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July 07, 1962 - Image 2

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1962-07-07

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jihb Air1igwn Baiy
F- Seventy-Second Year
"Where Opiniona Are Free STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Truth Will Prevail"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily ex press the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
Quality of American Education
Already High, Well-Established

'Changes Things ...'

'Great Powers' All Gone;
New Diplomacy Needed
Daily Staff Writer
THURSDAY'S REVELATION that the United States is seeking
increased foreign investment in this country-especially from
Japan-probably came as a mild surprise to most people. Yet it
shouldn't, for it is merely a sign of the times-the end of great
power politics.
In former eras, one measure of a great power was the amount

THE ORBITING of the first Sputnik in 957
indirectly caused a reappraisal of the edu-
cational system in the United States.
People claimed that the United States was
producing less and less capable scientists and
engineers than that other country, the U.S.S.R.
Concern over the issue was shown in con-
temporary high school debate topics: the pres-
ent educational system versus British or Rus-
sian systems, and federal aid to education.
I HE INTRODUCTION of programmed in-
struction in 1958 was hailed as the end of
the teacher shortage.
The thought of machines and textbooks that
would free the teacher from repetitive lessons
incited the imagination of everyone.
The National Science Foundation gave out
and is giving out millions to finance in-service
institutes for math and science teachers.
In short, everybody got busy looking for
SCHOLARS formed discussion groups which
scrutinized over-all objectives Eand specific
methods. The conclusions drawn from these in-
vestigations were often duplicated, often over-
simplified, and often immersed in a flood of
It's true that the educational system of the
U.S.SR. produces more scientists and engi-
neers. But it also has a greater population.
The U.S.S.R. may produce better scientists
and engineers, as engineers and scientists. But
it can choose from a larger able population.
DOES THIS mean that every American aca-
demician is pitted against a Russian coun-'
terpart of superior talents? No, because they
cannot be lined up as "tools" on opposite sides
of a border.
The problem for the United States, then, is
to make the most of the available manpower.
One reason for our teacher shortage is that we
try to teach many more students than do the
Catering predominantly to superior students,
as in the British and Russian high school
through graduate school systems, entails elim-
inating students who "can't make the grade."

Providing "mass education" often restricts the
opportunities of more capable individuals.
WHAT IS needed to make efficient use of
available talents, and what mostly exists
in this country, is a compromise between the
two policies.
The United States provides the best educa-
tion for the average person. Also, doctorates in
the sciences are considered more liberally
educated than those educated in Europe.
But the United States is also forging ahead
in honors programs and accelerated sequences
in high schools and universities, in a fairly
successful attempt to aid "exceptional"
O SUM UP, I am defending the status quo:
education is evolving along well-set lines.
The broad educational advantages mentioned
above put an excessive and almost prohibitive
burden on the educational s y s t e m of
this country. Problems with state legislatures,
and teacher and classroom shortages are known
to everyone.
Is there a way of lightening this burden?
Various technical and methodological aids
have been suggested.
PROGRAMMED instruction will not com-
pletely solve the teacher shortage, because
students still require assistance. However, it
will allow certain capable sutdents to learn a
great deal quickly and without very much at-
tention, and it will also give otherwise incap-
able students the opportunity to learn more.
This country is an automated nation. Our
use of computers overshadows European ef-
forts, and the U.S.S.R. is practically virgin
territory. Increased use is fine, but yet com-
puters cannnot really be considered a sub-
stitute for educated individuals.
Federal aid to education obviously cannot
lower the cost of education, even when more
would be spent, and unfortunately, any altera-
tions in the educational system must be bathed
in politics.
But, on the whole, and with the aid of the
improvements made throughout the last few
years, the situation of U.S. education is

