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July 08, 1961 - Image 2

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Michigan Daily, 1961-07-08

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Seventy-First Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
"Where Opinions Are Free UNDER AUTHORITY, OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
'Truth Will Prevail' STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
SATURDAY, JULY 8, 1961 NIGHT EDITOR: JUDITH OPPENHEIM

NATiON'S SCHOOL SYSTEM:
Federal Education Aid Necessary

HUAC Re-opens
Affidavit Controversy

(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the last
In a three-part analysis of the
needs of the nation's school sys-
tem.)
By JUDITH OPPENHEIM
Daily Staff Writer
MOST OF THE PROBLEMS of
American education which
could be reduced by standardizing
curricula, consolidating schools
and dividing students according
to ability, require funds which the
local districts cannot afford.
The root of the academic prob-
lems is the fact that small dis-
tricts cannot afford to offer yaried
curricula and cannot establish
high standards because they can-
not pay decent salaries for their
teachers.
The annual salary of teachers
varies so widely from state to
state and within states that quali-
fied teachers gravitate to the
better paying districts. Fewer and
fewer qualified teachers are em-
ployed in districts that don't pay
well and the quality of instruction
moves downward.
Facilities also vary in direct

proportion to the funds available
for equipment and supplies.
Statistics on the number of
students attending school in fire-
traps, one room school houses and
unused religious buildings are
staggering. Other schools lack li-
braries, cafeterias, gymnasiums
and shops.
ALL THIS of course is taking
place during a time when the
school age population is growing
tremendously. For every 72 stu-
dents in American classrooms in
1945, there are 121 today, and by
1965 there will be 136.
This means that in order to
provide space for inceasing num-
bers, schools must convert to half-
day sessions and cut all "extras"
from their programs.
The major source of income for
public high schools is the local
community. Much of the local re-
venue comes from property taxes.
Recently localities have found
they have reached the limits of
taxation possibilities.

The New York Times reported
that approximately 93 per cent
of the educational dollar comes
from property taxes which cannot
possibly go up as fast as school
costs. The other seven per cent
is received from sales and amuse-
ment taxes which fluctuate so
widely that it is very difficult to
predict their amount from one
year to the next.
Many school districts are bond-
ing themselves so heavily they are
endangering future revenue for
current operating expenses. This
eliminates the possibility of long-
range plans for construction and
development.
Meanwhile, other districts can-
not eliminate theirdeducational
slums because they have no re-
sources to supply the money they
need. Once funds are obtained,
the school boards must face the
problem of how they can simul-
taneously improve teachers' sal-
aries and provide adequate facili-
ties.

I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I
do'not believe in, and am not a member of
and do not support any organization that
believes in or teaches, the overthrow of
the United States government by force or
violence or by any illegal or unconstitu-
tional methods.
-Disclamer Affidavit
SHE WISDOM and necessity of the dis-
claimer affidavit are once again being
brought under close questioning.
The President's education bill-calling for
continuation of the National Defense Educa-
tion Act-asks for the dropping of the con-
troversial affidavit, now a condition for re-
ceiving a student loan.
The protests about the disclaimer have
arisen most sharply in connection with the
NDEA funds. Many universities and colleges,
private and state-supported, have either drop-
ped out of the program completely because of
the provision (Harvard, Yale, University of
Chicago) or protested against it while still
participating (the University).
The debate, rekindled by Kennedy's re-
quest, has been blown into a full-fledged con-
flagration by a House Un-American Activities
Committee screening of the names of graduate
students holding National Science Foundation
fellowships and other federal education grants.
HUAC interest in the political activities of
graduate scientists was perked up by the case
of Edward L: Yellin, a graduate student at the
University of Illinois, whose $3,800 NSF grant
was recently cancelled because his conviction
for contempt of Congress might result in his
inability to complete the period of the grant.
Yellin's conviction-which carries a one-year
jail term-came after his refusal to cooperate
with a HUAC investigation three years ago.
As FAR AS YELLIN'S CASE is concerned,
the Champaign-Urbana Committee on the
Yellin Case seems right in its contention that
NSF was pressured by congressmen to cancel
the grant.
Yellin, a graduate student at the University
of Illinois, is awaiting an appeal to the Su-
preme Court on his conviction. It is very
unlikely that the decision, whatever it is, will
come in time to imprison him before June
1962, the expiration date on the grant.
No one has proven that Yellin is a traitor
to the United States or that he is a member
of the Communist party. His research, in bio-
medical engineering, does not involve national
security nor does it necessitate reference to
classified information.

