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July 18, 1961 - Image 2

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Publication:
Michigan Daily, 1961-07-18

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"Looks Like A Bumper Year For Nuts!"

Seventy-First Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
"Where Opinions Are Free UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
Truth Will Prevail" STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
TUESDAY, JULY 18, 1961 NIGHT EDITOR: JUDITH OPPENHEIM

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Note on Berlin
Announces Determination

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PERSPECTIVE:
Berlin One Issue
In Soviet Offensive
By J. M. ROBERTS
Associated Press News Analyst
AS THE BERLIN CONTROVERSY settles down to a long war of words
with rattling sabers providing the background music, it is just as
well to remember that this is only one part of the great Communist
offensive.
Despite the possibility that the Sino-Soviet bloc will underestimate
the determination of the West to hold firm, and so produce a war
either in Europe or Asia by pushing too hard, territorial expansion
seems to be a secondary objective of immediate Communist tactics.
They are still pressing hard for their long-range objectives of gen-
eral Allied disunity, economic disruption and creation of a third force

I

T HE UNITED STATES has flatly turned
down the possibility of conceding its occupa-
tion and access rights to Berlin. The U.S. note to
Khrushchev, which reportedly leaves the door
open to negotiation but refuses to sacrifice
Western rights in the city, will carry to the
USSR the determination of the American peo-
ple to defend Berlin.
While this may seem an action that could
provoke war, it will in reality help prevent it.
If war were to occur over Berlin, it would not
be because the United States has been definite
in its intentions but because the Soviets feel
we are indecisive and unwilling to fight for it.
In short, war would not be caused by a deter-
mination to fight but because of one side's
miscalculation of"the other side's willingness to
fight.
This note assumes new, importance when
we consider the remark of Soviet ambassador
to the United States Bikhail Menshikov that
the United States is not willing to go to war
over Berlin. The remark was made this week-
end at a party at an embassy in Washington.
He will soon be returning to Moscow and one
of his tasks will be to report to the Soviets
what the American trend of thought is on Ber-
Un.
In view of his remark, the United States
and the Western allies have an even greater
obligation to make clear their positions. If
Menshikov actually makes the report to Mos-
cow that we are unwilling to defend the city,
then just the very miscalculation needed to
start a war could occur.

CERTAINLY the Russians' objective is not
war. They would like to take over the city.
It is a thorn in their side. Many East Ger-
mans flee to West Berlin each year, so many
there is a shortage of skilled labor in the East-
ern sector. And refugees are fleeing at an in-
creased pace as East Germany tightens its re-
strictions and forces collectivization.
Further, the Russians would like us, if we
do not give up the city, to recognize the East
German government by having to negotiate for
access to the city. This is Khrushchev's strate-
gy in signing a separate peace treaty with the
East Germans.
Nothing would please Khrushchev more
than achieving either one of these diplomatic
victories. I fthey were to win the former, they
will have changed what was formerly a source
of embarrassment to the Communists into what
could be boasted as a victory. He will have
shown that the West is unwilling to stand up
for its convictions. If he achieves recognition
for East Germany, it could mean another seat
for the Communist bloc in the United Nations.
It would certainly add prestige to the East
German government which, in comparison to
Adenauer's, looks pretty bad. Either objective
would be a victory for Khrushchev.
But he does not want war. So it becomes
imperative for the West, as has been done to-
day, to make clear the absolute limits which it
will tolerate in this situation. It is the only
way that war can be definitely avoided; and
while it makes clear that the way to negotia-
tions is still open, it hopefully makes clear to
Moscow that miscalculations will not be tol-
erated.
--DAVID MARCUS

