WEDNESDAY, JUNE 7,1967
THE MICHIGAN DAILY
US..-Russian Cooperation'Only'Solution to
By WILLIAM L. RYAN
Associated Press News Analyst
If the major powers have learn-
ed any lesson from years of end-
less crisis in the Middle East, there
is only one way out of today's
situation. Once again, the Rus-
sians and Americans will have to
find common ground to avoid the
threat of a new showdown threat-
ening World War III.
That happened 11 years ago,
when the feeling in many a world
capital was that nuclear war was
close. Moscow and Washington
were snarling at one another in
1956, but circumstances drew them'
together despite themselves.
Today Soviet policy may stand
to gain from the war crisis, but
the cost again could be more than
the gains would warrant. The les-
sons of Suez are fresh in the
minds of both Soviet and Amer-
The Suez Canal is closed again.
The Arabs again move to stop the
flow of their oil westward. West-
ern Europe again looks at a build-
ing oil crsis.
In those terrifying days of the
fall of 1956, while a revolution in
Communist Hungary was being
crushed by enormous Soviet fire
power, the specter of general war
faded only when the United States
and the Soviet Union in effect as-
sumed the responsibility of their
great nuclear power.
Today's Middle East war in real-
ity is just another stage of endless
crisis. This phase of it can be
dated to 1955.
In began in the Gaza Strip, a
narrow, disputed piece of real
estate, Egyptian occupied since the
1948 Palestine War. It teemed with
bitter refugees from Palestine,
whose fedayeen - commando-
units staged frequent raids on Is-
raeli territory. On Feb. 28, 1955,
Israeli units launched massive re-
taliation and humiliated Egypt's
Gamal Abdel Nasser.
Nasser turned to the Communist
bloc for arms. The Kremlin under
Nikita S. Khrushchev saw an op-
portunity to move forcefully into
the Middle East.
Communist response was swift,
and the West was shocked by the
extent of it: $450 million worth of
arms to Egypt, $100 million worth
to Syria, in exchange for cotton.
There was a prospect of a pre-
ventive war, though Israel denied
ever harboring such an intent.
Then came another humiliation
for Nasser. He had his heart set
on a high dam at Aswan to re-
claim arable land. The Russians
had offered to foot the whole bill
of $1.3 billion, repayable over 60
years. Evidently, Washington be-
lieved the Russians could not do it
and would have to back away.
Nasser said it was still not too late
for the World Bank to make the
loan, without conditions.
The United States, instead de-
livered what Nasser considered a
calculated insult to Cairo. It said
the dam would not be feasible
because -Egyptians could not as-
sure success of the program.
Angry, Nasser turned to the
Russians. At the same time, he
announced nationalization of the
Suez Canal, which had been op-
erated by British-French interests
under a concession due to end in
Britain's Conservative govern-
ment seemed sure Nasser intended
expansion in the Middle East in
partnership w i t h communism.
London began talks with Paris on
how to counter him. The French,
too, were angry, since Nasser was
backing a revolt in Algeria.
At the time 80,000 British troops
remained in the canal zone. Nasser
ordered them out. Britain and
France began to plan an invasion
in association with Israel. The
United States, alarmed, said it
would not support the use of force.
By mid-September, 80,000 troops
from British and French bases had
assembled in Malta. Israel, aided
in a build-up by France, was ready
for war. The attack date was set
for late October. The plan was to
defend the canal. Britain and
France then would issue an ulti-
matum to both sides to cease-fire.
The Egyptians were routed, but
the whole plan was transparently
clear to the rest of the world.
Meanwhile, Hungary had ex-
ploded. Despite the tensions this
created, Washington and Moscow
were suddenly drawn together by
an identical interest: the avoid-
ance of general war. Both de-
manded and forced the with-
drawal of invading troops in the
Until the specter of war loomed
large, the Soviet Union had tried
to exploit the Middle East situ-
ation to its own advantage. It
seems Moscow's aim up to now
has been to squeeze out of the
situation every last bit of ad-
vantage and to entrench itself
among nations of 100 million peo-
Pie sitting on seas of oil and
astride strategic waterways.