No charges of perjury were levelled at Yellin.
They could have been (since he did sign the
loyalty oath and disclaimer affidavit) if NSF
thought he was a subversive.
As for the new HUAC screenings, there is
no reason not to believe that they too will
intimidate freedom of belief and association
as past probes have. Constitutional rights will
be violated and worse still-from a practical
point of view-some students will be labelled
Communist without being legally charged. They
will lose well-earned and seriously needed
financial grants.
THE DISCLAIMER AFFIDAVIT, at the base
of all these screenings, is unnecessary and
intimidating. The Smith Act already makes it
illegal to belong to such organizations as out-
lined in the affidavit. The present tense of the
wording of the disclaimer and the affixing
of a specific date to its signing legally binds
the signer to disclaim subversive belief and
affiliation for only a single afternoon. What
he does afterward is not of legal significance.
But the obligation to remain constant in
this "unbelief" is strong. If one begins to
subscribe to illegal means of changing the
government at a later date, he really ought
to inform the necessary governmental agencies.
In any case, his political and economic career
are doomed if some group like HUAC does
discover he's changed his mind.
The disclaimer renounces the principles of
revolution which created this country, prin-
ciples just recalled in this Tuesday's speeches
and demonstrations. These principles are es-
ential ones for combating tyranny over an in-
dividual's thought and his society's actions.
THE INVESTIGATIONS will, as always, fail
to demonstrate an effective Communist
conspiracy in the United States and won't
contribute to any new and effective federal
legislation.
The case against the disclaimer affidavit
may suffer from the HUAC screenings, how-
ever. The effective propaganda weapons of the
committee-which has stalled Congressional
drives to cut off its appropriations-will be
brought forth to demonstrate the necessity of
the provisions.
One must be at least grateful that the dis-
claimer affidavit is going to be discussed and
debated. It is an optimistic and probably an
unfounded view that hopes the debate will be
a calm and rational one, devoid of "Red her-
rings" and ill-based accusations. But it is at
least a hope.
-MICHAEL OLINICK

:
t

ALTHOUGH THE PROBLEM of
lack of funds is nationwide, there
are naturally vast differences
among various areas, so that a
student in Mississippi (compared
to a student in Westchester
County) is doomed before he
starts to inferior buildings, con-
ditions, standards and teachers.
The solution to the problem
must lie in the utilization of other
resources. For in the poorer parts
of the country, even the taxing
power of the states is unable to
produce enough funds to support
the schools.
The only answer is for the
federal government to shoulder
as much of the burden of public
schoolueducation as the localities
and states are unable to afford.
State and local debt has risen
more than 250 per cent since 1946,
while the federal debt has risen
on six per cent.
GENERALLY acceptable plans
for federal support are difficult
to find. Probably the best sort
of program would be one which
offered the schools support on the
basis of the locality and state's
inability to pay, providing the
locality and state contributed as
large a part of the finances as
could reasonably be expected.
Standardized text books and f a-
cilities could be insured by this
program as well as equalized and
generally higher teachers' salaries
to attract better instructors to
areas of the country where the
educational level is low.
Those who fear federal support
for elementary and secondary edu-
cation fear that the schools will
dictate every move that the teach-
er makes and thus render in-
dividual expression impossible.
Guarantees would have to be
provided so that instructors felt
free to criticize the government
if they desired and to express any
of their own ideas on topics rele-
vant to the class discussion.
Teachers would also have to be
permitted to use any supplemen-
tary texts or materials they con-
sidered useful and to recommend
to their classes any additional
reading regardless of whether the
contents were controversial.
At the same time that personal
freedoms would be carefully safe-
guarded under such a nationally
controlled system of education,
federal regulations would be more
effectively enforced.
There would no longer be any
opportunity for Southern schools
to evade anti-discrimination rul-
ings, or to use text books which
distort the facts about the Civil
War.'
Those- who are concerned about
the quality of American education
are wisely concerned. But they
must realize that "American edu-
cation" is a national institution
and that the basic issues to be
solved require national planning
and control.
Modern
Scrofula
"THE LARGEST LOBBY in
Washington last year, accord-
ing to the official statements of
expenditure, was neither the AFL-
CIO nor the National Association
of Manufacturers, but the Nation-
al Education Association. It spent
. its money largely to promote the
most far-reaching of the proposals
for federal aid to elementary and
secondary education .. .
"Few issues illuminate so
sharply the contemporary left's
faith in the Royal Touch of more
money-preferably spent by gov-
ernment, by the largest possible
unit of government. With the
charm of several billion dollars,

all the scrofulas of modern so-
ciety will vanish.
"There may be a certain amount
of truth in this regard to sewage
plants (ignoring the fact that
local action is almost invariably
cheaper), but it will not hold for
education."
--John Weicher
New Individualist Review