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CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION:
Education Issue Complex

of noncommitted nations which,
because of their previous colonial
status and intense nationalism,
will not cooperate with Europe.
THEY ARE TRYING to con-
vince already-doubtful elements in
the Commonwealth that British
membership in the European Com-
mon Market, which she badly
needs at a time when she is buy-
ing more than she is selling,
would represent economic aband-
onment of her long-time allies and
former colonies.
In order to weaken the prospect
of a unified Europe, the Commu-
nists are likewise pursuing with
vigor their years-old objective of
creating disaffection among the
new countries in order to block
the sources of raw materials on
which Europe has been accustom-
ed to depend.
One of the manifestations of this
effort is the prominence being
given to introduction of recog-
nizably neutral blocs into the gov-
erning or administrative structures
of the United Nations and all
other international control bodies
which are proposed. A separate
campaign against the relations of
the United States with the rest of
the Western hemisphere is under
way-well under way-for a sim-
ilar purpose.
IN the propaganda field, having
taken a serious beating because of
the way she has thwarted an
atomic test ban, the Soviet Union
is trying to turn the tables on
the general disarmament front.
The procedural discussions look-
ing toward a general disarmament
conference have now deteriorated
into an effort to keep the United
States separated from her allies in
the talks, and so to make it ap-
pear that Washington stands be-
tween the rest of the world and
serious disarmament discussions.
The East-West, exchanges on
particular matters such as Ber-
lin, if they are to be kept in per-
spective, m u s t be considered
against this background of gener-
ally divisionary and undermining
tactics, rather than as pertaining
to matters which are soluble.
No specific matter is truly sol-
uble against the general back-
ground of the unremitting Com-
munist offensive.

ATTITUDE:
Bargaining
For Peace
'THERE ARE SOME states of
mind that make negotiation
enormously difficult. And we have
some of them. I believe many of
our stereotypes about the Rus-
sians are mistaken. We regard
them as undilutedly ideological
and constantly plotting world re-
voution. I don't think they are.
Whatever their long-term objective
of a world safe for Communism,
in all current events there is a
highly pragmatic side to their
policies.
"Nor are they demons . . . Nor
above all, are the Russians super-
men . . . Their system - like ours
- stumbles and feels its way.
'* * 4.
"IT SEEMS TO ME both sad
and ironic that the Communists
have so largely succeeded in pre-
empting and exploiting the cry for
peace - which is surely the loud-
est and dearest sound in this war-
weary, frightened world. They have
been able to do so, not only be-
cause of their shameless use of
propaganda and falsehood, but
also because we underestimated
mankind's yearning for peace. We
have emphasized military con-
tainment, and for years it ap-
peared that we didn't want to
negotiate with the Russians.
"Meanwhile they stopped nu-
clear testing unilaterally; they re-
duced their army unilaterally;
they proposed summit talks about
reducing tensions and the dan-
gers of war; they proposed total
disarmament. Whatever the mo-
tive, cynical or sincere, they have
constantly taken the initiative.
They have answered the cry for
peace, while we have quibbled andI
hesitated and then finally given
in. Too often our approach has
been "yes but" insteadF of "why
not?" Too often our uncertainty
and' quibbling has left the i1f-
pression that the United States
is looking for reasons not to
reach an agreement."
--Adlai E. Stevenson

CIA Structure Unchanged

PRESIDENT KENNEDY is said to be on the
verge of firing Allen Dulles as head of the
CIA. It is assumed that the Cuban invasion
fiasco caused this move.
But the lesson to be learned from the in-
vasion isn't only that Allen Dulles should be
replaced. One of the key reasons for the defeat
in Cuba was the CIA structure - which per-
mits the same men committed to undertaking
a project to judge its possibilities for success.
Under those circumstances all were eager
to agree success in Cuba was a sure thing.
And so it is now surprising that Kennedy has
decided not to alter this part of the CIA
structure. He has apparently decided that the
Cuban fiasco was wrong not in principle -
but only because it failed.
BUT were the overthrows of ,Mossadegh in
Iran and of Arbenz in Guatemala suc-
cessful? Is the situation in Laos, which is
due to 'successful' conniving by the CIA,
really better than it would have been with
Souvanna Phouma leading a stable govern-
Ment?
Are the CIA men who actually expected
Cubans to revolt against Castro at the time
of the invasion the ones we want planning
our next melodrama of invasion or subversion?
That the nation needs an intelligence agency
is undeniable. But that it needs a secret army,
loyal only to the "king," is an outright lie -
and a dangerous one.

