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June 21, 1960 - Image 4

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Michigan Daily, 1960-06-21

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I, d-k 0 Mtlgan Emig
Seventieth Year
.- - EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
Opinions Are Free UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
Lbh Will ~ '?'~ STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. " ANN ARBOR, MiCH. * Phone NO 2-3241
orials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

AT THE CAMPUS:
Films Feature 'Love and Lust'

The Rule of Law:
A Series of Lectures

THE two films currently playing
at the Campus have little in
common except their subject-sex.
Top bill is given to "Forbidden
Fruit." Here the story is the same
sad old triangle, celebrated in in-
numerable languages and innum-
erable potboilers. There is the
middle-aged, successful man who
is oh, so weak. The prod, i.e. frigid
wife, and the secretary whose best

work is done in the bedroom. Even
the French can't give this plot
anything interesting if "Forbidden
Fruit" is an sample. Not cr"
cliche is overlooked, from jealousy
to near-ruin to touching reconcili -
ation.
* * *
AS A SPECIAL treat, however,
there is Fernandel - moreover
Fernandel in a Serious Role. Un-

r, JUNE 21, 1960

NIGHT EDITOR: MICHAEL BURNS

'U' Commencement:
A Personalized Pageant

'RADUATION from the University carries
two distinct connotations for each gradu-
ting senior.
The end of the matriculation period that
as theoretically given him a background of
udy to use as a working frame of reference
1 the future, either in liberal arts and sci-
aces or in a professional skill, is one of them.
And graduation means a ceremony involv-
1g some pomp and perhaps more inconven-
nce than circumstance; it is not justifiable
ragmatically, but ideally serves as a grace-
al punctuation mark at the close of the
andard college career.
N THE FIRST-MENTIONED connection,
graduation cannot help but be meaningful
or each senior. It is the time for him to make
traditional and very personal self-evaluation,
> compare his four years' achievement with
rigorous ideal-be it a "liberal education" or
igh craftsmanship.
The inevitable poignancy of commencement
that measured by this ideal, each individ-
al's accomplishment must be found wanting,
the measurement is conscientious. No one
an ever quite feel that his undergraduate
lucation has completely qualified him for his
iture. This realization comes to the student
erhaps as he gets to the mechanics of filling
ut his last semester's elections card with a
harp regret for the courses and teachers he
ill be unable to include in his program. It
ray come later. But it is unavoidable.
'HISFEELING of inadequacy may be ac-
cepted creatively. It may imply for the
idividual the whole concept of continuity of
ducation in life, and he may take up its
esponsibility and challenge with a strong
nmmitment tempered by the necessary un-
kehood of fulfillment.
Such an attitude of acceptance is undoubted-
among the implications of graduation re-
>ected and honored in the commencement
eremony. The presenting of the diploma
hich "testifies to the successful completion of
ae course of studies"-and much more-and
elcoming of graduates into the body of
lumni are a formal closing of the student's
)ntractual relationship with the University,
ad merit celebration,
T IS QUESTIONABLE whether in fact the
commencement ceremony is inherently
orthy of the attention and concern mani-

fested by the University-or whether this con-
cern is appropriately directed.
At a University whose prime recognition and
awareness is its own ponderous size and frag-
mentation, the very generality of the physical
and emotional significance of graduation may
well be bewildering. Sentimentalism, a historic
accretion of commencement, becomes over-
weening pomposity on the grand scale of the
University.
Instructions to graduating seniors taking
part in the exercises were naively yet pomp-
ously subtitled, "to avoid confusion and con-
sequent interference with the dignity of the
ceremony of conferring degrees." Realistically,
isn't .the efficiency of the ceremony the first
and real concern? Under conditions of hot
weather and crowds, dignity is not only sub-
ordinate to expedience, but cannot be main-
tained without it.
HOW LONG can one expect to impress (or
even divert) a large audience with a line
of graduates when only one of them is of in-
terest to the average spectator? The dignity
of spectacle, the appeal of pageantry depend
on timing, and yet the question of efficiency
apparently appears callous unless equated with
dignity.
Perhaps the seeming overconcern with the
essentially superficial show of commencement
-the emphasis on dignity President Hatcher
feels is reason to keep the examination period
brutally short-is dictated by a desire to avoid
the label of expedience often applied to Uni-
versity administrative machinery.
IN THE PRACTICAL operation of a univer-
sity the size and complexity of this one, a
certain amount of expedience is necessary (if
not always ethically satisfactory). And gradu-
ation exercises are one branch of this opera-
tion, after all. But they are more.
The overwhelming individual significance of
commencement is personal. It cannot be trans-
lated into a cast-of-thousands pageant with-
out losing some of its personal meaning. The
discrepancy between individual and mass
meaning is a familiar problem at the Univer-
sity, applicable in many areas.
In this one, the existence of the discrepancy
need not be a matter for real concern, how-
ever, since neither side of the balance detracts
from the other. Graduation and commence-
ment mean different things, but both are
meaningful.
-JEAN SPENCER

