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July 18, 1961 - Image 1

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Michigan Daily, 1961-07-18

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BERLIN NOTE
SHOWS DETERMINATION
See Page 2

Seventy Years of Editorial Freedom

743 46F
,,, atly

CLEAR, MI
High-82
Low-62
Chance of showers,
variable, light winds

VOL. LXXI, No. 14S ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, TUESDAY, JULY 18, 1961 FIVE CENTS

FOUR PAGES

Tunisians Threaten
Seizure of Sahara
Bourguiba Vows Ouster of French
From Strategic Air-Naval Base
TUNIS (P)-In a double-barreled diplomatic assault on France,
President Habib Bourguiba of Tunisia threatened yesterday to seize
part of the Sahara and vowed to force France out of strategic Bizerte
air-naval base.
The 90-man Tunisian national assembly promptly announced
approval of all measures that may be taken by the chief of state of
this North African republic. In a speech before a special assembly
session, Bourguiba said he will,

UJN Reports
Reds. Reach
Stanleyville
LEOPOLDVILLE (P)-The Unit-
ed Nations yesterday reported the
arrival of an eight-man Soviet
diplomatic mission in the rebel
capital of Stanleyville.
A UN spokesman said he as-
sumed the Russians must have
been in touch with rebel leader
Antoine Gizenga, whose regime the
Soviet Union recognizes as the
Congo's legal government.
The Russians reached Stanley-
ville July 7. They have had no
diplomatic representation in the
Congo since their embassy staff
was expelled from Leopoldville by
the army strongman, Gen. Joseph
Mobutu, last September.
There was no evidence to sug-
gest the Russians' presence in
Stanleyville had anything to do
with Gizenga's failure to arrive
in Leopoldville Sunday for the re-
convening of the Congolese par-
liament.
Gizenga sent 60 of his deputies
and senators for the session which,
was expected to start later this
week at UN-guarded Lovanium
University outside Leopoldville.!
One of the deputies said Gizenga
was ill.
Meanwhile in Elisabethville,
capital of breakaway " Katanga
province, a communique said Pres-
6fd Moise Tshombe'has a high
temperature and has been ordered}
to bed for a few days.
With nearly 200 legislators al-1
ready on hand for the session,,
Premier Joseph Ileo of the central
government said in a speech he is
willing to set a new date for the
reconvening as soon as he confers
with House and Senate leaders.
But Ileo emphasized there must
be a prior agreement on the agen-
da among the various Congolese
factions.

send a force Wednesday to seize
marker No. 233, a geographic point
in the barren, desolate desert 25
miles south of Tunisia's southern-
most point.
Oil Field
The marker, also known as Ga-
raat-El-Hamel, is in the French
part'of the vast desert. It is held
by a French military post in an
area where frontiers are ill-de-
fined. About 100 miles south lies
the rich oil field of Edjele, devel-
oped by France.
Bourguiba accused France of
violating a 1957 treaty by keeping
a garrison at the marker.
"We have decided that, regard-
less of the consequences, we will
send a Tunisian commando to
plant our flag at marker No. 233,"
Bourguiba said.
Repeated Threat
He reiterated his threat to carry
out a campaign for getting the
French out of Bizerte-a huge,
aero -naval strongpoint where
France keeps troops variously esti-
matdd to number from 3,000 to
8,000.
Throughout Tunisia, the net-
work of the ruling Neo-Destour
Party has been whipping up popu-
lar support for the "battle of evac-
uation."