Once again the cost would out-
weigh the advantages. An accident
could bring a showdown even more
serious than the missile crisis over
Cuba in 1962.
Western diplomats believe that
the Arabs are trying hard to entice
the Russians into active participa-
tion. From this grow such things
as the Arab charges that Amer-
ican and British planes were pro-
viding cover for Israeli forces.
For America the war comes at
the worst possible time, when it
is up to its ears in Vietnam. But
for the Soviet Union the risks of
supporting its words and ma-
neuvers are great.
Action Follows Charge
Of U.S.-British Aid
To Israel During War
O- WASHINGTON (P)-The United
States and Egypt severed diplo-
matic relations yesterday. And, as
the Mideast crisis deepened, steps
were taken for evacuation of
thousands of Americans from the
Within half an hour after being
, notified that Egypt had withdrawn
its recognition of the U.S. govern-
ment, the State Department sum-
moned the Egyptian ambassador
to make the action reciprocal.
Cairo Radio charged U.S. planes
had gone to the aid of Israel in
the two-day Mideast war-an ac-
cusation vigorously denied in
Algeria followed Egypt last
night in breaking diplomatic rela-
tions with the United States.
"The government of Algeria has
informed our ambassador in Al-
giers that they are breaking dip-
lomatic relations with the United
States," a State Department
spokesman said in a 6 p.m. EDT
The United States was taking
immediate reciprocal action, the
The United States took its re-
ciprocal move-breaking relations
with Algeria-by calling the Al-
gerian ambasador in Washington
to the State Department.
Meanwhile, all American na-
tionals were ordered yesterday to
leave Egypt, the Nasser govern-
American citizens were asked to
gather in a hotel on the Nile wat-
erfront and one other main hotel.
American correspondents in the
capital were among those ordered
to get out.
In Damascus, Syria asked all
Americans to get out of that
A State Department official said
last night that U.S. embassies
and consulates in the Middle East
are being, authorized to charter
commercial shipping to evacuate
some 12,000 Americans.
Officials said there is no truth
to reports that surface units of
the U.S. 6th fleet have been in-
structed to stand by for the evacu-
Americans in Egypt are being
sent by bus, train and automobile
to Alexandria to await chartered
The port of Tunis was reported
to be another point of departure.
State Department authorities
estimate there are 12,000 Ameri-
cans left in the most active war
zone of Egypt, Jordan, Israel.
And from Cairo came a report
that the Republic of Yemen also
decided to sever relations with the
United States. The U.S. charge
d'affaires was asked to leave Ye-
men within 48 hours.
A broadcast from Syria said that
government, too, was breaking its
relations with the United States.
And an official announcement in
Khartoum said the Sudan gov-
ernment has severed diplomatic
relations with the United States
T~A"~tl 19Al TT A vvi14fs.v
MIDDLE EAST CRISIS:
soviet Union Conducts Secret
Diplomatic Soundings on War
Egyptians were forced to desert trucks, equipment and trenches at Rafah in the Gaza Strip yester-
day as Israeli troops advanced. Israel claimed vic tories while Egypt broke diplomatic relations with
the United States, charging that the U.S. is assisting Israel.
Arab Oil Nations Begin Boycott
Of, West for Support of Israel
Rusk De nies
Says Arabs Creating
Difficulties for U.S.
In Middle East Crisis
WASHINGTON (P) - Secretary
of State Dean Rusk yesterday de-
nounced Cairo's accusations that
U.S. planes are helping Israel in
the Middle East conflict.
In rejecting Cairo's charge of
intervention, Rusk touched indi-
rectly on the administration's con-
cern about possible violence di-
rected at U.S. citizens and prop-
erty in Arab countries.
"I think they are trying to cre-
ate difficulties for Americans in
the Near East," Rusk said in an-
swer to a question. Mobs assaulted
American and British embassies in
Beirut, Lebanon, and marched on
the U.S. Embassy in Cairo after
the intervention charges were air-
ed by Cairo radio.
These charges are utterly and
wholly false," the secretary said.
"We can only conclude this was
a malicious charge known to be
false and therefore invented for
some purpose yet to be ascer-
The State Deparment, in a note
delivered in predawn hours to the
Egyptian Embassy here, also said,
"there has been no participation
in any way by U.S. aircraft or
naval units. None are or have been
in the area."
