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July 09, 1960 - Image 1

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Publication:
Michigan Daily, 1960-07-09

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GROWING BUSINESS:
AMERICAN EDUCATION
see Page 2

Seventieth Year of Editorial Freedom

:4ai i4i

CLOUDY, HUMID
High--88.
Low--62
Cool this evening
with possible showers Sunday,

FIVE CENTS

.LXX, No. 148

ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, SATURDAY, JULY 9, 1960

FIVE CENTS

FOUR PA

Troops Run Wild
In Congo Capital
BRAZZAVILLE, former French Congo P-Mutinous Negro troops
ran wild for hours yesterday through Leopoldville, capital of the
nine-day-old Congo Republic, sending whites streaming from the city
in fear of assault and rape.
A detachment of 164 crack Belgian infantry volunteers in com-
bat dress and armed with automatic weapons left Brussels by plane
during the night for the Congo. Belgian rule in the Congo ended with
the King Baudouin's handover of power to the republic last week.
Forty-two women and children, refugees from the chaos gripping
the former Belgian Congo, arrived in Luanda, Angola, where many

Student Movements:

Common

Goa

..

told of narrow escapes
threatened rape and injury.

from

By THOMAS HAYDEN
Special to The Daily
LOS ANGELES-Despite the absorbing turmoil of the Demo-
cratic Convention here, more than a few persons are carefully
observing a related and highly significant event, the so-called
march on the convention for a stronger civil rights plank.
Not only are they interested in the powerful demands for
Negro rights, but also in the mysterious student movement at
the base of the civil rights drive.
When Bernard Lee, a Negro student from Alabama, testified
before the platform committee this week, the current trend was
clearly demonstrated. The American student is suddenly respon-
sive to, anti often critical of, his social environment. No one seems
to understand either the motivation or the ultimate direction of
the student movement, but there is no escaping the fact that the
movement does exist, that it is developing potency and momen-
tum, and that it has the ability to sometimes change a social
situation.
This weekend, hundreds of students from as far away as
New York and the South are participating in the march on the
convention. The demonstration is the latest--who knows where
the activity will turn next-in a year-long movement.
Began with Sit-Ins
Apparently it all began last spring when Negro students in
the South precipitated the now-famous non-violent sit-ins at
lunch counters.
But since that time the trend has become national in nature.
Students across the country have picketed lunch stores as a token

of sympathy, for the Southern student. At the University; sym-
pathy picketing began four months ago and still continues. The
same is true at other campuses.
In addition to the sit-ins, students concern themselves with
other issues of the day. Many students protested the disclaimer
affidavit and loyalty oath portions of the National Defense
Education Act. Still others officially criticized the administration
at the University of Illinois for the firing of Leo Koch, biology
professor who argued for premarital relations.
Chessman Case Draws Protest
Here in California, two events drew tremendous student
reaction. First, the execution of Caryl Chessman was decried
through picketing, as it still is, and the carrying of petitions to
Gov. Edmond G. (Pat) Brown. Second, the assembling of the
House Un-American Activities Committee in San Francisco at-
tracted any numbers of demonstrating students, who could be
dispersed only by violent police action.
It would be simple to continue to list the various occurrences
which drew student protest. For example, it would be difficult
to count the number of petitions signed in favor of disarmament.
And now the students are in Los Angeles, face to face with
a representative segment of the peers they have criticized for
almost a year.
Nature Defies Definition
The question one must ask is simple, yet no one has quite
been able to answer it: What, precisely, is the nature of the
movement? Or, it may be stated otherwise: What happened to
the so-called Silent Generation of the Fifties?