AT THE STATE:
'Five Branded Women'
Well-Made Picture
"FVE BRANDED WOMEN" is an extremely well made war melo-
drama that has truly exciting moments. It is marred somewhat by
a rather heavy-handed closing sequence in which the two principal
characters grit their teeth and assure each other that a "better day
when people can live together in peace" is coming.
The five females in the title were all residents of a German-occu-
pied Yugoslavian town during the last world war. Because they had
become "involved" with a German soldier, they were punished by the
partisans (the underground resistance army) by having their hair
unceremoniously hacked off. Despised by their compatriots and driven
from the town by the Germans because they are examples of the
partisans' power, they roam the countryside together. Their various
adventures while wandering hither and thither, at first alone and then
with partisans, form the bulk of the picture.
THIS MOVIE'S producer is Dino DeLaurentiis, who was also re-
sponsible for the film version of "War and Peace," in which the "glory,
color, and pomp" of war were presented with gilt-edged magnificence.
In his latest film, DeLaurentiis completely negates any notion that
war can be exciting or glamorous.
But with great restraint, he does not tell us this, rather he shows
it with grim horrible sequences that make their own points. One
particularly moving sequence is the one in which one of the girls is
forced to shoot the German officer she is just beginning to love, a
partisan prisoner, because he is trying to escape back to his own army.
(The pictures of the girl cradling his lifeless body in her arms are
simply unforgettable.) Both are likeable, wonderful people, but one
must destroy the other because there is a war on.
Each actor and actress in this film plays his or her part superbly.
In fact, they do not even seem to be acting, they are living their roles.
The only complaint in the acting department is that there are so
many parts that not much time can be spent on each character.
-Patrick. Chester

fortunately no one could take any-
one or anything in this picture.
seriously but Fernandel tries and
tries while the audience tries
equally hard to keep awake. For-
tunately, the secretary (Francoise
Arnoult) is busty enough to pro-
vide some incentive for male view-
ers to keep their eyes open.
Strindberg's "Of Love and Lust"
on the other hand is excellent.
The photography captures every
mood and nuance of very capable
actors. There is also a moral-
bittersweet but palatably served-
namely, sensuality can't be taken
out of love, that lust is what
makes the wheels of life go round.
* * *
THERE ARE TWO episodes, re-
lated only in that the two heroines
try to substitute "higher things"
for life's sensuality. The first wom-
an is afraid, turning to books and
contracting a Platonic -marriage
with a middle-aged teacher who
sorely regrets the Platonic portion
of the bargain.
As.he is pushed into a profes-
sorship and into Parliament by
his ambitious wife, he realizes that
he is trapped by his own lust. He
gets her body in return for intro-
ducting a bill supporting certain
women's rights in Parliament. He
has "sold his soul" as she has
"sold her body."
But that is the way it has al-.
ways been for man since women
discovered that either through
prostitution or marriage she could
earn a living from her body.
Man triumphs in the second part
as a handsome young navy officer
rescues his beautiful wife and his
idyllic marriage-they have noth-
ing in common but sex and plenty
of that-from the clutches of a
suffragette who advocates the
"higher things." To rescue both
wife and marriage, he seduces the
man-hater and makes a woman of
her, arousing his wife's jealousy.
This one is worth the price of
admission.
--Sarah Rowley

THE FOUNDERS of the United
States envisioned a govern-
ment of law and not of men. This
"Rule of Law principle is deeply
imbedded in Anglo-American con-
cepts of Justice.
The "Rule of Law" means that
the conduct of members of society

