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July 13, 1960 - Image 1

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Michigan Daily, 1960-07-13

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NEED CONCERN
)R AVERAGE CHILD
See Page 2

Seventieth Year of Editorial Freedom

:43 a4hr
ti

CLOUDY, WARM
High-83
Low-65
Possible showers this morning,
with later cooling.

LXX, No. 16.

ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, WEDNESDAY, JULY 13, 1960

FIVE CENTS

FOUR PAGES

.S. L ashes Bac at Russian Spy

Plane Charges

Says Craft Downed
Outside Red Border
Warns Russia Not To Repeat Acts;
Reserves Right To Ask Damages
By The Associated Press
The United States yesterday lashed back at Russian charges the
RB-47 bomber shot down July 1 was on a spy mission.
In warning the Soviet government, the United States asserted
Russian planes shot down the reconnaissance bomber over interna-
tional waters, at least 30 miles from Soviet territory. It demanded
the release of the two Air Force officers being held by the Soviets.
In the note, delivered in Moscow last night, it issued this warn-
ing: "It should be clear to the Soviet government that repetition of
acts of this nature cannot fail to have the most serious consequences,
responsibility for which would rest on the Soviet government alone."
4The United States also reserved

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.Sex ton Cites,
'crucial Role'
Of Teachers'
By ANDREW HAWLEY
"There can be no question that
teachers will play a crucial role
in this country's destiny," Brendon
Sexten of the United Auto Work-
ers said yesterday.
Speaking before the thirty-first
annual Summer Education Con-
ference, Sexton, who is currently
UAW coordinator of educational
organizations, said labor unions
have significantly influenced the
development of public education
in the United States.
Although we have made educa-
tional opportunities available on a
far greater scale than any other
country, schools have sickened and
declined in spite of growing pros-
perity, he said.
Sexton cited the evidence of the
1950 census which showed 9.6 mil-
lion illiterates over the age of 25.
'Engaged in a Race'
"We are engaged in a race be-
tween education and catastrophe,"
he said.
He deplored the over-emphasis
of the need for scientists and tech-
nicians, saying intelligent workers
in the political and social sciences
are equally necessary to adapt
society to the changing needs and
equipment of its members.
He also warned against plan-
ning education to meet the needs
of economic and military competi-
tion with Russia, rather than to
benefit the American school child.
Urges Rejection
Sexton urged rejection of all
proposals to deal with the prob-
lem of education in a restricted
manner, "New York City has an
extensive program for the gifted,
but the majority of its children
cannot read," he said.
We should be cautious about
making the gifted children an
elite, he continued, because our
standards of "giftedness" are in-
accuraet and arbitrary. Selection
is based on Intelligent Quotient,
or IQ, which is not synonymous
with intelligence.
Selection for advanced training
based on family income would be
more honest, he suggested, since
it is the child from an upper-
income family who is given the
best training from an early age,
ad who will stay in school longer.
Child Caught
"The child in a lower-income
family Is caught in a down-spiral
of educational neglect," Sexton
said. The parent usually will do
for his child what his parents did
for him.
Support for a program to im-
prove the ability of children to
manipulate Words and dates, as
well as programs to benefit chil-
dren who because of family back-
ground already have such ability,
is necessary if we wish to main-
tain out democratic principles, he
said. An informed electorate is
necessary for a democratic society.
Besides the effect on the chil-
dren themselves, economic and
social waste are also a collective
result of educational discrimina-
tion, Sexton said.
We have a choice to accept the
political weight of our professional
responsibility toward all of our
children.
Ro efeller
Sees threat

the right to demand full compen-
sation from the USSR for shooting
down the plane.
International Incident
Delivery of the diplomatic warn-
ing came some hours after White
House press secretary James C.
Hagerty, on President Dwight D.
Eisenhower's behalf, characterized
the destruction of the aircraft as
a deliberate and reckless attempt
to create an international inci-
dent.
The United States told the
Soviet government that the plane
was on an entirely legitimate mis-
sion over international waters.
It said the mission was one of a
series of electro-magnetic research
flights well-known to the Soviet
government to have taken place
over a period of more than ten
years.
Rejects Charge
Thus Washington rejected Mos-
cow's charge and the protest note
of Monday that the plane was on
an espionage mission heading in
the direction of the Soviet port of
Archangel.
In its formal note, the United
States also:
1) Demanded a representative
of the United States embassy be
allowed to see without delay the
two Air Force officers Russia is
holding.
Cynical Failure
2) Rejected Soviet protests again
and decried the cynical failure of
the Soviet government to disclose
for 11 days what it knew of the
plane's fate.
3) Offered to undertake in co-
operation with the Soviet govern-
ment and perhaps others, a
thorough search for the downed
plane and the three missing crew
members. This appeared to be a
challenge to the Russians to join
in finding out just where the air-
craft went down.
4) Scored the Russian claim that
our RB-47 flight was linked to
the U2 incident of May in a pat-
tern of espionage, saying these
flights were, as must be known to
the Soviet government, of an en-
tirely different character.
5) Accused the USSR of wilful
misrepresentation and misstate-
ment of fact in its protest note of
Monday.