The questions nearly defy answer for several reasons. First
of all, students themselves are literally not able to understand the
causes for the new movement, and when asked about it, will
reply "I don't know-there's no simple pat answer for this thing."
As well as not understanding the totality of the drive, students
are motivated by apparently different reasons.
Second, the wide distances betWeen centers of the drive, for
instance between Montgomery and Berkeley, prevent communica-
tion about possible joint problems and send the movement in
scattered directions.
Majority Shuns Action
Third, it is clearly only a minority of the students who are
making all the noise. A much larger segment of the United States
student body seems to shun social and political action.
Fourth, students in different areas are characterized by
completely different attitudes. For instance, students here on the
West Coast have a much higher degree of political sophistication
than does the student in the South. The orientation here is
toward issues which demand high quality critical thinking.
In the South, students are not only less politically sophisti-
cated but less issue-oriented. Their movement, on the other hand,
has become religiously concentrated, unlike that on the West
Coast,
However, the movement is marked by an even different tone
in the North, and in the East as well. There, political sophisti-
cation is as high as on the West Coast, with one exception.
Students do not organize into the issue-oriented "political
See STUDENTS, Page 2

Castro Sure
tOf Survival
L-In Struggle
HAVANA WP) - Fidel Castro de-
clared last night Cuba will emerge
victorious in a struggle for eco-
nomic survival with the United
States because "justice and his-
tory" are on Cuba's side.
Beginning a regular Friday
night TV appearance an hour)
late, the prime minister said the
Cuban government will not react
to United States "aggressions" in
the manner he said the state de-
partment would expect. But he did
not immediately say what Cuba's
reaction would be to a slash in
Cuban sales by the United States.
"They, as we have observed, wait
until the revolutionary govern-
ment makes a move, then they
act," Castro said . . . "and usually
they make a mistake. Error has
accompanied United States for-
eign policy in recent years."
Addresses Crowd
Castro spoke shortly after a big
crowd gathered at the Mexican
embassy here shouting thanks for
an expression of support for the
Cuban people voiced by a Mexican
congressional spokesman.
The crowd of about.1,000 carried
signs saying "Cuba si, Yankees
no" and shouted "viva Mexico,
viva Cuba."
En route to the Mexican diplo-
matic quarters the crowd passed
the Unites} States embassy. Mem-
bers of the group raised anti-
American signs and waved toward
the embassy but made no other
hostile gesture.
Expresses Thanks
Foreign Minister Raul Roa ear-
lier called on Mexican Ambassador
Gilberto Bosquez to express the
Cuban government's thanks for
the support of the Mexican con-
gressional leader, Emilio Sanchez
Piedras.
'Truman May
AT -
Be Delegate
LOS ANGELES M) - Former
President Harry S. Truman has
changed his mind and will attend
the Democratic Convention here,
Gov. James T. Blair Jr. of Mis-
souri announced yesterday.
Blair said Truman will arrive
Monday and will be a member of
the Missouri delegation.
At Independence, Missouri, the
former President said only: "I will
have an announcement tomorrow."
The governor noted he had never
formally accepted Truman's resig-
nation from the delegation.
Truman had said last weekend
he .was going to stay away from
the convention because, he con-
tended, the affair had been "pre-
arranged" in favor of the nomina-
tion of Sen. John F. Kennedy of
Massachusetts as the party's pres-
idential candidate.
The former President is a sup-
porter of Sen. Stuart Symington
of Missouri.