The lectures, sponsored by ti
Law School and the Summer Se
sion, are open to the public fr
of charge. The lectures take pla
at 4:15 p.m. in Rm. 120 Hutchi
Hall on the following days:
Today-"The Rule of Law
Historical Perspective," Prof. T
Burnett Harvey.
Tomorrow-"The Judicial Pr
cess," Prof. Luke K. Cooperride
Thursday-"The Executive Di
partment of Government and ti
Rule of Law," Prof. Frank
Cooper.
Friday-"The Rule of Law ar
the Supreme Court," Prof. Pa
G. Kauper.
Monday-"International Rule
Law," Prof. William W. Bishop.
Tuesday, June 28-"The Legi;
lative Process, and the Rule
'Law," Prof. Samuel D. Estep.
Wednesday, June 29 - "TI
Challenge of the Rule of Law
Prof. Harvey.
The Daily will carry reports
the lectures written by Fred Steir
gold, a senior in the Law Schoc
in a new series beginning tomo
row.
Would-Be
Reviewers
Do you read books? Go te
concerts? Movies? Plays? Are
you interested in sharing your
considered opinion with others?
The Daily reviews all these
events, right through the sum-
mer session, and, of course,
someone has to write the re-
views.
People interested in review-
ing in any of these categories,
especially music, are welcome.
More information may be
obtained by calling Kathleei
Moore at The Daily or stopping
in any afternoon during the
week.

will be tested by a fixed standard
rather than the arbitrary whims
of public officials.
Have we strayed from the ideals
of the Founding Fathers? Have
the complexity of modern society
and need for flexibility in apply-
ing law corroded the principle
which is basic to our system of
justice? Can the "Rule of Law"
successfully be applied to Trcb-
lems at the international level?
* * *
THESE QUESTIONS, and others
of similar importance, will be ex-
plored this week and next by a
group of University law professors.
In a series of seven lectures, the
lawyers will look at "Post-War
Thinking about the Rule of Law."

Differing

Educational

Values

By ANDREW HAWLEY
Daily Staff Writer
THE UNIVERSITY campus re-
cently hosted a distinguished
English writer, Sir Geoffrey
Crowxther, who, as chairman of
the British Central Advisory
Council on Education, is also in
a position both to represent the
English education system and to
make some noteworthy observa-
tions on institutionalized educa-
tion in this country and impor-
tant differences between the two
in philosophy and technique.
All this he has done, not only
in his Commencement address
June 11 but also in a discussion
with several University educators
and administrators June 13 and
in a recent Atlantic Monthly ar-
ticle.

in which case specialization be-
comes even more intense. Almost
no time goes to subjects out of
his specific field.
CROWTHER MAKES two
statements about the philosophy
of English education that prob-
ably echo most contemporary
theories. First, "The acquisition
of factual knowledge is by itself
a poor test of any education and
a lamentably poor test of the ed-
ucation of boys and girls of sev-
enteen and eighteen."h
Second, "The proper test of an
education is whether it teaches
the pupil to think and whether it
awakens his interest in applying
his brain to the various problems

Our teachers would possibly
also argue that even for the spec-
ialist an awareness of disciplines
besides his own is necessary to a
proper consideration of the im-
plications of other fields with
respect to his own and to each
other,
IT SEEMS DIFFICULT to sup-
port the argument that intense
concentration in one narrow field
of learning facilitates through
some strange paradoxical effect
a proficiency in other fields, It
seems more logical that the mind
schooled in this manner would
find itself embarrassingly barren
of even the minimum familiarity

MAX L E R N E R
Pattern of Revolution
..T. 4:

,or

* * *

EW YORK-Don't expect the violent bloody
riots against the Japanese government to
called off with the canceling of the Eisen-
ower visit. In fact we had better stop calling
em "riots" and recognize them for what they
'e-a stage in a continuing revolution.
Every serious student of Marxist revolution-
y theory and strategy must recognize what
.e current plan is in the Japanese revolution.
he humiliation inflicted on Eisenhower and
nerica is only the first phase. The next is to
rce out the Kishi government-a goal that is
w only a matter of days. The third is to
entually defeat the Japanese-American mili-
ry pact, and make it impossible for any fu-
re government to pass it in the calculable
ture-htus in effect making Japan a neu-
alist nation.
The plan does not stop there. The next goal
11 be to force a dissolution of the Parliament,
id the calling of a general election. Given
e present temper of the people, this is likely
result in a Socialist majority in Parliament.
hus the final goal is to set up a Japanese gov-
nment oriented toward China and Russia
ther than toward the West.
HE SPEARHEAD of the resolution is to be
found in th° students and professors. Stu-
nts combine fierceness and youth, so that
ey can hurl themselves against the police
th passion, yet to use force against them
ems more monstrous than to use it against
y other group.
Japan has adapted everything modern with
gerness, and its intellectuals have taken over
mechanical version of Marxism less critically
an the Western intellectuals. Students and
ofessors have grown up in that tradition, and
eir wretched economic situation has added