First of all, the civilian planners in the
government are not able to control the CIA's
activities beforehand, but must take the rap
for them afterward, if the publicity turns
bad.
In addition, if we don't believe at all in
legality on questions of whether or not to
overthrow any given government, we have no
business broadcasting to the world that we
do in fact respect law.
THE CIA NEEDS SECRECY to carry on
plots, and the President has told newspapers
he would like them to exercise some mysterious
sort of judgement on when to withhold news
"not in the national interest".
What he means is that if the CIA was found
planning another coup, the press should keep
silent untilsomethingillegalunder both United
States and international codes is finished.
Congress wouldn't need to know about it,j
and of course the public would be the last to
find out. (And if someday it turned out that
the great enemy was a group of United States
citizens, and not a foreign government, the
CIA could swing into action as easily as ever.)
Foreigners, after a while, will probably get
tired of being invaded by a Presidential Army
- and their irritable natures might blur their
understanding of the difference between us
and the "Red butchers" of Hungary.
-PETER STEINBERGER

(EDITOR'S NOTE: The following
is the first of a six-part analysis
of the issues likely to be consid-
ered at the forthcoming constitu-
tional convention. Primary election
for delegates to the convention is
next Tuesday.)
By JUDITH OPPENHEIM
Daily Staff Writer
CONSTITUTIONAL convention
delegates, when they arrive in
Lansing for the long-awaited at-
tempt at revising the Michigan
constitution, will be faced with a
complex multiplicity of issues.
There are a number of little
issues which are the special con-
cern of particular districts. But
it seems that the big issues cate-
gorize into six major divisions:
executive issues, legislative issues,
judicial issues, financial and taxa-
tiontissues, issues of local govern-
ment and education.
The education issue is one of
the most complex and one which
has aroused somewhat less publi-
city than the others.
The Michigan constitution cur-
rently provides for a state super-
intendent of public instruction, the
University Board of Regents, the
Wayne State University Board of
Alumni, and the Michigan State
University Board of Trustees.
It also provides for the establish-
ment of a state board of educa-
tion, a primary school system, a
college of mines, libraries and cer-
tain types of charitable institu-
tions.
* * ..,
THE SUPERINTENDENT, of
public instruction, who is popularly
elected, controls all primary and
secondary education functions not
administered by the local districts.
He is an ex-officio member of
the boards governing the. state
universities and colleges and a
member of the state board of ed-
ucation, for which he serves as
secretary.
In addition to the three con-
stitutional boards which govern
the largest state universities, there
is a state board of education,
which is responsible for governing
Western Michigan University,
Eastern Michigan University, Cen-
tral Michigan University, North-
ern Michigan College and state
schools for the deaf and the blind.
Seven statutory boards super-
vise the activities of institutions
for vocational rehabilitation, li-
braries, the state historical com-
mission, teacher tenure, voca-