The Belgian radio said Leopold-
ville itself appeared deadly quiet
tonight after a 6 p.m. curfew was
imposed. It said shops had been
closed, food was scarce and all
Congolese servants had left Euro-
pean homes.
Several thousand whites, mostly
women and children, fled Leo-
poldville. The men in their fam-
ilies sent them by ferry to this old
Free French headquarters city
across the river from Leopoldvile.y
The flight across the river was
halted for several hours by bayo-
net carrying troops but later was
resumed. One ferry was forced to
unload and passengers were forced
to carry their baggage back home.
Communications Interrupted
Troops moved into the central
post office and radio transmitting
station and for a time virtually
all communications with Leopold-
ville were cut off. Congolese sol-
diers, straining to exercise their
new authority, pointed their guns
constantly and fired warning
shots when orders were not obeyed
promptly.
United States Amdassador Clare
H. Timberlake was reported to
have stood off a group of Negro
soldiers who invaded the United
States embassy-where American
families had taken refuge. Ad-
vices to the United States Depart-
ment said the troops were de-
manding that Timberlake turn
over a photographer.
Americans.Leaving
Tentative estimates were that
under 40 of the 200 Americans
living in Leopoldville had left the
city. The United States air force
rerouted two big air transport
planes to Brazzaville for possible
use in evacuation of Americans.
Lumumba's cabinet issued a
communique denying he had been
the target of an assassination at-
tempt. The communique said a
group of Europeans wanted to kill
Lumumba, but were nabbed by
guards at his residence. (The Bel-
gian radio said it was a case of
mistaken identity-that the Euro-
peans were Belgian plainclothes
security agents assigned to guard
Lumumba, and they were released
when their identity was dis-
closed.)
Officials said Americans in Leo-
poldville were assembled in three
places - the embassy, the am-
bassador's residence, and a hotel.
Telephonic communications was
possible among the three and by
this afternoon telephone calls
were also going through to Brazza-
ville, across the Congo River in
French territory.
'Expand Plans
'of Picketers
The local picketing group will
begin -immediately to demonstrate
against certain Ann Arbor stores
on Monday nights as well as Sat-
urday afternoons, for those which
are open, a member of the group
said yesterday.
They also plan to begin negotia-
tions regarding discrimination at
local beaches, in hopes of solving
difficulties without active protest.

Convention

Tension

nereases;
Favorite

Kennedy

St ll

General

Red-Fascist
Riots Shake
Italian Cities
R 0 M E W)-Bloody political
rioting swept two Sicilian cities
yesterday and torpedoed a bid by
the president of the Senate to
bring a truce to strife-shaken
Italy.
Three demonstrators were killed
and 150 rioters and police were
injured.
Gunfire and tear gas made
battlefelds of the palm-fringed
streets of Palermo and Catania.
The fighting in Catania went
on until almost midnight. Police
and rioters fought a gun battle at
police headquarters when Com-
munist-led demonstrators tried to
assault the building. At another
point police had to fight off dem-
onstrators trying to break into
gunsmith shops and other places
selling arms.
Police said rioters used guns
both at Palermo and Catania.
An appeal for a 15-day truce by
the president of the Italian Sen-
ate failed. The government re-
jected any compromise with the
rioters and warned it would "obey
its duty of keeping the public
squares from becoming a substi-
tute for Parliament."
The widespread wave of vio-
lence that began June 30 now has
taken 10 lives and caused injuries
to almost 1,000 persons,
Yesterday's violence centered in
Sicily.
In Catania, at the foot of vol-
canic Mt. Etna, a 15-year-old boy
was killed in fighting between
police and hundreds of Commu-
nists.
In Palermo street battles ranged
for hours. Four persons were
wounded by gunfire and two later
died in a hospital.

CONVENTION CLOSEUP:
Johnson Ducks MajorIssues

By THOMAS HAYDEN
special to The Daily
LOS ANGELES--The troubles
Lyndon Johnson faces in seeking
his party's Presidential nomina-
tion were clearly dramatized yes-
terday.
The Texan was the first of the
major Presidential aspirants to
arrive here and he scheduled a
heavy round of activity for the
weekend. But his first important
appearance, at an overflow press
conference in the afternoon, left
one with the impression that his
surface optimism is unwarranted.
Johnson was not impressive. He
ducked questions on civil rights,
and civil rights has become the
central issue within the party this
week,
Ducks Questions
He refused to declare his feel-
ings about Qumoy and Matsu on
the grounds that only the Presi-
dent should be the American pol-
icy spokesman: "I have personal
feelings about Quemoy and Matsu,
and if elected will express them."
There were signs of real dis-
satisfaction with the senator's
answers among the press. They
were not the kind of answers to
attract one's esteem nor were they
answers which will win support in
heavily urban Northern states.
Asked whether he favored a
strong civil rights plank, for ex-
ample, the Texan drawled, "We
must have a national platform
appealing to all elements. It must
be true to the Constitution and
protect everyone's constitutional
rights. The bills I've helped get
through Congress in the last three
years have been forward looking
steps."
Equivocal On Sit-Ins
Asked if he thought the plat-
form committee should support
the Southern sit-in movement,
Johnson was equivocal: "I'll sup-