bitterness to their militancy. Hence the spec-
tacle of hundreds of professors, during the
riots, exhorting their students to charge the
barricades.
Unless we understand the intense idealism
which has moved many if not most of these
fiery young people, we shall miss the full mean-
ing of the cynicism with which they are being
manipulated by the small Communist group
which is now in control of the revolution.
3YERE are three major respects in which
President Eisenhower was miserably ad-
vised with respect to Japan, and which have
led to the present disaster.
One was the initial advice to go through with
the Tokyo visit once Khrushchev had with-
drawn his invitation to Moscow. Eisenhower
could have eased out of the whole Asian trip at
that point, especially since it had been planned
to supplement the Russian visit.
The second piece of bad advice was to push
the military pact with Japan when it was
clearly meeting such widespread bitter opposi-
tion and giving the pro-Communists the issue
they longed for. Here is another proof of the
bankruptcy of the "realist" policy pursued by
the generals and the State Department, on the
premise that the only realities were guns and
soldiers. We are now discovering that students
and professors are greater realities, and that
guns are no good unless there is belief behind
them.
The last and monstrous piece of bad advice
was to tie ourselves to the Tories in Japan, and
fail to establish communication with the So-
cialists of either wing. I know, from having
had long conversations with them, that the
Japanese breed of 'Socialists ,is sharply differ-
ent fro mthe West European breed. Their anti-
West feeling, their deep-based fear of mili-
tary fascism, their fuzzy-minded use of old
anti-imperialist slogans makes them prickly
and provocative, But it is always dangerous to
build an axis with only one party and cut your-
self off from the rest.
THEFRUITS of American policy are now
falling upon us like hailstones. What is
disastrous about the canceling of the visit is
the proof it ofiers that America cannot count

ON THESE OCCASIONS Crow-
ther made clear what he believes
to be perhaps the most basic dif-
ference: while the English have
largely concerned themselves with
providing the most intelligent
children with the finest, most ex-
haustive training in a strictly de-
fined area, education in the
United States has almost con-
stantly been a matter of equiping
as much of the population as pos-
sible to participate efficiently and
successfully in "the harmonious
and balanced society in which the
principles ofrdemocratic govern-
ment can work properly."
Although, as Crowther notes,
there are recent siginificant de-
viations, these seem to be gener-
ally accurate generalizations, even
today.
In England, the age at which
the legal compulsion to attend
school expires is 15; in this coun-
try it varies from 16 to 18. Brit-
ain's college students represent
about three per cent of each age
group. Even immediately after
compulsory education ceases to
apply-that is, when the student
turns 16-only 22 per cent remain
in school full time.
* * *9
AS CROWTHER SAYS, "The
crucial time for an English child
is at the age of 11 or a little
more." At this age the selection
test called the 11-plus examina-
tion is applied. This test, which
is supposed to allow classification
purely by ability and apptitude,
provides the basis for selecting
about 20 to 25 per cent of the
children for grammar (advanced)
schools. The remainder are sent
to secondary modern s c h o o ls,
where they may stay to age fif-
teen or sixteen.
* * *
BESIDES SELECTIVITY in
English education, specialization,
to the degree to which the Eng-
lish practice it, is the other broad
characteristic peculiar to that
country,
English grammar school stu-
dents are instructed in both the
hmanit+ipns unA tha ea cin ena n

student in England. He is re-
quired to study in a wide variety
of areas at least until the end of
his sophomore year of college.
Even then it is extremely unlikely
that he will devote his time solely
to one subject, say, English, dur-
ing his junior and senior years.
If he enrolls in graduate school
he finally is allowed to "special-
ize"-to concentrate on one sub-
ject,
* * *
CROWTHER'S ATTITUDE
seems to be that, obviously, the
American student is in danger of
learning a lot about nothing, and
very little about a lot. He is, of
course, not the first person to fear
this. Increasingly, honors pro-
grams and other arrangements
that are geared to the exception-
ally bright and self-directed stu-
dent, are being established to help
him realize more fully his intel-
lectual potential, especially in a
certain area.
Furthermore, exactly what is
meant by "depth?" Surely it does
not depend on facts alone, which
Crowther eschews as being a
"poor test of education." As he
thinks of it, it has something to
do with an extensive, comprehen-
sive acquaintance with a field,
such that the advanced student is
in a position to deal with any
phase of it that has any import
with regard to the field as a
whole. This includes facts, but
also more than that.
* 9 *
BUT WHEN ONE starts to dis-
cuss what more than facts this
study must include, one realizes
that the student cannot possibly
be familiar with all the aspects of
a discipline without being more
than Just aware of other disci-
plines and thei myriad implica-
tions for his field of study. The
conclusion is that either English
education, while professing to be
"specialized," really equips the
student with a broad framework
of understanding, or that his edu-
cation is not "deep" at all, but
shallow, as well as narrow.
Of course one must remember
that, even keeping American hon-
ors programs and g r a d u a t e
schools in mind, English educa-
tion beyond 16 is dedicated almost
exclusively to the very intelligent
boy or girl, whose propensity for
an understanding or his/her edu-
cational needs is probably greater
than that of the "average" youth,
In other words, it appears likely
that a reasonably intelligent pupil
would realize the need for a broad
background, and would set about
acquiring it, in class or out of it,
*, * *
CROWTHER'S STATEMENT
that "our problems are exactly
reversed,"-that we neglect our
intelligent students while England
neglects her average ones-may
not, then, be necessarily true.
America does have schools and
denartments in which the intelli-