U.S. ACTS:
Refuses
Congo 's
Alid .Plea
WASHINGTON (P)-The United
States swiftly turned down yester-
day a Congo plea that American
troops be rushed to the revolt-
torn African republic to help re-
store order.
But top officials reluctantly kept
the door open for the possibility
that American troops might be
sent to the newly-created nation
as part of a United Nations force
if one is agreed on.
These authorities showed little
enthusiasm for involving United
States forces even in a limited UN
role in the African crisis. The
administration attitude appeared
to be that the Congo's African
neighbors could better provide any
necessary troops. Responsible offi-
cials reported the decision to avoid
Ike's View
NEWPORT UP)- The White
House said yesterday President
Dwight D. Eisenhower feels
that any troops needed to re-
store order in the riot-ridden
Congo should be provided by
countries other than the United
States.
The President and Secretary
of State Christian A. Herter
also feel, White House press
secretary James C. Hagerty
told a news conference, that
"it would be better for the
Congo" if troops were not sent
there "from any of the large
Western nations."
single-handed action within two
hours after the state department
officially confirmed that the 13-
day-old Congo government had
appealed for American troops.
Urgently Requested
A Belgian cabinet minister in
Leopoldville reported that 3,000
American troops had been urgent-
ly requested to join Belgian and
loyal Congolese troops.
This development forced Secre-
tary of State Christian A. Herter
to a last-moment cancellation of
a scheduled trip to Canada for
defense and foreign policy talks
with Canadian leaders. Herter
stayed at his desk instead of giv-
ing full attention to the Congo
problem.
Officially, the state department
disclosed only that the Congo re-
gime formally appealed this morn-
ing for American troop aid.
Vigorously Denied
A department spokesman vigor-
ously denied that Clare H. Tim-
berlake, United States ambassador
to the Congo, had agreed in prin-
ciple that the American troops
would be dispatched. Timberlake
promised only, said the spokes-
man, to transmit the Congo ap-
peal to Washington.

Platf or-m
Sa Kennedy
Nears Total
For Victory
Senator Needs 20
Votes for Triumph
By The Associated Press-
Sen. John F. Kennedy of Massa-
chusetts moved within 20 votes<
tonight of the 761-vote majority
needed to win the Democratic
presidential nomination.
On the eve of the actual ballot-
ing, an Associated Press tabula-
tion showed Kennedy had 743
votes. CHALLENGERS MEET
The Kennedy drive toward the Democratic s
top continued despite a momen-
tary faltering earlier yesterday CONVENTION
when the California delegation
gave him less than% a majority of
its 81 votes. i n y d n o
Totals showed Kennedy now Paty
has 743 votes, Sen. Lyndon B.
Johnson, 335, Sen. Stuart Symin-
ton, 97, and Adlai E. Stevenson, By THOMAS HAYD]
73. Special to The Daily
The California delegation denied1 LOS ANGELES-Many
Kennedy the big majority he crats here admit Richary
needed - and expected -- from has made one importantr
that 81-vote lineup for on-the- ment in his eight years in
record assurance of the nomina- menhset earsbin
tion. he has created a public im
Breaking up its coalition behind f the importance of t
favorite son Gov. Edmund G. nPresidency
(Pat) Brown, California's delega-h In doing so, he may hav
tion gave Kennedy 30%/ votes and the Democrats - and spe
pushed his total to 736 on the eve John Kennedy - to veer f
of the nominating session. (Ken- unknowns in their selectio
nedy later added nine more votes.) nominee for the number t
But that left him still shy of the on the November ticket.
needed 761. Given the possible non
Ineee 761. s m of Henry Cabot Lodge as
In a group of 951/2 still com- ! publican Vice-Presidential
mitted to others were 21 Kansas date, the Democrats are
votes which Gov. George Docking, for a public figure of eq
the favorite son, was trying t ortanc
shove to Kennedy. portance.
So far, the main pos
There still were 150 uncom- have been difficult to acq
mitted votes.

oil

Civil

Democrats

Adopt

-A
-Sens. John Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson, front-runners at pres
weepstakes, met yesterday for a debate before the Texas delegation.
CLOSEUP-:*