Ir
I
{

SEN. LYNDON JOHNSON
... out of running?
port a platform which protects
every citizen's constitutional
rights.
Given that sort of statement
plus the fact that Sen. Kennedy
has more appeal to American la-
bor, Johnson's chances for the
nomination are not as great as
his supporters declare. If he is
not acceptable to the Negro or
to labor, he will not be acceptable
to the big Northern delegations'
here.
Johnson's whole campaign so
far has been mysterious. He
claims to have been kept from
active participation until this
week because of his important
duties as Senate majority leader.
Like Stevenson, he has left the
direction of his campaign to a
core of patriots, notably including
Sam Rayburn.
As a "campaigner," he has re-

lied on his relationships with
other congressmen and on the
party pros, like Rayburn. No
doubt this influence is vast, but
it has failed to project into the
public political arena.
No Image
In short, Johnson has not
achieved a powerful public image,
the kind that attracts delegates,
His reputation is ambiguous. He
is the most important individual
in the United States Senate, yet
his publicity has hardly been
commensurate with his impor-
tance.
He is a Southerner in a party
that contains considerable North-
South conflict, yet he somehow
holds all elements together.
Labels are difficult to apply to
him. Johnson is known as a con-
servative but has done much for
liberal causes. His votes in many
areas, including civil rights, are
with the South, according to the
Congressional Quarterly. But he
is the first man in 75 years to get
any Negro civil rights legislation
through Congress.
As a congressional leader, in
the words of one commentator,
"Sen. Johnson is neither young
nor old but only a furiously func-
tioning one-man political caucus
to whom age, health and many
other normal concerns have an
absolute and total irrelevance that
must be seen to be credited."
A good clue to the senator's
political philosophy was seen yes-
terday in his civil rights stand,
that of protecting everyone's con-
stitutional rights. This attitude
seems to be reflected in his feel-
ings about the whole legislative
process.
Johnson wants to span all ele-
ments. He is a compromiser, a
unifier. What he lacks in positive
-that is, controversial-thinking,
he makes up for in his ability to
unify a diverse community.
And he is largely undefinable
in the mind of the delegate. Opin-
ions of Johnson range from "great
leader" to "empty Southerner."~
He is relatively young--51. If
he fails here this time, he will at
least have established a public
personality and in the coming
four years can be expected to step
further forward.
At the moment his chances for
the nomination are fair, but he
will find it difficult to pick up
many votes outside the South and
it seems unlikely that he will be
able to create a needed third-
ballot bandwagon.
If he fails to receive the nomi-
ation, Johnson will be able to ex-
ercise great influence on the ulti-
mate choice. The most reason-