The powerful U.S. 6th Fleet was
in the eastern Mediterranean,
hundreds of miles from the war
zone, officials said.
The Egyptian high command
claimed it had indisputable proof
that American and British naval
planes were engaged in large-scale
support of Israel. The U.S. and
British government denied the
Nasser said in a message to Arab
leaders that intervention of Brit-
ish and Americans planes in Jor-
dan and Egypt "had been as-
MOSCOW OP)-The Soviet Union did not discuss with Kozyrev the
conducted secret diplomatic sound- Arab charges of British and Amer-
ings on the Middle East war yes- ican planes aiding Israel. Both
terday while maintaining strict Washington and London have
silence on an apparent Arab bid emphatically denied the charges.
for Soviet aid. A British spoKesman described
The Soviet press, including the the ambassador's 20-minute meet-
government newspaper Izvestia, ing with Kozyrev as "part of the
made no mention of Arab chargesc
that U.S. and British planes were continuing contact on the Middle
aiding Israel. East question."
Diplomats here viewed the Arab A U.S. Embassy spokesman re-
charges as an implied appeal for fused comment when asked if a
Soviet aid. Some saw the charges U.S. representation had made a
as an attempt to lure the Russians
into the crsis to stave off a possi-
ble Arab defeat. State m
According to these sources, the 114
Soviet silence on the issue showed
a Kremlin reluctance to get di-
rectly involved in the war. S eek I ig j
Meanwhile the Soviet Union
continued diplomatic soundings
behind closed doors. CANJILON. N.M. (A)-A 500-
Premier Alexei N. Kosygin met man State Police and National
with Egyptian Ambassador Mo- Guard army were in the hills and
hammed Morad Ghaleb in the canyons of the. Carson National
Kremlin. The British ambassador, Forest yesterday trying to flush
Sir Geoffrey Harrison, called on out a band of armed Spanish-
Soviet Deputy Foreign Minister American fugitives.
Semyon P. Kozyrev. State Police Chief Joe Black
British sources said Harrison said the more than 30 fugitives'
BEIRUT, Lebanon ()-Arab na-
tions launched an oil squeeze on
the United States and Britain yes-
terday after Egypt's high com-
mand charged that carrier-based
U.S. and British navy planes were
fighting in support of Israel.
Although the Egyptian charge
was denied quickly and emphatic-
ally by the U.S. and British gov-
ernments, there were these ac-
* Two major producers, Kuwait
and Iraq, cut off the sale of oil
to Britain and the United States.
* Algeria announced a similar
decision, though so far as is
known, no Algerian oil goes direct-
ly to either country. In addition,
Algeria said "all British and
American companies are placed
under control of the state.." There
have been investments from both
command banned the loading of
in Algerian oil fields.
* In Beirut, the Lebanese high
any tankers with oil until further
notice. The Western-owned Iraqi
Petroleum Co. loads oil from Iraqi
fields at Tripoli, north of Beirut.
The Trans-Arabian Pipeline Co.
loads oil from Saudi Arabia at
Sidon, south of the Lebanese capi-
* Radio Damascus announced
that Syria joined the ban on oil
shipments, and all supplying or
loading of American and British
tankers with oil was prohibited.
* The Arab Labor Federation
called for "workers all over the
Arab world" to wreck Western
oil facilities. Radio Cairo urged:
"0 Arabs, destroy America's in-
stallations and sabotage its in-
similar call on the Soviet Foreign
Ministry. The spokesman agreed
that the possibility was not ex-
Izvestia also repeated demands
made in a Soviet government
statement Monday that Israel
"immediately and unconditional-
ly" stop all military actions
against the Arabs and withdraw
behind truce lines as an urgent
first step to ending the war. It
continued to charge Israel with
Representatives of oilproducing
Arab nations decided at a meeting
in Baghdad Monday they would
stop selling oil to any foreign
country that aided Israel in the
There was speculation that
Saudi Arabia and perhaps Libya
would join in the ban.