MICHIGAN:
Mills Stars
As Twins
In 'Trap'
WITH THE noticeable excess of
situation domestic comedies on
television, it seems improbable that
a motion picture presenting a for-
mula of husband-wife conflict and
darling but mischievous children
could create much audience en-
thusiasm.
Walt Disney has disproved this
hypothesis with his usual film
magic in "The Parent Trap" which
must go down as one of the funni-
est, if not the funniest, picture of
the year. Of course, in Disney's
plot the husband and wife are
Idivorced but after a hilarious se-
quenceofbevents, they are man
and wife once more united in bliss-
ful matrimony.
The reason for this, and the
main reason why the picture is a
tremendous success, is teenager
Hayley Mills portraying twins. Al-
though her acting ability in "Polly-
anna" was directed in a different
vein, the blond Miss Mills provides
a refreshing humor through ges-
ture, grimace and a sense of timing
in delivering her lines.
The picture is filled with other
stars: hefty Brian Keith (The
Texan on television) and re-
haired Maureen O'Hara provide
the romantic interest, interrupted
by 13 years and a young attractive
gold digger (Joanna Barnes). Leo
G. Carroll, Una Merkel and Charlie
Ruggles are cast in, supporting
roles and bring them off in ex-
cellent fashion. Cathleen Nesbitt is
also amusing in her performance.
Hayley Mills (Sharon) and Hay-
ley Mills (Susan) find themselves
immediately at odds when they
confront each other at summer
camp and find they are look-alikes.
As punishment for their pranks
played on each other, they are
made, to live together in the same
cabin and soon they discover that
they are twin sisters whose parents
dvorced each other years ago. They
then unite in purpose to bring
their mother living in Boston and
their father living in California
back together.
To accomplish this, they switch
identities, so that the twin living
in Boston goes to California and
vice versa. They each want to see
their other parent and then plan
to reveal their true identities so
that the mother must bring the
wrong twin back to the father and
pick up the right one.
The plan works to perfection,
even though father is plagning to
marry Miss Barnes. The two girls
team up to prevent this unex-
pected marriage plan and in the
end bring the two parents to re-
marry. They eliminate Miss Barnes
on a camping trip with a few tricks
picked up at girls' camp.
Although most Disney movies
are accompanied with a lot of
ballyhoo that many times is better
than his picture, this movie was
given an enormous advance bill-
ing. The result certainly lives up
to and surpasses the publicity. The
traditional slapstick and muggig
and the unbelievable situations ae
all turned in just such a way as to
make them humorous. If the plot
sounds too contrived, the humor
and character portrayal definitely
makes that criticism seem unim-
portant.
Miss Mills' portrayal of twins
is aided by trick photography and
by her ability to make the two
seem believable as individuals.
She clowns through a rock 'n roll
number with a 'double-recorded
voice. With this performance she
may repeat with the special Acad-
emy Award presented to her last
year for "Pollyanna."
-Michael Burns

Testing
" UITE A FEW devices which
,need practical testing have
been developed in the Soviet Un-
ion. This testing, of course, will
... enable us to improve the tech-
nology of their manufacture. If
in reply to the resumption of nu-
clear tests by the Western powers
we did not start testing our weap-
ons we would damage the defense
potential of our country and of
the entire Soviet community."
-Nikita S. Khrushchev

4

A

:l

Korean 'Hot Potato'

THE SOVIET UNION announced Thursday
that it has signed a mutual defense pact
with North Korea in order to help fight against
the "growing'threat" of aggression from South
Korea.
In announcing the pact Premier Khrushchev
noted that the recent Seoul coup had estab-
jished "a regime of open military-fascist
dictatorship."
From this action it is apparent that the
USSR is setting itself up as North Korea's
protector in the place of Communist China,
wlich openly gave support to that nation's
Green Pastures
RECENTLY, there has been much furor over
the inadequacy of the University's budget,
Cutbacks in admissions, curtailment of ex-
pansion and the trimester plan have resulted.
The Legislature and the Detroit newspapers
have commented on the advisability of some
of these plans-and some legislators suggested
that the curtailment in admissions was un-
necessary, a "propaganda" move. The costs
of new buildings, instructors' salaries and ex-
panded programs have all been discussed, but
there is one, ever-present expense that no one
has tried to curtail or question-the expensive,
bureaucratic, inefficient plant department.
IN THE FALL, it is an interesting spectator
sport to watch six men take two hours to
rake about twenty square feet of grass. There
is a fine, practised technique in the way that
two smoke, two talk and the other two make
sporadic assaults on the leaves. Hi-fi fans
can experience a really new sound by listening
to the mechanical twig-masticator as it blasts
the peace of the central campus ferociously
mulching two-inch twigs.
There is an almost Kafka-like strangeness in
the multitude of University trucks that roar
about the campus. Why are there so many of
them? Where are they all going? Why are
they always empty?
One seriously wonders whether time-motion
studies have ever been made of plant depart-