Strong
Rights
4
Turn Down
r ,From South,
Convention Accepts
Policy Statements
As Campaign Basis
LOS ANGELES (A-By a roar-
ing voice vote, the Democratic
national convention last night
voted down a 10-state Southern
attempt to kill the civil rights
plank in the party platform.
It went on the endorse a plat-
P wlrephoto form demanding a buildup in na-
sent in the tional "military, political, eco-
nomic and moral" strength.
Gov. Leroy Collins of Florida,
the convention chairman, got al-
most as many noes as yeas in the
voice vote on the platform. In-
deed, it seemed as if the noes
Imight be the louder.
But Collins didn't hesitate. He
ruled the platform was adopted.
There were cheers and catcalls
leclared for from the audience, and some-
where far back someone blew a
aan, Minne- blast on a trumpet.
ert Humph- Always Comes Up
aling to la- The convention spent more than
the farmer, an hour wrangling over civil
Southerners. rights - an issue that always
fling comes up when the Democratic
The senator platform is under consideration.
to actively But this time the fight was not
, since one nearly as hard nor nearly as dra,-
ight kill his matic as Southern flare-ups In
in the Sen- the past.
:umphrey is When Gov. Leroy Collins of
Re u ther s Florida, the convention chairman,
ig beenthe asked for the yeas and nays he
gs, butheis had a loud roar from both sides.
s, but he s-Attempt Beaten
of the can- But Collins waited only a mo-
Ly may not ment before saying the noes have
e on him. it, and the South's attempt to get
will d a milder civil rights plank was
ominal head beaten
pt the vice- Delegates from 10 Southern
ul men like states protested that the civil
n are push- rights proposal went too far and
enson ticket. that they are being subjected to
ter a campaign of studied vilification.
If he can Sen. Sam Erwin of Nqrth Car-
amount of olina presented a proposal to
ing between strike the plank.
y's, Johnson This came after a minority re-
by accepting port by James H. Gray, chairman
nomination, of the Georgia delegation.
and personal One of the most forceful speak-
ern support, ers to address the convention,
ae is disliked Gray drew cheers from Southern
;ro. delegates when he said, "Increas-
is of Michi- ingly, the loyalty of the people of
own around the South to their party has been
ties are the repaid with scolding and deris-
ion."

EN
Demo-
d Nixon
achieve-
office-
pression
e Vice-
e forced
ecifically
rom the
n of the
two spot
mination
the Re-
l candi-
looking
qual im-
sibilities
uire for

the various reasons. Three, for
example, are presidential possi-
bilities. Another is apprehensive
about actively campaigning for;
the nomination.
To complicate matters, Sen.3
Kennedy has masterfully let drop1
the names of at least ten possi-
bilities, but may not commit him-
self on a final choice until his own9
nomination is secure.
Assuming Kennedy is the nomi-I
nee, the vice-presidential candi-+
date will probably need other as-
sets besides a name. He will need
a Western or mid-Western vote+
state, Protestant religion, appeal+
to either civil rights or farm ele-1
ment, where Kennedy is relatively +
weak, acceptibility to the South,
where Kennedy needs support, and
preferably, experience in foreign+
affairs, since that is the most+
critical issue in this campaign.
Possible Choices
The men who are now listed as'
possibilities:
Stuart Symington, a futile pres-
idential candidate, might swing+
to Kennedy's side and eventually
end up a vice-presidential candi-
date. Symington is well liked by'
NAACP officials, and can bring a
strong knowledge of defense issues
to the campaign.
Sen. Henry S. Jackson, Wash-
ington state; a Westerner, 'Jack-
son has considerable experience in
United States foreign policy prob-
lems. He's useful, a good cam-'

paigner, and has d
Kennedy.
Gov. Orville Freem
sota; Backed by Hub
rey, Freeman is appe
bor, the Negro, and'
but is not beloved byf
Humphrey Wi
Hubert Humphrey;
is willing, but afraid
seek the nomination
more loss this year m
chances for reelection
ate in November. H
reportedly Walter
choice, and has lon
darling of the liberal
the most controversial
didates, and Kenned
want to take a chanc
Adlai Stevenson; It
cult to persuade the n
of the party to accer
presidency, but forcef
Staebler and Harrima
ing the Kennedy-Stev
Johnson Bit
Lyndon Johnson;
overcome a certain
bitterness now existi
his camp and Kenned
could unite the partyk
the vice-presidential
His broad experiencea
strength, plus Southe
would be assets, but h
by labor and the Neg
G. Mennen William
gan. His name is thn
often, but his liabili
same as Humphrey's.