Viet Nam
Routs Red
Guerrillas
SAIGON, South Viet Nam (')-
Government troops have routed a
gand of 600 communist rebels
from their stronghold in the
swamps southwest of Siagon.
The government estimated yes-
terday 200 rebels were slain in
a three-hour battle in the Plaine
Des Joncs (Plain of Reeds).
The rebels, who terrorized farm-
ers in the rich rice basin through
nightly village attacks from their
swamp stronghold, were lured into
a trap by the government com-
mander then ambushed.
After the battle, military au-
thorities said 187 Viet Cong dead
were counted and several hundred
Reds fled toward the nearby bor-
der of neutral Cambodia carry-
ing additional dead and wounded.
Sixteen rebel prisoners were cap-
tured and 68 heavy and light
weapons seized.
The battle was one of the blood-
iest in the Guerrilla War that be-
gan in 1954 as soon as the Com-
munists and the West signed a
settlement ending the Indochina
war against the French.
The agreement partitioned Viet
Nam between the Reds and South-
ern factions that eventually
emerged as the government of
President Ngo Dihn Diem.
British Face
9oney Ills
LONDON () - British Prime'
Minister Harold Macmillan's gov-
ernment prepared last night a se-
ries of crisis moves designed to
prevent devaluation of the pound
sterling and correct chronic ills of
the British economy.
While these decisions were be-
ing hammered out at cabinet lev-
el, prices fell sharply on the Lon-
don Stock Exchange in anticipa-
tion of belt-tightening measures
to come.
In particular, traders fear the
government is getting ready to im-
pose a limit on stock dividends.
The cabinet may feel this has to
be done to get trade unions to
cooperate in holding the line on
wages.
The government decided the1
treasury boss-Chancellor of the
Exchequer Selwyn Lloyd-should
make a major statement in the
House of Commons today on the1
economic position.
Originally Lloyd had intended
to keep quiet until July 25. That
is thehdate-already referred t by
British newspapers as 'sacrifices
day"-when Lloyd is scheduled to
announce the government's anti-j
inflation program to reduce pub-J
lic expenses and boost exports.
The new plan to have Lloyd
speak today will enable him to pre-
pare the public psychologically for
the measures he intends to an-a
nounce a week later.c
These are understood to includer
a 10 per cent increase in excisec
duties and purchase (sales) tax r
to bring in over 200 million poundsa
($560 million) a year.t

Say V
0n13
Government
To Consider
Mobilization
Kennedy Able To Call
Million Guardsmen
WASHINGTON () - President
John F. Kennedy is expected to
decide soon whether to mobilize
up to one million troops to meet
the new challenge of Communism,
focused now on Berlin.
He can call up that number of
army reserves and n a t i o n a 1
guardsmen by declaring a limited
national emergency. If he does he
will have to determine the num-
ber needed and ask Congress for
the necessary funds.
There are reports Kennedy has
already decided to strengthen the
nation's defenses by summoning
the troops, but there has been no
official confirmation. A decision is
believed expectable within two or
three days.
May Decide Today
Sen. Mike Mansfield (D-Mont),
the Senate majority leader, told
a reporter the President may de-
cide " by the time he holds his
weekly meeting with Democratic
congressional leaders today.
Defense Department officials
said yesterday they do not know
the President's plans. A spokes-
man said only that an "across the
board" review of military readi-
ness, ordered by the President,
would go to the White House
about the middle of the week
And last week Roswell L. Gil-
Patric, deputy secretary of defense,
said the reserve and National
Guard callup was the most obvious
way to bolster the military forces
quickly.
Congressional Action
Kennedy can declare an emer-
gency without congressional ap-
proval. But to call up any more
than one million either as indi-
viduals or in units, would require
congressional action.
The National Guard has 21 in-
fantry divisions and the army re-
serve 10 "combat-ready" divisions.
Senate Group
Defers Action
On Red China
WASHINGTON (P) - The Sen-
ate Foreign Relations Committee;
deferred action yesterday on a,
resolution to put Congress on re-
cord again in opposition to diplo-'
matic recognition of Red China1
and its seating in the Unitedi
Nations.I

lerin"

by

BIG THREE-French President Charles de Gaulle (left), President John F. Kennedy and British
Prime Miinister Harold Macmillan are reported to have concurred in Berlin notes sent to Russia.
COMMERCIAL TRAVEL:ยข
U.S., Soviets To Plan Airline Route

Vest Resi

ts Demands
Khrushchev

WASHINGTON (A') - In quiet,
contrast to the mounting cold war
storms, United States and Rus-
sian negotiators sit down together
today to work out the first direct
commercial air route betweenj
their two countries.'
America and Russia have never

HABIB BOURGUIBA
... threatens French

WELFARE PAYMENT-S:
Four workers Refuse
To Implement Program
MIDDLETWN, N.Y. (P)- All four of Newburgh's fulltime case-
workers will refuse to carry out the major points in that city's crack-
down on welfare payments, the Middletown Times Herald-Record
reported last night.
In a copyrighted story, the newspaper quoted an unnamed "vet-
eran social caseworker" as saying 4 of the 13 points in the city's
welfare program are illegal and will not be implemented by the full