-Daily-Earl Pole
Changes in the State Executive

of foreign investment it made.
exported it. So, if this were the
capital would be considered a sig
such an era. The days when one
to half a dozen countries would
hold a monopoly of world power
are over.
Instead of facing one to a half-
dozen adversaries and allies that
count, a nation faces over 100
powers of varying degrees and in-
terests. No single set of powers
holds the key to international
peace and war. Diplomacy, which
once was a simple game of chess,
has now developed into a highly
complex jigsaw puzzle.
* * *
THE END of the great power
era has a number of implications
which have not yet been caught
up by a large segment of the
American public. Still thinking in
terms of the great powersathey
picture the Soviet Union as an
arch-enemy whose evil plots fo-
ment world crises. If the Soviet
Union were to disappear, this rea-
soning continues, the world would
be at peace.
Unfortunately, neither the world
nor the Soviet Union is monolithic.
The Soviet bloc itself must struggle
with the nationalist jealousies of
its member states, especially China
and East Germany.
The Communist Chinese are
stirring a number of crises which
the Soviets would want to keep
dormant.I East German dictator
Walter Ulbricht is probably push-
ing Khrushchev into Berlin ad-
ventures he would rather not be
a participant to.
* * *
clashes and world problems for
which the Communists are not
responsible, but only, at times, ag-
gravate. The independence move-
ments in countries still under
colonial domination would con-
tinue even if the Communists did
not exist.
Many of the regional clashes,
as exemplified by the bitter Arab-
Israeli conflict in the Middle East,
are the result of long historical
causes of which international
communism played no part.
Some right-wing critics of
American foreign policy would
have the public believe that great
power diplomatic solutions still
are true. They do not understand
that international politics is more
complex and more factors are in-
* *
AMERICA is making progress in
this direction. The extremist cri-
tics have received a deaf ear from
Washington, and the American
public, through an improving edu-
cational system, is becoming more
sophisticated about international
The United States has a long
way to go. The recent Senate fight
over foreign aid to Poland and
Yugoslavia indicates the strength
of out dated thinking.
This country still has to face up
to challenge of the end of the
great power era. As President Ken-
nedy appropriately pointed out
July 4, America will survive by
interdependence with the rest of
the world, not by loftyindepen-
dence above it. The State Depart-
ment must strive to successfully
fit the United States into the new
multi-power system. However, it
can only accomplish this goal with
the support of a sophisticated pub-

Let's Pray for a Referendum

C ONGRESSIONAL conservatives are current-
ly engaged in sponsoring a constitutional
amendment which would allow school children
to offer voluntary prayers in the public schools.
Such a move would be ill-advised.
True, the Supreme Court bordered on in-
sanity when it held that a daily prayer, re-
cited voluntarily by young boys and girls out
of respect for a Supreme Being, was a breach
of religious freedom, but the fuzzy reasoning
of six self-appointed freedom-crushers should
not be grounds for the Congress to load down
a good Constitution with a lot of pettifogging
The State of Michigan has just tossed away
several million dollars to overhaul a con-
stitution that was loaded with some 60 amend-
ments, most of which altered picky little de-
tails. The strength of the United States Con-
stitution has been in the fact that it has been
unimpeded by trivia such as an amendment to
allow prayers in school.
OW GRANTED, this ridiculous Supreme
Court decision strikes right at the core of
that which keeps America great-its freedoms
-including freedom to worship-voluntarily-
whenever one wishes.
But the Constitution need not be amended
to allow voluntary prayer anywhere within
the territorial United States. That freedom is
already assured in the Bill of Rights, and no
sneaky-worded decision can deny it.
The problem is one of governmental machin-
ery. there is no appellate when the Supreme

Court makes a mistake. Any error they commit
is not easily overturned.
The solution is simple, and the Constitution
will allow it. Congress must take the bull by
the horns and appeal this Court decision to the
people. And if, in a nationwide referendum,
the voters do not concur with the decision of
the high court, then the case need no longer
stand. It's as simple as that.
NOW THE criticism that the people can have
no say in the matter is unfounded. The
Constitution does not mention nationwide ref-
erendums in any way. Therefore, since such
a vote would be clearly a federal matter, and
since the Congress is not prohibited from de-
claring such a referendum, let it be held, and
then let's see whether the Supreme Court
decision will stand.
After all, this country runs from day to day
for the benefit of its people. And if they do not
concur in some matter, they should have re-
course. Tacking on trivial amendments to the
Constitution is not the answer for affirming
what is already guaranteed. But slapping the
wrists of an impregnable high court, through
a nationwide vote of censure, seems to be the
proper avenue.
Perhaps if these untouchable justices were
to feel the wrath of their constitutents occa-
sionally, they would render decisions which
more accurately reflect the sentiments of the
American people.
City Editor