Kennedy Flicks Off blows
Delivered by Sen. Johnson
LOS ANGELES UP)-John F. Kennedy invaded the Texas delega-
tion yesterday and flicked off verbal blows aimed at him by their
champion, Sen. Lyndon B. Johnson.
Kennedy, the 43-year-old Massachusetts senator who has built
up a heavy lead for the Democratic presidential nomination, had
nothing but kind words for his rival from Texas.
Johnson had some kind words for Kennedy, but he also cut
loose with some fast jabs. Kennedy was content to shrug them off
without hitting back. Among other

GERMAN STAGE:
Says Theatre Has Problems

By MICHAEL BURNS
The current problems of the
theatre in West Germany are to
solve the restrained feeling of
youth's creativeness and inven-
tiveness and to relieve the per-
formers from the burden of rep-
ertory roles, Prof. Hugh Z. Norton
of the speech department said
yesterday.
Prof. Norton discussed his ex-
periences in West Germany last
year where he said he "observed
as an American," not as an expert
on the German theatre.
The attitude that impressed him
the most was the extensiveness of
the new theatres, remarking that
"the creativity is startling." He
estimated that about 50-60 new
theatres have been constructed
there within the past 15 years,
many of them rated among the
finest in the world.
The attitude "is a Renaissance
mood," Prof. Norton said in de-
scribing the West German ad-
vances, "not only in artistic ex-
cellence. but inventiveness as

"The place of the theatre in
West Germany is in the center of
German life," he explained. It is
"supported and hungred for" by
individuals and by groups.
The national concern with the
theatre has introduced the "fam-
ily" concept to German produc-
tions. That is the plays and
theatres are directed and built
so as to include the-audience as
a part of the action. The direct-
ing has been less advanced in this
manner than the stage architec-
ture, he stressed.
Without Distinction
Architects have attempted to
design fewer boxes without dis-
tinction and the sense of separ-
ation that is present in most
theatres.
"Anything they think of,. they
try," he said. Television monitor-
ing for operatic performances and
very deep stages are two notable
innovations of the German dra-
matic stage. The innovations may
not be, original, but the approach
is fresh, he pointed out.

things, Johnson poked at Ken-
nedy's;record on farm legislation,
on his absence during .votes on
civil rights legislation, and he im-
plied that Kennedy lacked the
maturity and experience required
of a president.
Not Specific
In rebuttal, Kennedy said that
while Johnson had made some
references about the shortcomings
of other candidates, he was not
specific and he assumed the Texan
was talking about someone else.
Kennedy said that if he wins the
presidential nomination, it will be
because he had observed the way
Johnson operates around the
United States Senate and has
learned the lesson well.
For some time there was doubt
whether the face-to-face debate
between the two senators, pro-
posed by Johnson at an early
morning news conference, would
come off at all.
Both Men Spar
Both men had sparred at arm's
length over the terms on which
they would .meet.
An expectant crowd jammed
into the Biltmore Hotel's big ball-
room. Johnson was first on the
scene, and while his Texas sup-
porters cheered, whistled and
shouted, he posed with arms aloft

PLA TFORM PRESENTED:
Emphasizes Foreign Policy

LOS ANGELES W)-A political
blueprint for "restoring our na-
tional strength-military, political,
economic and moral," was spread
before the Democratic national
convention last night.
In typical something-for-every-
body fashion, the party platform
ranged for 15,000 words over a
broad spectrum of foreign and
domestic issues.
Top items were civil rights at
home and Communist aggression
abroad.
Addressing itself to Soviet rulers
it said: "We confidently accept
your challenge to competition in
every field of human endeavor."
On national defense, the plat-
form pledged a recasting of this
nation's military capacity "in or-
der to provide forces and weapons
of a diversity, balance, and mobil-
ity sufficient in quantity and qual-
ity to deter both limited and gen-
eral aggression."
Pledge Energies
"We npedg enr will. energies

of a national peace agency to plan
and coordinate activities directed
toward international arms control
and eventual establishment of a
stable peace.
Promised Overhaul
It promised to overhaul admin-
istrative machinery so that this
country may avoid diplomatic em-
barrassments like the U.S. spy
plane incident.
In an obvious reference to the.
Eisenhower administration's for-
eign palicy, the platform declared
a fragile power balance sustained
by mutual nuclear terror does not
constitute peace.
A 4,200-word summary of the
full platform pledged a Demo-
cratic administration to use the
full power of the federal govern-
ment-legal and moral-to end
racial discrimination in public ed-
ucation, voting, employment, hous-
ing, transportation and in the ad-
ministration of justice.
Particularly galling to the Dixie
ri ,na n __ o a %1 fn- ,af- -,

programs. Acknowledging this will
cost money, the platform promised
new taxes if needed to finance
them.
No Tax Cut
"We will not allow political dis-
advantage to deter us from doing
what is necessary (with regard to
taxes)," it said.
However, it expressed belief
that new economic growth and a
tightening of tax collections would
provide enough additional reve-
nue.
No promise of a tax reduction
was held out.
The summary made no direct
mention of the Eisenhower ad-
ministration, but there were plenty
of indirect attacks on Republican
policies and actions.
Dig at Ike
In another indirect criticism of
the Republicans, the platform de-
clared the nation was on the
threshold of plenty, but that the
administration "hesitates, is con-

HUGH Z. NORTON
... German theatre

productions is the heavy load of
about 20 roles a year which an

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