Reds Belittle
BombTalks
GENEVA ()')-The Soviet Union
dismissed as propaganda today the
American-British move to bring
the issue of the nuclear test ban
talks before the United Nations.
Semyon K. Tsarapkin, Soviet
delegate to the deadlocked three-
power conference, referred to the
Western powers' request to in-
scribe the matter on the agenda
of the UN General Assembly meet-
ing this fall.
Conference sources said Tsarap-
kin again accused the United
States and Britain of seeking to
renew atomic arms explosions,
halted when the test ban talks
began more than 21/2 years ago.
He told Hugh Morgan of Britain.
and U.S. delegate Charles C. Stelle
that their governments want a
UN discussion of the subject to
"prepare a propaganda cushion
to reduce the shock of world opin-
ion when they resume nuclear
weapons tests."

been joined by a non-stop airlink.
Air travelers now must change at
intermediate points.
The proposed flights by Aero-
flot, the Russian government-
owned civil airlines and Pan Amer-
ican Airways would follow the 5,-
000-mile course between New York
and London.
Heads Talk
President John F. Kennedy
named James M. Landis, regula-
tory agency trouble shooter and
former Civil Aeronautics Board
chairman to head the United
States delegation at the talks
which start at the State Depart-
ment today.
Soviet Premier Nikita Khrush-
chev sent Col. Yevgeni F. Loginov
to head the Russian team. Logi-
nov is the Soviet civil air boss.
United States officials professed
to see little political significance

in the talks. They described the
air route matter as a technical
question, not a political issue.
Limited Success
However, the success of even
such limited technical-type talks
could still have some impact in
demonstrating that the East-West
foes can get together on at least
some matters.
United States strategists figure
the Soviets are interested in ex-
panding aeroflot flights to Amer-
ica as a boost to Soviet prestige.
The amount of traffic is not ex-
pecter to be large, at least to start
with, and Pan American does not
expect much profitmaking. Only
about 15,000 Americans went to
Russia last year, most during Eu-
ropean trips. The number of Rus-
sians touring the United States
annually has been limited to sev-
eral hundred.

"Big Three
To Enforce
Access Right
Separate Notes Echo
'Hands Off' Warning
On Divided Germany
MOSCOW (P) - The Western
Big Three in effect notified the
Russians yesterday to keep hands
off West Berlin.
Details were withheld until to-
day, but a firm general tenor had
been disclosed by Western states-
men and diplomats during con-
sultations on the Berlin issue
among the United States, Britain
and France. Their basic unity was
made clear.
Separate notes delivered to the
Soviet foreign ministry by the
United States, Britain and France
thus rejected Soviet Premier Ni-
kita Khrushchev's plan-presented
to President John F. Kennedy in
Vienna June 4 - to squeeze them
out of the divided city by the
year's end.
Six weeks of talks and drafting
by the Western Big Three and
minor editing by the Permanent
Council of the North Atlantic
Treaty Organization in Paris went
into the responses.
The United States, British and
French embassies declined to make
public the notes. In keeping with
diplomatic courtesy, their, gov-
ernments planned to withhold the
texts from publication until today
so the Kremlin would have time to
study them overnight.
But onsultations among Wash-
ington, London and Paris had
shown that the three powers,
though differing on some points,
were united on maintenance of
their war-won rights in West Ber-
lin, 110 miles inside Communist
East Germany.
The American reply was under-
stood to be the most detailed.
It contradicted Khrushchev's
view that the Soviet Union can
make a separate peace with East
Germany and transfer from Rus-
sian to East Grman authorities
the control of land, air and water
access routes to West Berlin. These
routes are lifelines of 24 million
West Berliners and the allied gar-
isons, totaling 11,000 men.
It was understood that the
Americans, British and French did
not specifically propose negota-
tion with the Russians on the Ber-
lin and German problem - the
most critical of all international
issues - but left open the door for
a conference.
(The United States State De-
partment said the possibility of a
Western foreign ministers' meet-
ing to consider the Berlin crisis is
under study. Press officer Lincoln
White reported no definite deci-
sions have yet been reached. Other
sources indicated Secretary of
State Dean Rusk had in mind
going to Paris next month to meet
with his British and French coun-
terparts.)
In his June memorandum,
Khrushchev had made it plain
that his main objectives remain
elimination of what he called the
cancerous growth of West Berlin
and achievement of full sover-
eignty for East Germany.
Claim Iraqi
Troops. Desert
NEAR THE KUWAIT-IRAQ
FRONTIER ()--Reports of deser-
tions among troops of Iraqi Pre-
mier Abdel Karim Kassem are fil-

tering through to advance units of
the joint British-Kuwait defense
force.
Kuwait military sources told a
correspondent yesterday that dis-
satisfaction in Iraq's Basra garri-
son apparently reached a peak two
weeks ago when Kassem was
building up his troops on the fron-
tier. Basra is the man Trani port

