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May 25, 1967 - Image 3

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Michigan Daily, 1967-05-25

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THURSDAY, MAY 25, 19f 7

THr MICHIGAN DAIL'Y'

THURSDAY, MAY 25, 1967 THE MICHIGAN DAILY

A.. t7 V.9

Arab-Israeli Crisis in Middle

East

U.S. Seeks
Conference
Of Big Four
No UN Action; Russia
Asks American Exit
From Mediterranean
UNITED NATIONS, N.Y.-The
United States announced yester-
day its readiness to join with the
Soviet Union, France and Britain
both within and outside the Unit-
ed Nations to prevent war in the
Middle East.
But the Soviet Union, while not
rejecting outright any call for
"Big Four" talks, countered with a
demand that the United States and
Britain withdraw their fleets from
the Mediterranean.
The US.-Soviet exchange took
place at an afternoon session of
the U.N. Security Council, where
U.S. Ambassador Arthur J. Gold-
berg announced the United States
is willing to take part in big four
talks as proposed in Paris by
French government officials.
Goldberg delivered an appeal
also for council support for Sec-
retary-General U Thant in his
personal peace mission to Cairo.
Thant Return
A U.N. spokesman announced
last night Secretary-General U
Thant probably will leave Cairo
this morning for New York, a full
day ahead of his previously sched-
uled return from his peace mis-
sion.
The council adjourned at 6:13
p.m. without -setting a date for
another meeting. It is thought
unlikely that there will be any ac-
tion before Thant's return tonight.
In a speech that sided with the
R Arabs and criticized Israel, Soviet
Ambassador Nikolai T. Fedorenko
said that if Washington and Lon-
don really wanted to relax Middle
East tensions they should first of
all "withdraw from the Mediter-
ranean their fleets, which consti-
tute one of the most serious causes
of tension in that part of the
world."
Supports Arabs
Fedorenko read out the full text
of the official Soviet statement re-
leased Monday affirming support
for the Arab countries against any
aggression.
Elaborating on the U.S. drive
for peace in the Middle East, Gold-
berg told the council: "I am au-
thorized to announce that the
United States, both within and
outside the United Nations, is
prepared to join with all the
other great powers-the Soviet
Union, the United Kingdom and
France-in a common effort to
restore and maintain peace in the
Middle East."
He said that all must join in
the search for peace-the sec-
retary-general, the Security Coun-
cil, and the 'great powers.
"Both separately and together
let us work in this common cause."
In effect Goldberg was voicing
U.S. acceptance of the proposal by
the French that the four powers
consult, but he also pressed for
action in the 15-nation council.
Formal Resolution
Denmark and Canada submitted
a formal resolution to have the
council express its full support for
Thant and request member nations
to refrain from any steps that
might worsen the situation.
Egyptian Ambassador Mohamed
el Kony told the council the reso-
lution represented an attempt to
sabotage Thant's mission. He ac-
cused Denmark and Canada of
acting on behalf of the United
States and Britain in seeking the

council meeting.
El Kony did not say anything
J about mining the entrance to the
Gulf of Aqaba. But Israeli Ambas-
sador Gideon Rafael said such re-
ports had been received in his
country. Rafael cited statements
by his government that attempts
to block the gulf would amount to
an act of aggression.
'Utmost Gravity'
"The action of Egypt," he said,
"constitutes a challenge of the ut-
most gravity not only to Israel
but to the whole international
community."
At the start of Wedn asday's ses-
sions the Soviet Union objected to
council action at this time.
Fedorenko suggested that the
Imeetings real purpose was to
throw a smokescreen over U.S.
plans to intervene in the Middle
East.'
Expressions of support for Fed-
*orenko's objection to a council
meeting at this time came from
France, India, Bulgaria and Mali.
Burying Head
Goldberg replied that not to
consider the crisis immediately
would be like the United Nations
burying its head in the sand. He