tional rehabilitation, libraries, the
state historical commission, teach-
er tenure, vocational schools, the
Michigan College of Mining and
Technology and Ferris Institute.
* * *
ONE OF THE MAJOR FACTS of
the educational issue is the frag-
mented system of university and
college control boards. It has been
partially solved by the recent ap-
pointment of Prof. Merrit Cham-
bers as executive director of the
state council of college presidents
which is currently engaged in sev-
eral projects of voluntary coordin-
ation.
Considerable simplification and
specialization seems in order for
the various boards and educa-
tional authorities. It might be
wise to grant constitutional status
to the boards governing state uni-
versities in addition to the largest
three.
And there seems little reason
for the superintendent of public
instruction to control only aspects
of education which the local dis-
tricts do not handle.
If he were made a co-ordinator,
similar to the function fulfilled
by Prof. Chambers, but with
greater power, a great deal might
be done to remedy the vast in-
equalities now existing in facilities
and educational quality in pri-
mary and secondary schools in
various areas of the state.
* * *
THE LEGAL STATUS of state
universities is another point in
question.
Those favoring greater inde-
pendence for the three major uni-
versities argue that the governing
boards of these institutions have
constitutional status while the
other state college boards are only
statutory.
For this reason, they believe, the
three large institutions should be
sheltered from normal legislative
and executive administrative con-
trols.
Those opposed to relative in-
dependence for the universities ar-
gue that since all the funds ap-
propriated by the legislature are
public funds, they should be under
public control through the legis-
lative process.
They are afraid that the free-
dom of the universities to control
enrollment and curriculum may
leave the Legislature in a position
where it must either appropriate

.the money the institutions say
they need or deliberately fail to
meet the needs the universities
establish.
They add that preferred status
for any service or groups of ser-
vices among many reduces the ef-
ficiency and flexibility of the whole
government to an unwarranted
degree.
Those favoring the special sta-
tus of the schools counter that a
Legislature composed of laymen
is not competent to formulate or
even judge the needs of institu-
tions as large and complex as the
University, MSU and WSU - and
that these universities must be
free to formulate their own poli-
cies and determine their own pri-
ority system for expenditure of
state appropriations.
Another educational issue is
whether the state board of edu-
cation members and the super-
intendent of public instruction
ought to be appointed instead of
popularly elected.

.4

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DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
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Iron Curtain Dissolving

The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
responsibility. Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3519 Administration Building,
beforeaip.m., two days preceding
publication.
TUESDAY, JULY 18
General Notices
Doctoral Foreign Language Reading
Examinations: The last doctoral foreign
language reading examinations for the
summer session will be given on Mon.,
Aug. 7. Since facilities for the exami-
nations are limited, it will be wise for
those persons wishing to be examined
before the close of the summer session
to sign up as soon as possible for a
specific examination date. Contact the
Foreign Language Examiner, 3028 Rack-
ham Bldg. Office hours: Mon., 2:15-
3:30; Tues., 9:00-9:15; Wed., 1:00-2:30;
Thurs., 2:15-3:30; Fri., 9:00-10:15.
A Series of French Films (all with
English subtitles) will be shown during
the summer session. All three movies
will be shown at 7:30 p.m. in the
Multi-purpose Room, Undergraduate
Library:
Wed., July 19-"Lettres de mon Mou-
lin."
Tues., Aug. 1-"Les Amants de Ver-
one"
Wed., Aug. 9-"Les Enfants Terri-
bles."

Memberships may be purchased in
the departmental office, 2076 Frieze
Bldg., from 9:00 to 5:00, for $1.25.
Opening Tomorrow Night: "The Bed-
bug," 8:00 p.m. in the Lydia Mendels-
sohn Theatre. Tickets $1.50 or 1.00 for
Wed. or Thurs. performances, $1.75 or
1.25 for Fri. or Sat. performances. Box
office open 10-5 today, 10-8 tomorrow.
Tickets also available for "Rasho-
mon" (Aug. 2-5), and "The Marriage
of Figaro" (Aug. 9-12).
Events Tuesday
Guest Pianist: Joseph Bloch, Juliiard
School of Music, will be heard in a
piano recital on Tues., July 18, 8:30
p.m., Rackham Lecture Hall. Mr. Bloch
will play the compositions of Scar-
latti, Schubert, Scriabin, Schonberg, and
Liszt. Open to the public without
charge.
Degree Recital: Emerson Head, trum-
pet, will present a recital on Tues.,
July 18 at 8:30 p.m. in Aud. A. Open
to the public without charge.
Educational Film Preview: Tues.,
July 18 at 2 p.m. in the Schoriing
Aud., University School. "Learning
Theory and Classroom Practice" and
"Learning and Behavior (What Makes
Us Human?)."