Stevenson Support
Gains Momentum
Brown May Declare for Kennedy
At Tomorrow's Press Conference
By THOMAS HAYDEN
Special to The Daily
LOS ANGELES-Sen. John Kennedy, Adlai Stevenson
and Sen. Stuart Symington land here today bringing con-
vention tension and complexity to its highest point so far.
Few surface trends have changed in the last 24 hours
despite the early arrival and optimistic declarations of Sen.
Lyndon Johnson.
Kennedy, long the front runner, remains the general
favorite although his forces have admitted first ballot vic-
tory does not seem possible. The second ballot looms as the
crucial one for Kennedy with the other candidates waiting
for him to falter. Johnson
claimed yesterday he was like-
In IlniyetraSeesny Chief
ly to emerge as the nominee.
In Illinois yesterday, Stevenson
directly entered the campaign at
last, saying he would work vig-
orously if nominated.
A great deal of mystery and ex-
citement here surround the Calif-
ornia, Pennsylvania and Illinois
delegations. Kennedy and Steven- Special to The Daily
son factions are apparently void-
ing each other, with Kennedy be- Michigan Democratic Party chair-
Ing generally conceded an edge. man, predicted yesterday that
Gov. G. Pat Brown of California man Kennedy will receive the
breaks an official silence tomor- Democratic nomination on the
row at an important press con- eocrat nat ingon the
ference at the Biltmore Hotel. He second ballot, after receiving 58Gs
may declare for Kennedy and free to 625 votes on the first ballot.
his delegation to vote on the first Staebler is a highly respected
ballot. figure in national Democratic cir-
No Conferences Scheduled cles. He is reportedly the favorite
Leaders of the Pennsylvania choice of all candidates to replace
and Illinois delegations have so Paul Butler as Democratic na-
far not scheduled conferences with tional chairman. But Staebler has
theress. nsannounced he is not interested in
the press. the job but would rather spend
While nominating trends have his time working on the develop-
remained relatively stable,_ many ment of "political participation"
eyes have turned to serious battles by the public. This has always
before the platform committee. been his chief concern.
Civil rights is undoubtedly the When Butler is replaced, as he
most explosive issue.i enyBobe, Staebler will prob-
Sen. Holland of Florida, claim- ably be tound somewhere in the
ing to represent fifty million, has upper echelons of the party work-
already warned of a split if the ing as an assistant of some sort
party adopts a strong rights plank. to the Democratic national chair-
But dozens of others, includingmawovrhis
Gov. G. Mennen Williams of Mich- ThomaR Quimby, Michigan's
igan, have urged the committee to national committeeman, is men-
be specific in its program. tioned as a possibility to replace
Williams Applauded Butler as is Clare Engel of Calif-
Williams was loudly applauded ornia.
for his presentation, "Democrats
and Human Dignity;" he sought
strong action in four areas: medi- C Drive
cal care for the aged, a foreign C flnConv
policy geared to peace, civil rights
and the removal of nationality
quotas from immigration laws.
He asked the party to adopt the LASING (M-The count was
plank on civil rights urging "co- close to 323,000 signatures as the
plete desegregation of public constitutional convention petition
schools and all other tax - sup- drive more khan went over the top
ported facilities, meaningful guar- yesterday.

I

Predict American Cultural Leadership

By MICHAEL BUINS
The United States has an opportunity in the future primarily for
scientific and cultural world leadership as "the agent for Western
civilization rather than the representative merely of wealth or of
power," like a modern Athens, Prof. Henry Steele Commager said
here yesterday.
The noted historian from Amherst said the shift in the world
power scheme is happening at present in which Japan, India, China,
Africa or Latin America could emerge as new foci of military superi-
ority, "not two power systems but five or six."
Several economic changes have caused these shifts in world power:
the sudden change from scarcity to affluency in Western society while
other nations subsist; technological advances which promise greater

considerations and objectives. Both of these measures have been tried
in the past, Prof. Commager said, and have been fairly unsuccessful.
Two plans of action we might follow would be the supplying of
expert guidance and technical assistance or utilizing the United Na-
tions or some new similar agency to distribute such aid as we desire
to give, "in order to circumvent nationalist and political and ideologi-
cal implications of a foreign aid program."
The first of these two approaches is the "most appealing," but
not clearly the most effective, he said.
The United States must realize that it cannot dictate the terms
under which the aid will be given. The dispenser and the recipient
must plan together for the program and the issue must not be one
of domestic political conflict or contesting nationalism, but of inter-
national cooperation. This is the hard lesson we must learn, Prof.

V4
77

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