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TODAY AND TOMORROW:
And External Forces
By WALTER LIPPMANN
FROM PERU to Algeria, from the Congo to South Vietnam, we are
being reminded how long and complicated is the great revolution
of our age, the awakening of the backward peoples. In Asia and Africa
the old empires have fallen recently; they fell more than a century
ago in the Americas. But to achieve acceptable self-government is
enormously difficult, as witness our own Civil War.
In Latin America we are engaged in a unique experiment. We
have realized that without a rise in the standard of life of the mass
of,'people, there can be no enduring stability. But we have realized
Legislators Split on Split
)AY, JULY 26, 1962
NIGHT EDITOR: CYNTHIA NEU
LIKE MADDENED, wounded tigers fighting
for their lives, GOP state Senators are
triking out at anything within their grasp.
'he state Supreme Court has upset their safe
ttle haven, and reapportionment threatens
o put some out of a job and remove power
So the Senators have taken the court deci-
ion in bad grace, ignoring the realization that
he Republicans will retain control under any
eapportionment scheme except at-large elec-
Tuesday, when the Senate met, the Republi-
ans let loose such a barrage of abuse that
bout half a dozen GOP speakers might have
een sued for slander had they not been pro-
ected by legislative immunity.
Veteran reporters said the speechmaking was
>me of, the bitterest they had heard in a
Ong time. This is significant, considering this
ession of the Legislature has been a long and
;EN. CARLTON MORRIS (R-Kalamazoo) led
off the proceedings charging the state
upreme Court were the tools of a carnivorous
FL-CIO machine determined to usurp power.
:e called the governor a puppet of state AFL-
IO President August Scholle and the court
ecision a "Pearl Harbor to the people." To
ain redress he urged the "impeachment" of
wo of the court's justices.r
Reporting on his appeal to the United States
Supreme Court, Sen. Paul Younger (R-Lansing)
said he had prepared the action in the event of
"executive collapse" and failure to perform
their duty of defending the Senate.
Sen. Charles Feenstra (R-Grand Rapids)
hinted at a dark, deep Communist plot in the
ND SO IT WENT...
The Democrats on the whole overcame the
urge to be equally partisan and pledged co-
operation in speedily devising a reapportion-
ment plan within the framework of the court
The trouble with this oratory is that it is
useless and wasteful. By any scheme now pro-
posed, the GOP will retain control of the
Senate. County lines insure that.
With a little level-headed thinking, the Re-
publicans could, come up with a plan that
meets the court's decision and yet keep them
in control. The Pears plan is best suited for
purpose; the Gillis plan will do.
Once again it seems the GOP is booting away
its opportunities. All they are doing is wasting
time. By Aug. 20 it wi)l be too late. An at-
large primary-the thing they fear most--will
become a reality, for the Senate again has
heeded the call of partisanship and failed to
complete its work.
The DayAfter Tomorrow
"COUP D'ETAT" is a familiar word in con-
nection with the governments of Middle
Eastern countries. This is partially a result of
the colonial policy in that part of the world.
On the other hand, many of the recent dis-
turbances can be directly tied to foreign aid
or the lack of it; and to foreign policy or the
lack of it. The two are inseparable.
The absence of a consistent and long-range
policy towards the countries of the Middle
East, individually or as a unit, is indiative
of the American attitude. Hopefully the Ken-
nedy Administration's plans include a remedy
[or this ailment.
Some of the countries in the Middle East
are playing the neutral game in order to
squeeze as much aid as possible from both
the U. S. and Russia. In these cases, if the
!ederal Government decides to grant a loan,
tsually with strings attached, the receiver
of the aid negotiates to obtain an equal or
greater amount from the Communist bloc. This
would be very admirable if the countries in-
volved were really neutral. Or, if the aid were
intended for the benefit' of the people. Un-
fortunately, a great deal of this money seems
We get lost in the government.
p ERE ARE some countries in the Middle
East that have oil-barrels and barrels and
barrels of oil. These countries are important,
oo. The American oil industry has huge in-
Westments tied up in this area and their
returns on these are also quite profitable, al-
hough not as lucrative as they were before
ertain governments learned the word "na-
ionalize." The'oil barons have quite a power-
ful lobby in Washington. In fact, they get
round quite a bit. But, again, most of the
noney the oil-rich countries receive for their
natural resource never reaches the people.
tThere are other countries in the area that
have room for air bases. They are "friends" if
;heir governments like us, regardless of the
orm of government it is.