(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the
fourth of a nine-part series on the
new state constitution.)
Daily Staff Writer
S NDER THE existing constitu-
tion, executive authority in
the state is divided and respon-
sibility blurred among the gov-
ernor, the independently elected
state administrative board, and a
brief-patch of more than 120
boards and commissions."
This his how George Romney,
Republican candidate for gover-
nor, summed up the problem of
Michigan's present e x e c u t i v e
branch of government.
It was the discussion of the
provisions of this article that saw
discussion between the two parties
ranging from general agreement
to violent dissension.
* * * '
licans agreed on a four year term
for the governor and the lieuten-
ant governor, who will run as a
team. This is a change from the
present document where these two
officials are elected individually
and for only two year terms.
This would permit the develop-
ment and execution of effective
programs without interruptions to
campaign for re-election, Romney
The Democrats parted violently
with the two Republican wings on
the issue of whether members of
the state administrative board
should be elected or appointed.
The Democrats maintain that the
positions should remain elective.
* * *
"THE PROPOSED document
weakens the administrative arm
of the government and takes away
the right of the people to elect a
treasurer, auditor general, super-
intendent of public instruction and
the highway commissioner," the
Democrats said.
"Thus the present system of
having the Michigan electorate
vote for these officers would be
replaced by a system that takes
the responsibility from the people,
keeps it from the governor, and
so weakens and conceals respon-
sibility that no individual or party
can really be held responsible for
the administration of the execu-
tive positions," theydcontinued.
Under the new document the
offices of secretary of state and
attorney general would remain
The state treasurer would be
appointed by the governor, with
the advice and consent of the
A BIPARTISAN highway com-
mission would appoint the state
highway director.
The board of education would
appoint the superintendant of pub-
lic instruction.
"IN ESSENCE, the conflict that
exists today is no more than

And the Legislature would ap-
point the auditor general.
This last provision in the new
constitution would end the "in-
consistency of having an official
in the executive department whose
job it is to be a watchdog for the
Legislature over the performance
of the executive branch," Romney
* 4 *
DEBATE ON the proposal lasted
for many hours and saw many
violent words exchanged. The vote
was close, particularly in relation
to the state highway commissioner.
The Democrats were, however, un-
able to crack the compromise
forces of the Republican party
and the new administrative board
system went into the new docu-
The Democrats also levied an
attack against the advise and con-
sent power of - the Senate-by
which the governor's appointments
can be vetoed.
Republicans defended the meas-
ure as basic to the American
system of checks and balances
between the three branches of
THE 1908 constitution makes it
necessary for the Senate to ap-
prove all appointments before they
become official.
The new constitution sets a time
limit of 60 days, during which
time the Senate may exercise its
prerogative and reject the ap-

The Democrats, in their propos-
ed substitute constitution said that
"appointment with the consent of
the Legislature . . . means ap-
point subject to disapproval by a
two-thirds vote of the members
elected to . . . the Legislature."
They also stipulated that this was
to be within 60 days.
DEMOCRATS also charged that
under the new document "the mal-
apportioned Senate guarantees
that a Democratic governor or a
Republican governor would have to
select appointees on the basis of
confirmability by the most con-
servative veto bloc of Republicans,
rather than on the basis of abil-
Inclusion of the eight-member
bipartisan Civil Rights Commis-
sion in the executive article also
brought 'out the wrath of the
They contended that the section
actually belonged to the peclara-
tion of Rights article, and accused
the Republican majority of trying
to sweeten up the new document
and embarrass them.
"We refused the sacrifices of
our principles with just a touch of
saccharin," Tom Downs (D-
Detroit) a convention vice-presi-
dent commented.
The charges were denied by the
Republicans, who said that since
most commissions are considered
part of the executive branch of
government this was where they
belonged in the constitution.