*

*

*

Arab Bloc Mobilizes

-Associated Press

Aerial Map of Troubled Area

Removal of UN Forces
Seen as U ThantI Blunder

BEIRUT, Lebanon (A) - The
United States, Britain, and France
sought yesterday to focus interna-
tional pressure for peace on the
Middle East but Arab nations
toughened their military challenge
to Israel.
Egypt moved to enforce its
threat of blockading the Gulf of
Aqaba by mining the Strait of
Tiran, where the Gulf meets the
Red Sea, Cairo's authoritative
newspaper Al Ahram reported. It
said Eygptian planes and torpedo
boats were patrolling the area.
As far as was known, the block-
ade had no immediate effect op
Israeli shipping. Lloyds of London,
the international shipping under-
writers, said it knew of no vessels
of any country heading for the
gulf of leaving Elath, the Israeli
'port at its head.
Iraq Sends Forces
Saudi Arabia ordered general
mobilization of its forces, and
Iraq said it would send land and
air forces to support Egypt and
Syria.
King Hussein of Jordan urged
Arab leaders to unite in-the face
of what he called Israel's threat.
It was announced that Jordan
had granted permission for troops
from Iraq and Saudi Arabia to
move into Jordan as part of over-
all Arab military planning.
A series of border incidents be-
tween Israel and Syria touched
off the crisis. It reached explosive
dimensions Monday with a threat
by Egypt's President Gamal Abdel
Nasser to blockade the Gulf of
Aqaba.
Israel has said it would fight to
reopen the 125-mile waterway, its
direct sea route to Asia and East
Africa.
Thant in Cairo
Meanwhile in Cairo, UN Sec-
retary-General U Thant was re-
ported "highly disturbed" at the
convening of a UN Security Coun-
cil session in New York on the
Mideast crisis during his absence.
Thant's displeasure was report-
ed as he held his first talks with
Egyptian President Nasser to dis-
cuss a peace formula based on
creation of a revamped Egyptian-
Israeli mixed armistice commis-
sion on an eleventh-hour effort
to head off war.

Highly qualiifed sources said the
armistice commission envisaged
by Thant would be under United
Nations supervision and would be
similar to the one dissolved in
1956 following Israel's refusal to
participate.
Mixed Commission
Egyptian sources said Egypt
would be willing to endorse estab-
lishment of such a mixed commis-
sion.
The semi-official Egyptian news-
paper Al Ahram said yesterday
that Nasser has reacted "sympa-
thetically" to UN Secretary-Gen-
eral U Thant's efforts to avert.an
Arab-Israeli war.
The paper, which often reflects
Nasser's political thinking, said
the Egyptian leader was willing to
"facilitate" Thant's mission to
Cairo.
Brown in Moscow
British Foreign Secretary George
Brown appealed in a public lecture
in Moscow for Soviet help in re-
turning a UN presence to the area.
He referred to the UN Emer-
gency Force, removed by Thant at
Egypt's request last week from po.
sitions along the Egyptian-Israeli
border where it had kept the
peace following the Suez war.
Brown discussed the crisis with
Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei A.
Gromyko and Premier Alexi N.
Kosygin. Sources said he asked the
Soviets to urge restraint in Cairo
and Damassus.
Eban to U.S.
Israeli Foreign Minister Abba
Eban flew toward New York, stop-
ping on the way for talks with
French President Charles de
Gaulle and Prime Minister Wil-
son. Israeli sources said Eban
would demand that U.S. officials
clarify their intentions in the
crisis and would remind them of
previous American assurances of
support for Israel against Arab
attack.
President Johnson reviewed the
Middle East situation at a meet-
ing with the National Security
Council and also met during the
day with Dr. Mostafa Kamel, am-
bassador of the United Arab Re-
public.
George Christan, White House
press secretary, said no decisions

By MAX HARRELSON
Associated Press News Analyst
UNITED NATIONS, N.Y. (IP)-
Many U.N. diplomats are saying
privately that U Thant may have
blundered by assuming that Gamal
Abdel Nasser really wanted the
U.N. Emergency Force withdrawn
from Egyptian territory.
Their theory is that Nasser was
making a grandstand play for the
benefit of the other Arab countries
and that he was surprised by the
quick move of the secretary-gen-
eral to accede to Egypt's request
to pull out the 3,400-man force.
Friday Decision
Thant announced his decision
on Friday. The night before, one
member of Nasser's delegation pri-
vately had expressed the belief
that the problem could be worked
out. He noted a 1961 precedent
when Egypt wanted to occupy
some posts held by the emergency
force. At that time commanders
on the scene settled the problem.
Some diplomats argue that
Thant could have taken any one
of several courses to make sure
there was no way out except to
bow to Nasser's demand. One
course might have been a persnoal