There are also poor countries in the Middle
mast. In fact, most of them are. Some of them
re on the border and can be used to prevent
(ommunist infiltration; some of them have
;trong support here and among our allies;
ome of them are just there.
In most of these countries the literacy rate
s low, though rising slowly; the mortality rate
s high, though dropping slowly; the govern-
nents are unstable, though moving toward
ome sort of permanent institution-be it a
ictatorship, benevolent or otherwise, a mon-
trchy, constitutional or otherwise, or a demo-
:racy, socialistic or republican.
Some of the countries in the Middle East
re friends of the United States. They support
Oestern policy even when it goes against their
>wn interests; they try to raise the standard
f living to equal that of the U. S., they will
sever "go Communist."
QHUFFLE THE DECK and every country fits
into one or more of these categories.
American foreign policy, however, fails to take
ill these considerations into account. The
'ederal Government is too busy "winning
riends and influencing the right people" to
>e concerned with the people themselves. Gov-
rnments "of the people, by the people and
!RED RuSSELL KRAMER...................Co-Editor
szL JONES .... ,:... ........ .... I.....Sports Editor
for the people,", are very rare in that part
of the world. The government is for the men
who are in power at the moment.
And the people involved perhaps feel quite
differently than their governments toward the
US. There exists a possibility that the people
are or want to be really neutral. They want
their children to have something to eat and
at least a high school education before they
want to be aligned with either side in the
Cold War fight. Many of them want demo-
cracy or some form of it but see that they
can eat better if the money comes from some
other source. This is a hard decision to make.
Unfortunately, the makers of American
foreign policy do not take many of these things
into consideration. If they can buf a country
cheaply, they do so; if they can establish an
air or missile base without too much trouble,
they do so; if they can receive huge oil
royalties, 'they do so. But last on their list
of what they can get for the least money is
what they have to give to gain the most in
the long run.
The Middle East is considered by those
informed to be one of the world's biggest
trouble spots. The reason for this label can be
directly tied to those who apply it. It is hoped
that the United States government will soon
learn that there is a day after tomorrow.
ANEW TOY and a new game has come into
the cold war. It's something like two little
boys playing with marbles. Two little boys
about five years old. An arguement has develop-
ed in the game though. Who is going to get the
It seems that there is this little boy from
Iyannisport who is playing a game with an-
other little boy from the Georgian coal mines,
of Russia that is.
These two little boys are playing a game
with nice safe little atomic bombs.
The game has gone on since the 1930's. It
had different little boys then, maybe they
were Orwellian "Big Brothers."
Anyway the little boy on our sidestarted
dropping atomic bombs. And then after a long
time the little boy on their side learned how
to drop atomic bombs, too. Then he started
This game went on a long time. Then some
grown ups came along and said it was bad
to drop these atomic bombs, so the game
stopped for a while.
NOW THERE'S a special vocabulary for this
game, as for most games. The vocabulary
for this game is all' about security, their se-
curity, our security. That's the way they keep
score, in terms of security.
The little boy from Russia decided that he
was behind in security, and besides our little
boy had the first turn. So he decided to even
the score a little and get in 'his fair number
Well, he evened up the score and our little boy
didn't like that. So he dropped some more
bombs so that he would get some more
security and get more turns than their little
This made their little boy very unhappy.
He has a tendency to take off his shoes and
throw a tantrum by pounding them on the
So their little boy says that this is unfair.
also that social progress is un-
likely as long as the government is
in the hands of a small and cor-
rupt ruling class.
So we find ourselves trying to
induce a peaceable and very grad-
ual internal social and political
revolution in order that there may
be governments capable of using
productively the capital funds we
are willing to lend them.