Instead of attracting capital, it
great power era, this request for
a of weakness. However, this Is not
'Night Out'
No Good
THERE IS a movie showing at
TtheState Theatre. It is called
"Boy's Night Out." People will
go to this movie, thinking they
will be able to laugh. They are
wrong. They will not laugh.
Somebody's got to take the
blame for this one, and you can't
foist it off entirely on the theatre
manager, who after all is only try-
ing to make a profit. You can't
even blame it on the obnoxious
people crunching popcorn behind
Censure instead must be direct-
ed towards more fundamental
areas. The screenwriter, for in-
stance, m u st have composed
"Boys' Night Out" on his day off.
Leading stars Kim Novak and
James (Maverick) Garner handle
comedy material with all the
finesse of a typist in boxing
GARNER is part of a commut-
ing foursome who find that their
Thursday night out every week is
becoming as drab as their busi-
ness routine. Miss Novak is a grad-
uate sociology student research-
ing her thesis on "Adolescent
Sexual Fantasies of the Adult
Suburban Male."
The two meet when Garner,
whom the three married menrhave
stuck with getting a "pad" to
liven up the nights out, stumbles
onto not only the pad but also
the blonde to. go with it.
Staying well abreast of matters,
Miss Novak manages to keep the
first three boys down to unsus-
pecting confessions for incorpo-
ration into her thesis, lust her
charms be wasted on anything ex-
cept Garner's slowly disintegrat-
ing bachelorhood.
* * *
WELL, everything goes fine,
until the three wives hear about
what the boys are really doing. As
expected, the whole thing winds
up in a blaze of humorless orgy
at the pad. The conscience-strick-
en husbands get their wives back,
Miss Novak gets Garner, the ush-
ers get to clean up the theatre.
Even the cliches are bad-the
Victorian old lady next door, the
little brats at the breakfast table.
As in his television career, Gar-
ner's lines are strictly home-on-
deranged, while Miss Novak, at-
tempting. to slim down her 29
years into a college-age role, Gar-
ners very few expressions of glee.
As she says correctly, though
surely Unintentionally, at the be-
ginning of the film when describ-
ing her research method, "I'm go-
ing to look like yes and act like
At least it's in color.
-Gerald Storch
New Vistas
"ONE WAY to end the stock
market decline would be to
apply to stock speculation the'
same 'principles we use in agri-
culture: That is, a system of sup-
port prices for surplus crops
which would otherwise have to be
sold for distress levels. The un-
happy holder of A.T.&T. or IBM,
if their prices fell below the sup-'
port level, could take their stocks
to the Treasury and turn them in.
"It would be cheaper to pour a
few billion dollars into the stock
market now, farm relief style, than
allow it to trigger a panicky slump
in business at home and abroad.

We can already visualize the con-
struction of storage facilities, for
surplus shares of Du Pont and
General Motors by some future
Billy Sol Estes..."
-I. F. Stone's Weekly
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
responsibility. Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3564 Administration Building
before 2 p.m., two days preceding
General Notices
Ushers needed for opera: Students
wishing to see the University Players
double bill opera, Puccini's " Glanni !
Schicchi" and Pergolesi's "La Serva Pa
drona" free by ushering are invited to





Old Colonies Need Europeans' Aid

Another Gadget for Defense

THE PRESIDENT has just asked Congress for
$23 million to provide electronic locks for
nuclear warheads. The idea is, that with these
locks the weapons will be protected from use
by "unauthorized personnel."
This sounds like a fine thing, and doubtless
deserves the support of Congress. But, what has
been going on until now? The proposal has
all the reassurances of a notice by your bank
that it has decided on a new policy of locking
the vault at night.
But late is better than never. Now with the
proper handling, this could be built up into a
real force for peace. The way to do it would be
to describe the lock as a means of increasing
"the effectiveness of our deterrent." Pretend
that it was being installed to replace older,
slower and safer systems.
THAT WAY, the Russians would rush to put
locks on their missiles, too. Each and every
nuclear weapon-even the "tacticals"-would
be locked and bolted, like a barn door.
Since the United States has more bombs
than Russia, soon we could begin boasting
ohnzF Uer .r'.- r h AA e nn n n -- re in.a a