Growing Tide of Refugees
Flee from East Germany
BERLIN (P)-Refugee officials yesterday registered and soothed
a swelling tide of men, women and children escaping from Communist
East Germany.
About 4,000 are estimated to have slipped across the border at the
weekend from East to West Berlin, the only easy escape route left.
They apparently were leaving now for fear that Communist efforts

time social workers, even at the
risk of their jobs.
The points cited:
Cutting off welfare payments
after three months for all except
the blind and infirm.
Halting payments to mothers of
illegitimate children who continue
to bear children out of wedlock.
Distributing vouchers instead of
cash to welfare claimants.
Restricting payments to each
recipient to no more than the
minimum salary received by a
municipal worker with a family of
comparable size.
The newspaper said the four
fulltime caseworkers, all civil serv-
ice employes, will refer all requests
to implement the major points of
the program to acting welfare
commissioner Doris B. Harding.
A ub Claims
Nations Allied
NEW YORK (R) - President
Ayub Khan of Pakistan, on his
vay home after a week's visit to
this country, said yesterday his,
nation is a friend of the United
States-and not a neutral one.
"We are not neutralists," he told
A. "Pw na n fnoro,.P "IWX h 'r-o -

[CAPE CANAVERAL:
Bad Weather Grounds Astronaut Rocket,

By The Associated Press
CAPE CANAVERAL-The United States was forced to postpone
its attempt to hurl astronaut Virgil I. Grissom into space today be-
cause of weather conditions.
The 24-hour postponement came just as scientists and technicians
were preparing to resume the countdown for the nation's second
attempt to hurl a man into space.
An announcement at 10:30 p.m. last night said the Cape launch-
ing area had become obscured by a multiple cloud layer at 10 p.m. and
there were no prospects for improvement in less than 24 hours.
Pressure Wave
The National Aeronautics and Space Agency attributed the devel-
opment of the clouds to an easterly high pressure wave which has been
moving across the Caribbean for the last three days. I
The NASA announcement, which came after consultation with a
special team of United States weather burea meteorologists, said the
weather was expected to improve by the end of the next 24 hours.
As matters now stand, the launching of the astronaut is scheduled
for 6 a.m. EST tomorrow.
Continued Tension
For astronaut Virgil Grissom this means another 24 hours of
tension and a continuation of the low pressure diet on which he was
placed Sunday in preparation for the man-in-space effort.
The cloud development would limit picture taking capabilities and
the space agency's experts want full camera coverage of the shot from
hefnff fn h.,--r

to change the status of Berlin,
might soon close that exit.
Hundreds braved a heavy rain
to make the crossing yesterday.
Experts reported the share of
young teachers, engineers and
trained technicians was signifi-
cantly high, although ordinary
workers made up the bulk of the
movement.
There were estimates that more
than 10,000 refugees reached West
Berlin last week, as compared with
an average rate this year of about
4,000 a week. This increase, how-
ever, still fell short of the mark
established just before the abortive
East German uprising of 1953. The
rate rose then to more than 16,000
a week.
The refugees lined up under
umbrellas for registration at the
Marienfelde refugee camp, were
the human side of the Berlin and
German questions now being de-
bated in major capitals.
The United States, France and
Britain gave Soviet Premier Nikita
Khrushchev yesterday their an-
swer to his Junes4 memorandum on
Germany. They were reported con-
sidering further steps to counter-
act Khrushchev's threat to sign a!
separate peace treaty with East
Germany.
Delegates Agree

White House
Denies Rumor
Of Resignation
WASHINGTON (A') - Under-
secretary of State Chester Bowles
met with President John F. Ken-
nedy, and afterwards the White
"It's obvious he's staying."
House said:
No Resignation
Before the session, an unidenti-
fied administration source said
Bowles "has neither resigned -
nor has his resignation been asked
for, and his 'resignation is not
currently expected.'
White House Press Secretary
Pierre Salinger noted Bowles is
leaving Monday on a long-planned
18-day trip to Africa, the Middle
East and Asia. He did not say
what Bowles' plans are after this
mission.
The New York Times, the New
York News, the Washington Post
and the Washington Star printed
stories yesterday reporting that
Kennedy is believed ready to ask
Bowles to resign and accept a
post as ambassador.
Other Resignation
The Times said also that direc-
tor Allen nule r nd nthrto +nIl

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