* * *
AS WE KNOW from Peru and
from Argentina and elsewhere, it
is not going to be easy to reap
the results of a revolution without
having a revolution. The privileged
ruling classes with their connec-
tions in the military establish-
ments do not scurrender volun-
tarily to the Alliance for Progress.
While we have to keep on try-
ing the best we can where we can,
we must not delude ourselves. The
power and influence of the United
States in this hemisphere has de-
clined sharply since the early years
of this century.
Insofar as the Alliance for Pro-
gress depends on political and so-
cial change inside thehLatin
American countries, it has no
power behind it and only some
IF PROGRESS is difficult in
much of Latin America, which has
so long been self-governing, it is
much more difficult in Africa and
Asia. In Africa it is so difficult
that it is no exaggeration to say
that the critical factor is the atti-
tude of the great powers.
The Congo illustrates this viv-
idly. There have been two main
chapters in the Congo story. In
the first chapter, which began
with the precipitate Belgian with-
drawal, the problem was to in-
sulate the Congo and seal it of f
from the cold war. This was done
successfully by Dag Hammar-
skjold's daring use of the United
Nations, and now, a year later, we
are able to say that the Soviet
Union and the NATO powers are
not engaged in a military struggle
within the Congo.
The second chapter, which is not
concluded, has been the effort to
induce the Congolese under Adoula
in Leopoldville and under Tshombe
in Katanga to unite. But the Con-
golese leaders alone are capable
of doing this only if the non-
African powers on whom they
depend push them into some kind
Behind Adoula the main power
is the United States government.
Behind Tshombe the main power
consists of large private interests
in Great Britain and Belgium. The
keys to peace in the Congo are
in London, Brussels and Wash-
IN ALGERIA we see once more
how wide is the gap between liber-
ation and self-government. At the
moment the prospects are not too
bad because there is no evidence
that any of the great powers is
intervening seriously in the Al-
gerian dispute. If intervention can
be avoided, the vital interests of
the Algerians will work for a close
connection with France.
As for Southeast Asia; my own
view is that the region cannot be
stabilized locally. The future de-
pends on the powers and in the
last analysis on the two great
powers, the Soviet Union and the
Neither of them, to be sure, is
all-powerful. For both Russia and
America, the region is on the outer
edges of their two spheres of in-
fluence and power. The Soviet
Union has much influence in
North Vietnam, as we have in
South Vietnam. But neither is all-
More importantly the Soviet
Union probably has decisive in-
fluence in preventing Red China
from starting a great war by try-
ing to overrun Southeast Asia. And
we of course have the power to
decide that the action in Vietnam
shall remain limited.
So the keys to peace, or shall
we say to not much war, in South
Vietnam are in Moscow and in
* * *
THE WORLD COURT has now
delivered its advisory opinion on
the legal right of the UN to
assess its members for peace-
keeping operations, as in the Gaza
Strip and in the Congo. Assuming,
as is likely, that the General As-
sembly will accept the advisory
opinion, the question will be
whether the deliberate non-payers,
particularly the Soviet Union and
France, will recognize the law
and obey it.
If they do not, it will be a'
serious blow to the UN, not only
to its solvency but its status as
a universal society to keep the
peace. The United States has a
powerful interest-in saving the UN.
For while the UN is unable to deal
THE UNIVERSITY Woodwind
Quintet, assisted by Wallace
Berry, pianist, presented a pro-
gram of contemporary American
music in Rackham Amphitheatre
last night. The program consisted
of works by Wilder, HoVhaness,
Carter, Cooper and Riegger.
It seems a pity that so much
of American music, band and wind
ensemble music in particular,
should be so restricted by the
"pseudo-jazz" element started by
Gershwin in the early part of
this century. This "rag-time" ele-
ment appeared particularly in the
Wilder work, written in 1960,
which sounded as though it could
have just as easily been orches-
trated for a circus pit band. It
appeared again in the Carter and
Riegger works, though not as evi-
* * *
THE TWO remaining works on
the program, however, represented
a much fresher style of writing for,
this media. This was particularly
true of the Hovhaness, written last
year, and dedicated to the quintet.