tury." Everything could grow more and more
Then, the crafty scientists would find a way
to put locks on the locks. Business, looking for
mass production chances, would snap at that
one. The Russians would have no choice, but
would have to follow along.
dream. Because we have the strongest force
for peace right now-our deterrent. The reason
the Russians don't attack is because they are
afraid of what we'd do to them if they did. And
so, the more guns (that is, bombs) we have,
the safer we are.
And the more dangerous our weapons are,
the better for scaring the Russians-that is, the
safer for us.
1 BE REALLY SAFE, we'd have to actually
start the war, so that the Russians would
know-would feel-exactly what was in store
for them.
It's only logical to build as many bombs as
possible. if what you want is a "force for peace."

THREE MORE African states
have just achieved indepen-
dence - Algeria f r o m France,
Rwanda and Burundi from Bel-
gium. There are great differences
among them. Algeria is in North
Africa and has been part of the
Mediterranean civilization for cen-
turies. Rwanda and Burundi are
primitive central African terri-
tory which, except as part of Ger-
man East Africa before World
War I and then as a Belgian trust
territory, has had no important
contact with the advance of civil-
Yet the three states have one
critical thing in common. Their
future prospects of progress and
prosperity are intimately bound
up with their success in working
out a new relationship of coopera-
tion with their former overlords.
Algeria cannot hope to prosper
without France. Rwanda and Bur-
undi can hardly hope to survive
without Belgium.
If we pause to think about this,
it is a remarkable thing to be
saying. Only two years ago almost
everyone would have supposed
that the liberation of a colony
meant an irreparable break be-
tween the new state and the old
imperial power. What is more, it
seemerl nnhle that the new

it once seemed to so many, a rich,
disorderly, newly liberated terri-
tory can be insulated from the
cold war.
Two years after Dag Hammer-
skjold's daring intervention in the
Congo, there are no Russian
forces and no American forces
there, and the Belgians who fled
from the disorders are returning
in large numbers. They are return-
ing because there is no other
nation which is qualified as are
the Belgians to provide the know-
how for running the Congo.
The troubles in the Congo are
not over and there are signs that
the troubles may break down into
civil and tribal war. Yet two years
of experience with independence
have been showing in practice that
a new relationship between the
Congolese and the Belgians is
necessary, and that it is possible.
IN THE liberation of Rwanda
and Burundi the lessons of the
Congo are being applied. The Bel-
gian security forces are not com-
pelled to leave immediately. It is
believed that the kingdom of Bur-
undi may ask them to leave rather
soon. The king will do well to go
slowly lest he drive out with the
few hundred Belgian troops the
Belgian specialists and technicians
who are indispensable. The repub-

thermore, the Belgian government
has offered to continue to support
the two budgets which have a
combined deficit of 50 per cent,
and also to continue to support
($9 million) the extraordinary
budget for economic development.
* * *
IN ALGERIA after the vote for
independence there is the possi-
bility of a conflict between two
factions of the Moslems. This
would not be unusual at the end
of a successful war of indepen-
dence. But it would be an embar-
rassig nuisance for everybody.
The Algerians have won the re-
spect of the whole world by the
discipline and fortitude in face
of hideous provocation which they
have displayed. They should not
allow themselves to break down
now no matter how strained their
nerves. They should not let them-
selves break down just when they
have reached their goal.
The pressure of circumstances
will be against a breakdown into
an Algerian civil war. The Alger-
ians themselves are war-weary. An
Algerian civil war is against the
interests of Tunisia and Morocco,
which must look forward now to
an alliance with an independent
Algeria of the Magreb, that is, of
the western Arabs. It is also
against the interests of Egypt. For

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