on Tues4 July 18 at 4:15 p.m. in Aud.
A.
Forum Linguistics Lecture: Prof. Hans
Wolff, Michigan State University, will
discuss "Aspects of Yoruba Style" on
Tues., July 18 at 7:30 p.m. in the
Rackham Amphitheatre.
Physics Lecture: Dr. B. J. Raz, State
University of New York, will speak on
"Electric Quadrupole Transitions in
Light Nuclei" on Tues., July 18 at
3:30 p.m. in 2038 Randall Lab.
Events Wednesday
German Coffee Hour: Wed.. July 19 at
2 p.m. in 4072 Frieze Bldg. All persons
interested in speaking German are wel-
come.
Educational Film Preview: "Images
from Nature" and "Telling Stories to
Children" and "Rythmetic" will be
shown on Wed., July 19 at 2 p.m. in
the Schorling Aud., University School.
Concert: The Stanley Quartet will
present a concert on Wed., July 19
at 8:30 p.m in nthe Rackham Lecture
Hall. Open to the public.
Placement
Physical Education Major (man) -
Part time position as trainer of high
school teams. Must be able to start
around Aug. 25 and work late after-
noons during the school year. For ad-
(Continued on Page 3)

'4

4

I

WHEN PETER THE GREAT tried to modern-
ize Russia he was allied with historical
development. When the Soviet Union launched
Sputnik it was moving in the same direction.
It opened not merely the space age but a new
era in world communications which must in-
evitably leave the Iron Curtain a rusting relic.
This process is freshly highlighted by the
launching of two new American satellites.
Tiros III carries television cameras which
are already reporting cloud formations around
the globe. It is expected to be especially use-
ful in spotting hurricanes and facilitating
weather forecasts. Midas III carries secret ap-
paratus, including infrared components ex-
tremely sensitive to heat, which can detect and
meport missile firings instantaneously. The
Iron Curtain will offer no barrier to either
satellite.
The United States has already conducted
successful experiments with the Tiros types of
reconnaissance satellite. Combined with ad-
ditional members of the Midas tribe these
are expected to go far toward lessening the
danger of surprise attack. And as photographic
Editorial Staff
MICHAEL BURNS .......................... Co-Editor
SUSAN FARRELL .......................... Co-Editor
DAVE KIMBALL ........................ Sports Editor
RUTH EVENHUIS....................Night Editor
MICHAEL OPNICK..................Night Eftor
JUDITH OPPENHEIM .................. Night E'ditor

and other detection techniques iimprove, total-
itarian secrecy will become ever more difficult.
SINCE MOSCOW started this business of
putting instruments in the sky it has little
ground for claiming an "invasion of its air
space." More than that there are very great
difficulties in drawing a line between scientific
space exploration and military surveillance.
Any genuine system of international coopera-
tion or inspection would be rejected by Premier
Khrushchev's own insistence that there must
be a Soviet veto on such agencies' actions.
The peacemaking possibilities of letting in
the light on closed societies go far beyond
military surveillance. Communications satel-
lites will soon be making worldwide and in-
stantaneous television available. No one can
yet estimate how much it will enlarge the
holes already punched in the curtain by radio.
But it will become increasingly awkward for
the Kremlin to shut out the world.
SOVIET ISOLATION has been breaking down
in many other ways. The education re-
quired for an industrial society opened doors
to much more than technological inquiry.
Cultural exchanges, trade, and political con-
tacts - all these have had a leavening effect.
Freer use of old communications facilities and
the development of new ones are carrying
the wind of change to the steppes of Siberia
as well as the jungles of Africa.
Of course the Communists strive to use
communications to spread falsities and domin-
ntion. The faults of free societies -- especially

'0

Summer
Dwight L.
will speak

Session Lecture Series:
Dumond, Prof. of History,
on "The Road to Glory"

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