This represented, as well, one of
the better performances of the
quintet, especially in some of the
solo passages. a -
The "Canonic Variations" by
Cooper, would seem almost an.
academic work by its title, yet its
subtle structure and the freshness
of the different variations, mingled
with a strong sense of forward
motion, provided welcome relief
from the pedestrian plodding of
some of the other pieces.
The performance of the quintet,
on the whole, was outstanding.
The balance of the instruments,
which is probably one of the great-
est problems in a woodwind quin-
tet, was marvelously handled. Par-
ticularly noted was the perfect
marriage between Messers Hauen-
stein and Mueller.
WALLACE BERRY must be
commended for his performance in
the "Concerto for Piano and
Woodwind Quintet" written by
Riegger in 1953. Although the
balance between the piano and en-
semble was somewhat unsteady in
the first movement, it seemed to
even out in the remainder of the
work, 'and Mr. Berry was an in-
tegral, and welcome addition to
The audience was enthusiastic
in their applause at the close of
the program, and ended by giving
the Quintet, and Mr. Luconi, who
made his last concert appearance
at the University, a standing ova-
tion. It was the common "I'll stand
up if you do because I have to get
my coat on anyway," variety--
however, whether spontaneous or
not, the quintet surely deserved it.
It's a shame that we don't hear
from this group more often.
-Peter J. Clements
By PHILIP SUTIN
Daily Staff Writer
IN CONSIDERING reapportion-
ment, legislators have myriad
of plans, one to suit every taste.
These range from clearly uncon-
stitutional to the patently absurd.
In considering the varied plans,
the Legislature must weigh factors
imposed upon it by both the state
Supreme Court and political ex-
The Supreme Court voided a
1952 Amendment to the state Con-
stitution setting up the frozen 34-
seat Senate. The Senate thus re-
verts back to its 1908 model of
32 districts, a loss of two. In re-
apportioning, the Legislature is
not only faced with realigning the
districts according to population,
but eliminating two seats as well'
THE COURT also established
population standards. No district
may be more than twice the size
of any other district. The current
12 - 1 ratio would have to be
Thirdly, the court set a dead-
line. The reapportionment must
be complete by Aug. 20 or the
Senate will be elected at-large.
Working against these factors
is political expediency. The effect
of the state Supreme Court deci-
sion is to grant more representa-
tion to moderate Republican su-
burban areas around Detroit at
the expense of conservative out-
state areas. Conservative senators
are thus fighting for their poli-
tical 'lives and leadership in the
Republican Party. Defiance seems
to be their only solution. This at-
titude puts a strain on any ra-
tional consideration of reappor-
The scheme proposed by Sen.
Carlton Morris (R-Kalamazoo)
would probably be thrown out by
the state Supreme Court. Morris
suggests that the constitutional
convention plan of 38 districts bas-
ed on an 80 per cent population
factor and a 20 per cent area fac-
tor be adopted. Practically, this
neans that Wayne, Oakland, Ma-
comb and Genesee Counties would
gr t one additional seat with all
*1her districts remaining the same
However, the Morris plan fails
to meet/ the court definition of
fair apportionment-no district
shall be more than twice the size
of any other district. Although the
largest district would be cut i to
345,000 constituents, the smalles
would still have approximately
60,000-a ratio of five to one and
INSIDE the court's limits is the
gerrymander proposed by Speaker
of the House Don R. Pears. (R-
Buchanan). The 32 districts of
the Pears plan range from 177,000
to 346,000-barely inside the two
to one ratio, but all the urban
districts are approximately 330;000
and the rural districts 215,000,
continuing the inequity.
The plan is designed to maxi-
mize Republican control of the
Senate. Besides retaining the over-
ly large Detroit area districts,
Pears separates Democratic Flint
from Genesee County and urban
Grand Rapids from Kent County
and gives them separate seats.