THE POLICY OF specializa-
tion, Crowther believes, should be
maintained, although not with
such rigorous limitations. Selec-
tivity should also be revised some-
what, perhaps, with more atten-
tion paid to the average student,
and with due consideration to the
popular demand for "comprehen-
sive' schools serving all children
but dividing them according to
intelligence brackets.
This observer works under the
crippling handicap of no first-
hand information regarding Eng-
lish schools. But there is a sus-
picion that American differs from
English education, not so much
in how education itself proceeds,
as toward whom it is directed.
THE AMERICAN STUDENT
whose interests are primarily ac-
ademic is personally responsible
for the kind and quality of his
training, just as is the English-
man. The Englishman must sup-
plement his specialized instruc-
tion with a broad intellectual
background, the other must be
responsible for supplementing his
background with technical pro-
ficiency-in a specific area-a
medium through which he can
express his attitude toward this
background and serve the intel-
lectual tradition to which he owes
so much.
'The other student-the average
citizen-should also be allowed an
opportunity to become both soc-
ially and professionally proficient.
Crowther implies that, after the
inculcation of basic skills, this
opportunity can best be found in
"life," not school, Although he
agrees that this student has been
neglected in England, he made it
clear in his Commencement ad-
dress that it is dangerous for uni-
versities to try to serve this stu..
dent and the scholar within one
educational framework.
* * *
IN SUMMARY, two problems
exist for both countries: Educa-
tion for the average man and
education of the intelligentia. The
English are trying to understand
and meet the private and social
needs of the average man, al-
though a strong tradition opposes
subjecting him to too much
"book-learning" for too long.
With reservations, they defend
their policy of specialized training
for the intellectual.
In the United States for many
years the masses have been the
object of an endless quest for
better means to equip them for
life, and in this writer's opinion
they have benefited immeasur-
ably.
Now it is time to turn to the
intellectual, and to offer him the
same attention. Through con-
centrated efforts to understand
his peculiar problems many im-
provements have been introduced,
and others can be added The

SIR GOEFFREY CROWTHER-Former editor of the "Economist"
and recent leader of a study on English education, has on a number
of occasions presented his views on the subject and compared
education in England with that in the United States.

and opportunities that life pre-
sents."
On the surface these sentences
hardly appear to contradict the
underlying philosophy of educa-
tion in the United States, if such
a philosophy can be said to exist.
In fact they could be said to sup-
port the "life adjustment" trend
that was introduced by Dewey
and which has seriously influ-
enced pedagogy in this country.
* * *
THERE ARE, HOWEVER, im-
portant differences, not only in
the application of these princi-
pIes but in interpretation of their
meaning.
"The pupil" Crowther refers to
is not the equivalent of our av-
erage high school child. He is a
hiaahr n+.mlian+ r.+r1nt n+.A_

with terms and concepts neces-
sary for intelligent analysis and/
or communication, when con-
fronted-as it certainly would
eventually be-with academic or
non - academic phenomena ex-
tending beyond its narrow bor-
ders,
Consider the nuclear physicist
paid by his government to pro-
duce and improve the means
for exterminating enemies and
threatening rivals. Without a
sufficient exposure to conscien-
tious humanistic considerations
through philosophy, literature and
other disciplines, can he be de-
pended on to devote earnest
thought to the ethical implica-
tions of his highly specialized
field of work?
- * * *

Editorial Sta#
KATHLEEN MOORE, Editor
AEL BURNS ....................Night Editor
.EW HAWLEY.........., ...... Night Editor
AEL OLINICK «..........«.., Sports Co-Editor
N JONES....................Sports Co-Editor

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