the Big Three since the 1950s.
"If Ford workers are going to
get their full measure of equity,
they have got to get their slice of
the profit pie," he said. "This is
the area where our equity is short-
changed the most."
Asked if the UAW would strike

to win profit sharing, Reuther
said: "We don't like to talk about
a strike at his juncture. Our frevent
hope is that we can achieve a
satisfactory and equitable settle-
ment without a strike.
"But in a free society, workers
have the right to withhold their
labor power to achieve equity, and
we intend to win equity this year."
Profit sharing became a part of
the UAW contract at American
Motor Corp. in 1961, but the
smallest automaker has had no
profit to share since 1963.
Malcolm L. Denise, vice presi-
dent-labor relations and Ford's top
negotiator, had no comment on
the profit sharing plan. He said he
hoped for an agreement that
would be "fair across the board
and does not favor one group to
the detriment of the other."
But other executives, speaking
privately, said, "We opposed it in
1961, and it would be reasonable
to speculate that we would again."~


World News Roundup

"A gloriously fresh
experience in the

By The Associated Press
passed 92 to 0 yesterday a trail-
blazing bill requiring lenders to
tell borrowers exactly the cost of
loans on such things as autos,
appliances, repairs and house
The measure, supported by Pres-
ident Johnson, involves $100 bil-

rIA Awoman
makes "Dear John"
look like a fairy

must explain why they are
and how they will be used.
* * *


BEIRUT, Lebanon - Algerian
President Houari Boumedienne
landed in Syria and Iraqi Presi-
dent Abdel Rahman Aref arrived
in Egypt on secret flights yester-
day. They were scheduled to con-

inent but powerless post of trade
unions boss.
*~ * *
BALTIMORE, Md. - Unmanned
helicopters are being used to carry
out high-risk reconnaissance mis-
sions over Vietnam, the Baltimore
Evening Sun reported yesterday.
In a front-page, dispatch from
Washington, the newspaper said

tale. Would you believe
Virginia Woolf'
looking like a Sunday
-World Journal Tribun
Show Times
Mon. thru Thurs. 7-9

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