Further, the plan neatly knocks
off two moderates by pitting mod-
erate Sen. Stanley G. Thayer (R-
Ann Arbor) against sometinje-
moderate Sen. Haskell Nichols (R-
Jackson) and moderate Sen. Fred-
erick Hilbert (R-Wayland) against
conservative Sen. Clyde Geerlings
REP. JOSEPH GILLIS' (D-
Detroit) plan is pure matheratics.
Finding that the median popula-
tion for 32 senatorial districts is
244,000, Gillis attempts to place as
many districts on that median
without violating the county line
limitation. Four districts would be
added to Wayne County, two to
Oakland and one to Macomb. The
Upiger Peninsula would lose one
and one half districts and Gen-
esee and Kent counties, losing one
seat each, would become the larg-
est senatorial districts at approx-
imately 370,000 each.
The Gillis plan is probably the
plan closest in line with the Su-
preme. Court decision. Following
population mathematics, Gillis'
districting would range from ap-
proximately 200,000 to 370,000.
* * *
THE PLAN of Sen. Farrell Rob-
erts (R-Pontiac) is deliberately
absurd. It would unite Oakland,
already the largest district in the
state, with Washtenaw County
creating an approximately 800,-
000 constituent district. Otherwise,
it would reduce Upper Peninsula
districts to one and one half.
Roberts' intent was to get a bill
on the record for use next week if
United States Supreme Court Jus-
tice Potter Stewart denies the ap-
peal of three Republican senators.
The bill would have already passed
the five-day required waiting per-
iod and is so unsatisfactory that
it requires amendment and hope-
fully the necesary thinking that
goes along with this process.
The last and best plan avail-
able to legislators comes from Con-
Con delegate William Hanna and
from the state's Young Democrats
-abolish the Senate.
Senate Districts: How shall the jigsaw puzzle
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR:
Attacks Editorial Tantrum'
To the Editor:
MR. MICHAEL HARRAH, who is
not remarkably reasonable at
his best, finally renders his efforts
more- than merely curious. Cer-
tainly the position with which he
is usually identified needs and
deserves a spokesman if we are
to have useful political discus-
sion in The Daily.-
Even as an irritant, or perhaps,
mostly as an irritant, he has his"
One wonders, though, what even
the most sympathetic of his read-
ers can find of sense or solace in
this latest tantrum, Friday, on
the Supreme Court's Senate ap-
portionment decision? The line he
takes (claiming the Court has
"no right to violate the apportion-
ment of $he State Senate") is
* * *
But it is his unmeasured lan-
guage, far outside the bounds of
useful controversy, that reveals
an appalling contempt for legiti-
mate government as well as a
startling insensitivity to proper
discourse. He calls the Justices of
the majority "Four Stooges" of
labor and the Democratic Party.
Limited vocabulary or intent?
-Leo F. McNamara
THE ACTION he advocate
("the Legisiature . . . must direr
the county clerks and the stat
board of canvassers to ignore th
Supreme Court decision") is ir
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- To the Editor:
FOREIGN STUDENTS through-
out the world are their coun-
try's ambassadors. They are sent,
not only to learn academics, but
to be their country's representa-
tives to the world. In some cases
they are responsible for perpetuat-
ing the party line. In many in-
stances, they are trained in pro-
paganda before they leave home.
Unfortunately, they have not
learned the subtle art of propa-
ganda; they have not learned to
adapt themselves to situations they
find in their host countries; they
have not learned that there is
more than one side to every story;
they have not learned that in some
countries there is a policy of fair
comment, and criticism.
National pride is a very hon-
orable thing and patriotism is not
to be scorned at. On the other
hand, there also exists the in-
tellectual approach to politics and
there are times when the extreme
chauvinism of foreigners should
be abandoned in favor of this
There are those who do not
examine words, but just their
source; there are those who use
every opportunity they get to play
"my country right or wrong."
There are people on this cam-
pus who are their country's am-
bassadors. They should learn what
the word diplomacy means.
-Lee Wetherhorn, '62
To the Editor: -
ROBERT SELWA'S editorial of
July 14 is in all likelihood the