appeal-perhaps face to face-to
the Egyptian leader. Another could
have been a request for such an
appeal by the Security Council or
by key members of the United
Nations.
Most agree that if all such
measures had been exhausted, the
secretary-general would then have
had no alternative except to with-
draw the forces. It has always
been accepted at the United Na-
tions that peacekeeping forces can
be sent to a country only with
that country's consent and that
once this consent is withdrawn the
forces have to pull out.
Why was Thant in a hurry to
accede to Nasser's request?
His explanation was that the
U.N. force could not function with-
out the continuing consent and
cooperation of the host country.
He expressed concern over the pos-
sibility that refusal to accede
might endanger men of the seven
countries making up the force.
Sinai Desert
One of his top advisers said
Thant had to act quickly because
Egyptian forces alreadyl had be-
gun to occupy some of the posts
held by Yugoslav units of the force

in the Sinai Desert. It was learned
from other sources that both,
Yugoslavia and India, allies of the
Nasser government, threatened to
pull their contingents out of the
U.N. force unless Thant yielded to
the Egyptian demands at once.
Critics of Thant's action, while
not willing to identify themselves
with such speculation, even sug-
gest that his decision may have
been influenced by his long friend-
ship with Nasser. As a Burmese,
Thant was active in Asian-African
meetings before becoming sec-
retary-general. He has had numer-
ous meetings with the Egyptian
leader since he became secretary-
general.
U.S. 'Dismayed'
President Johnson said the
United States was "dismayed at
the hurried withdrawal" without
reference to U.N. voting. U.S. Am-
bassador Arthur J. Goldberg, was
among diplomats who tried to per-
suade Thant to delay action.
Canada and Brazil, with units
in the U.N. force, expressed the
belief that he should refer the
matter to the General Assembly,
but they did not press this.
U.N. officials have taken the
position that, although the as-
sembly authorized the force in
1956 it was the secretary-general
who organized it and negotiated
the agreement to put it on Egyp-
tian soil. This, they say, placed the
responsibility for action in Thant's
hands.
Critics suggest he could have at
least delayed action by referring
the Egyptian demand to the Gen-
eral Assembly or the Security
Council and that this delay might
have enabled Nasser to back down
on his demand-if he was seeking
such an opportunity.
There is little chance now, di-
plomats believe, to win a reprieve
for the U.N. forces.

Morse Asks U.S. Acion
Against Israel Blockade

Nasser's Long Quest
For Arab World Role

By WILLIAM L. RYAN
Associated Press News Analyst
"For some reason," wrote Gamal
Abdel Nasser long ago, "it seems
that within the Arab circle there
is a role, wandering aimlessly."
In those words probably lay the
philosophy which has motivated
him ever since. A philosophy
which, time after time, seemed to
drive him to the brink of inter-
national disaster.
The Egyptian president has
tried to fill that dimly defied role
involving an almost mystic feeling
of "Arabism" and a dream of see-
ing Arabs united over a vast area
from the Persian Gulf to the west-
ern reaches of North Africa.
Egypt at Centerffi
As Nasser saw it in his pam-
phlet, "Egypt's Liberation," he and
Egypt were at the center of two
vast geographic circles-the Arab
world and, around it, the African
continent. Areas which would play
a major role in shaping mankind's
future.
Stepping into this role as leader
of this concept Nasser was con-
stantly baffled by the chronic dis-
unity of "Arab unity." Religion
and nationalism tended to tie
Arabs together. But their own dis-
sensions, disputes and ancient
jealousies continued to tear them
apart.
Nasser, constantly damning the
19th century and the ghosts of
"colonialism and imperialism,"
blamed the West for the Arab
world's backwardness, divisions
and confusions. He never got over
the traumatic experience and the
bitterness of Egypt's defeat. He
blamed Israel's creation on the
West, and vowed to rally "revolu-
tionary forces against imperial-
ism."
Suez Crisis
In 1956 Nasser nationalized the
Suez Canal, touching off the most
dangerous Middle East crisis of
that decade.
France, Britain and Israel joined

quarrels with Saudi Arabia and
Jordan, all tended to tarnish his
image as the leader of all Arabs.
Nasser turned for a while to-
ward Egypt's internal problems,
working long hours every day,
listening to advisers but making
decisions alone.
Perhaps, some thought, Nasser
in 1967 was seeking to refurbish
his image as he edged closer and
closer to new and dangerous crisis
--impelled as ever by his pursuit
of the aimlessly wandering role.