The story broadcast from Cairo
was that planes from U.S. and
British aircraft carriers attacked
Arab forces in Jordan and pro-
vided an air umbrella over Israel
on the Egyptian front.
King Hussein of Jordan, who
signed a mutual defense pact with
President Gamal Abdel Nasser
May 30 in a reversal of months
:f acrimony, was identified as the
Radio Cairo said Hussein phoned
Nasser early in the day and re-
ported Jordanian radar networks
had detected the American and
British activity. It did not report
how the nationality of the planes
was determined, but the Egyptian
high command said the proof was
The United States and Britain,
which have announced neutrality
in the conflict, issued immediate
"This is not so," a Foreign Of-
fice spokesman said in London.
The U.S. State Department de-
clared: "Such allegations are to-
tally false and fabricated. There
has been no participation in any
way by U.S. aircraft or naval units.
None are or have been in the
As to the effects of the cut-off,
the war isn't likely to cause an oil
shortage in the United States. If
prolonged and broadened, how-
ever, it could cut deeply into sup-
plies of Western Europe, Japan,
Australia and New Zealand.
Oil from all the Arab countries
made up only about 400,000 of the
12 million barrels of crude oil con-
sumed daily in the United States
in 1966. American wells could more
than take up the slack. On the
other hand, Western Europe gets
about 75 per cent of its oil from
the Arab countries.
A sidelight concerns the Viet-
nam war. The Defense Depart-
ment said a substantial part of the
petroleum supplies the United
States is now using in Southeast
Asia comes from the Middle East.
It add-: "However, sufficient alter-
nate supplies are available and
would be used if necessary."
By The Associated Press
NEW YORK-The stock market
recovered yesterday almost all of
the steep loss sustained, Monday
in jittery trading at the outbreak
of te Middle East war. Trading
Brokers attributed the rebound
to reports of Israeli victories over
Arab forces which they said en-
couraged investors to think the
United States will not become in-
*"The Israeli victories really
turned the market around very
strongly," one Wall Streeter said.
The Dow Jones average of 30
industrial stocks closed up 14.94
points gt 862.71, its widest gain
since a rise of 19.54 on Oct. 12,
1966. The average had closed down
15.54 points Monday.
The average price per share of
all common stock traded on the
New York Stock Exchange.
S* * *
has been accused of being an
enemy of Mao Tse-tung, was
brought before Red Chinese kan-
garoo courts of the army, 'navy,
air force and military school last
month, a Japanese report from
Peking said yesterday.
Asahi's Peking-based correspon-
dent said this was reported in a
series of photographs of Lo and
other disgraced anti-Maoists army
leaders posted on the walls of Pe-
WASHINGTON - The Federel
Communications Commission is
trying to determine whether ra-
diotelephone calls from wounded
servicemen in the Vietnam area
are being jammed deliberately by
a ham operator in the Watts area
of Los Angeles.
As a result of complaints from
other amateur operators, including
a retired Marine Corps general,
the agency said it has started close
monitoring of West Coast radio
were led by Reies Lopez Tijerina
in a shooting raid late Monday
against the courthouse at Tierra
Amarilla, north of Canjilon.
The armed band fled into the
forest after holding the court-
house about two hours. Two of-
ficers were shot and wounded and
about 20 persons held hostage
during the raid.
Tijerina, about 40, is the leader
of a militant effort to press claims
to thousands of acres in northern
New Mexico, most of it national
forest lands, under old Spanish
While the search army worked
its way through a 2,500 square
mile area of forest and found little
activity, State Police did find and
arrest one of the Tijerina organ-
ization's leaders, Jerry Noll of
Chief Black said Noll, found in
Navajo Canyon sout of Canjilon,
was taken to Santa Fe and jailed.
Noll, one of five men under fed-
eral charges involving a camp-
ground takeover last October, had
been sought several weeks on a
Noll and Tijerina generally stay-
ed close together, Chief Black said,
and more searchers were sent into
the Navajo Canyon area.
The chief said it might take a
few days to run down the fugitives.
He said every bush, trail, cabin
and canyon in the forest would
be checked. He said a few of the
fugitives might have slipped out
of the area and could be working
their way south.
former army chief of
Use Our Convenient
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