aggression against South Korea in the Korean
War.
Khrushchev pledged that "if an attack is
made on the Korean Democratic People's Re-
public, the Soviet Union will regard it as an
attack against itself, and will support the
Korean Democratic Republic with all force
and by every means."
Until recently, the USSR has had very little
to do, officially, with the North Korean Re-
public, although it supplied her with Russian-
built weapons during the Korean conflict.
The United States has expressed its support
for the ousted South Korean government of
John M. Chang rather than that of the new
regime.
IT SEEMS, that the new South Korean gov-
ernment, by its own actions, has rendered
itself a political "hot potato" which neither
side cares to support. It has become to radical
for its own good.
Although the new government has expressed
a pro-Western foreign and internal policy
(specifically pro-United States) it would be
cold-war suicide for the United States to give
its support because actions taken by that same
government, in carrying out its "pro-United
States" foreign and internal policy, smack
very highly of Fascism, as Premier Khrush-
chev has remarked.
Nevertheless, the United States is still put
in a bad light by the whole situation, which
is being used by the Communists for propa-
ganda purposes.
Khrushchev has openly stated that the United
States is supplying the present South Korean
army with weapons; the Communist propa-
ganda machine has already begun to tick, and
yet so far the United States has done nothing.
But it is interesting to note that the United
States has registered no protests concerning the
recent wave of apparently unjust political
arrest and executions in South Korea, in con-
trast to the furor raised by the so-called
"colliseum trials" in Cuba, of essentially the
same nature.
OUR DEFENSE at the present is to stop
foreign aid to South Korea. This action

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The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
responsibility. Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3519 Administration Building,
before 2 p.m., two days preceding
publication.
SATURDAY, JULY 8
Events Saturday
Doctoral Examination for Lee Graves
McKnight, Chemistry; thesis: "Reac-
tions of Water Vapor, Oxygen and Car-
bon Dioxide on the Surface of Metal-
lic Sodium," Sat., July 8, 3003 Chem-
istry Bldg., at 9:30 a.m. Chairman, L.
0. Brockway.
Student Recital: Joellen K. Bonham,
pianist, will present a recital Sat.,
July 8, 8:30 p.m. in Aud. A, in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for
the degree Master of Music Education.
Compositions by Bach, Beethoven, Hin-
demith, and Chopin. Open to the pub-
lic.

Events
Faculty Recital:

Sunday
Robert Noehren, or-

ganist, will present an all-toccata pro-
gram on Sun., July 9, 4:15 p.m., in Hill
Aud. He will play the compositions of
Bach, Frescobaldi, Dupre, De Malein-
greau, Badings, Reger and Karg-Elert.
Open to the public without charge.
Events Monday
Doctoral Recital: Joseph Work, viol-
ist, will present the second of three
recitals in partial fulfillment for the
degree Doctor of Musical Arts on Mon.,
July 10, 4:15 p.m., in the Rackham
Assembly Hall. Compositions by Biber,
Honegger, Mozart-Courte, and Hinde-
mith. Open to the public.
Educational Film Preview: Mon.,
July 10 at 2 p.m. in Schorling Aud.,
University School. South America and
Tropical Africa.
Lecture: "Teaching English to the
Slow Student" will be discussed on
Mon., July 10 at 4 p.m. in Aud. C by

Donald Miller, William Woods College,
Missouri.
Doctoral Examination for John Rich-
ard Piazza, Metallurgical Engineering;
thesis: "High Temperature Phase Equi-
libria in the System Carbon-Oxygen-
Uranium," Mon., July 10,.4219East
Engineering Bldg., at 9:00 a.m. Chair-
man, M. J. Sinnott.
Placement
The following schools have listed
teaching vacancies for the 1961-62
school year.
Niles, Mich.-Teacher Counselor.
Pinckney, Mich.-English/History in
the high school.
Jackson, Mich. - German/French or
German/Spanish.
For any additional information con-
tact the Bureau of Appointments, 3528
Admin. Bldg., NO 3-1511, Ext. 489.
The La Chatelainie in St. Blaise,
Switzerland, has a teacher vacancy for
Sept. 1961 for a female teacher of
mathematics who can offer basic al-
(Continued on Page 3)

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