WASHINGTON {P) - Wayne
Morse and other senators called
for immediata U.S. action to chal-
lenge Egypt's blockade against Is-
rael yesterday while other coun-
seled against any singlehanded
moves.
As U.S. and British officials
confered urgently on a joint pol-
icy in the Middle East crisis,
Morse (D-Ore), told the Senate:
"American ships should be sent
through that strait now."
Voicing similar sentiments, Sen.
Harrison A. Williams (D-NJ)
said:
"I call for this country to im-
mediately exercise its rights."
Williams said the United States
should ask Britain, France and
other nations to join in chal-
lenging the blockade proclaimed

World News Rot
WASHINGTON-- House Dem- Rep. Albert H. Quie (R-Minn),
ocrats, hitting hard on the threat would have replaced the present
of a revived religious controversy, system of direct federal grants to
turned back yesterday a Repub- the states. There would be a single
lican proposal to put federal plan for each state.
school aid under state control. House Speaker
The 197-168 vote was a major John McCormack said the Quie
victory for President Johnson, who amendment would "rend the deli-
hailed passage of the school aid cate fabric of compromise" that
program two years ago as his made possible enactment of the
proudest legislative achievement. Elementary and Secondary School
Republicans called the church- Act in 1965.
state issue a fantasy and accused
the Democrats of ssuing it to be- COLUMBIA, S.C.- A Special{
cloud the issue, but there was Forces combat veteran testified in
little doubt it was an important military court yesterday that U.S.
factor in the vote, soldiers in Vietnam turned their
Parochial schools are now par- backs on brutal treatment of pris-
ticipating in federally aided pro- oners by South Vietnamese during
grams for poor children, and 1964-65.
Roman Catholic educators have "When it started, you would
urged Congress to keep the ex- turn around and light a cigarette,"
isting program intact, said Donald W. Duncan of Berke-
The GOP proposal, offered by ley, Calif., who left the Army in
o You Enjoy Acting
But, Are You Nervous . UNIONLEAGUE
JOIN

indup
1965 after 18 months in Vietnam.
Duncan has written a book about
the war and is military editor of
Ramparts Magazine.
Duncan was called by the de-
fense in the court-martial of Capt.
Howard B. Levy accused of dis-
obeying orders to train Special
Forces medics at Ft. Jackson Army
Hospital near Columbia.
Duncan was the final witness in
the defense effort to prove Levy's
contention that the orders to train
Special Forces aid-men, or med-
ics, were illegal on the ground that
Special Forces troops commit war
crimes banned by international
law.
Col. Earl V. Bronw, military
judge, recessed the trial until 1
p.m. today to review testimony
and points of law before ruling on
the admissibility of war crimes
evidence, to the full 10-member
tribunal.

by Egyptian President Gamel Ab-
dul Nasser.
Israel depends heavily on oil
shipments through the Red Sea
and up the Gulf of Elath.
Senate 'Democratic Leader Mike
Mansfield of Montana told the
Senate, however, that this country
must not intervene unilaterally.
And Sen. Bourke B. Hickenlooper
(R-Iowa) advised against any im-
mediate challenge of the blockade.
"Let's see if, for once, the Unit-
ed Nations can do what it is sup-
posed to do and never has really
done," Hickenlooper said.
Mansfield told the Senate that
members of the Foreign Relations
Committee advised Secretary of
State Dean Rusk in forceful terms
that there should be no unilateral
intervention by this country.
Morse joined Senate leaders in
urging U.N. action, but he said
American rights on the high seas
should be reasserted at once.
"We must not permit the pas-
sage of time," Morse said. For
otherwise Nasser and his Russian
friends may argue that the block-
ade represents a status quo that
cannot be altered.
Moscow Opportunity
Sen. J. Fulbright (D-Ark),
chairman of the Foreign Relations
Committee, told the Senate that
the Soviet Union has a, singular
opportunity, through its great in-
fluence with the Arab nations, to
work for peace.
If Moscow would take the ini-
tiative in the Middle East, Ful-
bright said, it might also lead to
a peacemaking effort in Vietnam
through the United Nations.
Administration legal experts
made it clear to newsmen that the
United States holds to its long-
standing position that the gulf is
an international waterway and
that Egypt has no right to control
shipping through the Strait of
Tiran, the narrow passage leading
to the gulf.

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