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July 07, 1961 - Image 2

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Publication:
Michigan Daily, 1961-07-07

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"Bone in the Soviet Throat"

Seventy-First Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
"Where Opinions Are Free' UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
Truth Will Prevail" STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. " ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
FRIDAY, JULY 7, 1961 NIGHT EDITOR: MICHAEL OLINICK

STATE THEATRE:
Simple Spyman
Triumphs Over All
DANNY KAYE struggles with German generals and bad lines in his
latest film, "On The Double."
"Mr. Fun," as Kaye is dubbed on the ads for the show, succeeds
both against the generals and the lines, and the picture, if not one
of his greatest, is still worth seeing.
Playing an American soldier in Britain in 1944, Kaye is selected
to impersonate a high British officer at work planning the invasion of
France. The Nazis, it seems, are out to get the officer.
The invasion planner has a beautiful wife (Dana Wynter) and a

i

U.S. Policy
On Red China Changing

CHIANG KAI-SHEK is reportedly worried
about a possible change in United States
policy toward Nationalist China. It has cer-
tainly taken Washington a long time, but
officials now seem to realize it is necessary to
completely overhaul our attitude and actions
in support of the Nationalist government.
We have been finding out more and more
in the last eleven year that Nationalist China,
unlike Berlin, is not an enclave of freedom
being defended amidst tyranny. On the con-
trary, Chiang has shown himself a dictator
in a true right-wing tradition. And he has
skillfully played upon the anti-Communist
sympathies of the American people to get
constant support for his dictatorship.
But the United States is waking up to find
that Chiang is not only a, dictator that we
defend in the name of freedom, but that there
is no realistic possibility of his ever returning
successfully to the mainland. Yet we cannot
abandon Formosa to the Communists without
losing a great deal of prestige.
So Washington is considering conferring
with Thomas Liao who is head of a self-styled
Formosan independence movement with head-
quarters in Japan. If Liao truly wishes to
promote reform and freedom in Formosa and
is sufficiently anti-Communist, there is a
definite possibility that the United States
could decide to get rid of Chiang and help
install Liao.
If- Liao were to head Formosa (with the
above conditions) then the United States
would have some justification for defending
the island. We could be truly defending a
free country.
BUT THE SITUATION probably most worri-
some to Chiang is not so hypothetical. It
appears that the State Department is be-
coming more and more resigned to the admis-
sion of Red China to the United Nations. And

despite official assurances that the step will
never be taken, there has been increasing talk
in support of U.S. recognition of Red China
by various public figures. Tnder-Secretary of
State Chester Bowles has been a leading ad-
vocate of the two Chinas plan.
What-if anything- the United States could
do to prevent Red China's admission to the
UN is questionable. The neutralist Afro-Asian
nations could probably carry any General As-
sembly vote in Red China's favor whether or
not the United States gives its support to the
move.
FURTHER, we can no longer disregard the
existence of Red China and its probable
permanence. Any refusal to recognize it as
the legitimate government of China on moral
grounds is ridiculous, if only because we rec-
ognize so many other governments (Spain,
Portugal, the Dominican Republic) that are
neither democratic nor "moral".
The Red Chinese are in control of the main-
land. Their government is firmly established.
Our foreign policy has too long suffered
through lack of contact with events on the
mainland, we appear much like Don Quixote
to Asian observers.
Continuation of our clearly inane policy can
do nothing but hurt United States prestige. If
there were moral justification for keeping an
otherwise embarrassing policy, if we were clear-
ly in the right even though it made us seem
ridiculous, then we should defend China. But
we are not right to support one despotism
against another. We cannot back one petty
little dictator simply because he is anti-Com-
munist.
All these considerations seem to be under
serious consideration now in Washington. Per-
haps Chiang really does have something to
worry about.
-DAVID MARCUS

NATION'S SCHOOL SYSTEM:
Ability Grouping Advisable

Common Market Problems

IN THE PAST WEEKS the situation in the
European Common Market tussle has become
a good deal clearer.
The British government would like to take
Great Britain into the Common Market, if it
could. The other countries of the European
Free Trade Association have announced they
would like to join or associate with the Com-
mon Market, if they could.
Britain could join if in doing so it were
not required to ruin the New Zealand farmer
and add to unemployment in Canada; and
if it could still keep its market freely open to
its Stockholm convention partners like Swit-
zerland and Sweden. These EFTA countries,
too, could associate with the Common Market
if nonpolitical terms of association could be
offered to them.
F, HOWEVER. Britain were required to put
tariffs on New Zeland and Canadian goods
none now exist the free world would in no
wise be benefited; if Britain were required to
break up the Commonwealth nobody would
gain; if it were required to disassociate itself

from its EFTA partners no true progress would
have been made, for Europe would remain
divided.
Membership on these conditions thus would
be an act of desperate folly and the urging
of membership on these conditions is a dis-
service to the causes of unity and freedom.
WHAT has yet to be discovered before prog-
ress can be made is whether the Common
Market 'is prepared to offer other conditions.
If it is, none now need doubt that the whole
West can draw much closer-and will do so.
If it is not, the serious danger of division in
the West remains; to "bring Britain into
Europe" at the expense of the Commonwealth
and the Western European neutrals would be
to produce a worse division still.
Therefore the first requirement now from
the diplomats of the Western Alliance is an
open agreement openly arrived at with the
Common Market that it will hold out one hand
to the Commonwealth and the ether to the
neutrals. With that knowledge the free world
can close its ranks.
-CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR

(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the
second of a three-part analysisof
the needs of the nation's school sys-
tem.)
By JUDITH OPPENHEIM
Daily Staff Writer
ONE OF THE MAIN features of
several European educational
systems is class division accord-
ing to academic ability. This type
of grouping is already in practice
in several American high schools
and is found to be working suc-
cessfully.
In his study of American high
schools, published in 1959, former
Harvard president James B. Con-
ant argues the need for ability
grouping in all high schools.
"In the required subjects and
those elected by students with a
wide range of ability, the students
should be grouped according to
ability, subject by subject. For
example: in English, American
history, ninth grade algebra, biol-
ogy and physical science, there
should be at least three types of
classes. The middle group could
be further divided."
This grouping would not need
to be "across-the-board." For ex-
ample, a student might be in the
top section in Algebra but in the
middle section in English.
UNDER such a system, the stu-
dent has an opportunity to pro-
gress at his own rate of speed
and students with special ability
or interest in a certain field would
be able to do supplementary work.
Students who had no intention
of going on to college would be
required to take only certain aca-
demic classes and could take
courses in shop, mechanical draw-
ing, home economics and similar
subjects if they chose. Schools in
areas where most graduates enter
a particular occupation such as
farming could offer courses which
would benefit the local student
particularly.
Ability grouping of this sort is
often criticized as being "undem-
ocratic" because it does not of-
fer the benefits of identical course
material to all.
As one professor of education
has commented, however, "Ameri-
cans used to the idea of equal op-
portunity for all are mistaking
this to mean the same education
for all. The schools are abandon-
ing their role of preparing for a
society based upon the strengths
of individual differences and are
accepting a society based upon
the weaknesses of the 'all-too-
common man.'

"If we are committed to edu-
cating every student to the limit
of his ability, which I believe we
are, we cannot do so by educating
them all together in the same
way."
THE S P E C I AL Rockefeller
Foundation Report on United
States Education, made in 1958,
stated that stimulation of the in-
dividual to make the most of his
potentialities should be an ob-
jective of all education.
"The general academic capacity
of students," the report says,
"should be at "least tentatively
identified by the eighth grade as
the result of repeated testings
and classroom performance in the
elementary grades.
"Ah adequate system would in-
sure that each student would then
be exposed to the sort of program
that will develop to the full the
gifts which he possesses."
Those who fear that the results
of an arbitrary test would con-
demn a student to a class level
below his actual abilities point
with horror to the "11-plus exam"
administered in Britain to deter-
mine whether a student continues
Big
"JF the Department of Justice is
right in its contention that
the Constitution requires the
states to provide public education,
George Orwell's "Big Brother"
may be coming to live with us after
al. .
"If this is a constitutionally
sound position, what limit is there
to the reach of the federal author-
ity? If the federal government is
authorized by the Constitution to
decree that education is a neces-
sity, and that the states must
provide it, it is a very short step
indeed to assumption by the fed-
eral government of responsibility
also to decree what must be
taught, by whom it must be taught
and how it must be taught . .
"Does the ultimate power to de-
cide what is and what is not a
necessity for the residents of the
states reside in the federal courts?
If so, "Big Brother" has taken over
in Washington-and much sooner
than we anticipated."
-Washington Evening Star

with academic studies and goes on
to college or follows either a more
general curriculum ending by his
fourteenth year or a trade school
course.
The drawbacks of this examina-
tion, however, were noticed by the
British educators themselves. An
examination system would cer-
tainly not need to be the only..
method by which the class level
of a student would be determined.
General interest, past perform-
ances in class and improvement
could easily be taken into account
as well as other special circum-
stances.
An examination, however, would
serve as an initial basis for di-
viding students and could help
keep groupings more uniform on a
national basis.
* * *
OPPONENTS of the system who
argue that a method of ability
grouping would aid the gifted stu-
dent at the expense of the less
bright, claim that talented stu-
dents are needed in the classroom
to provide a challenge and stim-
ulate discussion.
A divided group is just as bene-
ficial to the slower student as to
the gifted child, however. Under a
system of homogeneous grouping,
the slower student can proceed at
his own pace so that he learns
the given material thoroughly and1
has an opportunity to raise ques-
tions and discuss points without1
being intimidated by the presence
of brighter students who are like-
ly to proceed more quickly and to
monopolize much of the teacher's
time.
The main requirement for a sol-
id homogeneous grouping system
is a large enough school district
to provide the requisite number
of students and teachers for more
than one section of each aca-
demic subject.
Small school districts often are
hard put even to assemble enough
students for one class of advanced
mathematics or foreign languages
and must frequently ask teachers
to "double," conducting courses on
topics they are really unprepared
to teach.
If, as Conant suggests in his
report, small school districts are
consolidated so that no high
school has fewer than 500 pupils,
there will be enough students to
comprise several different classes,
and the schools will be justified
in hiring teachers specially train-
ed in the individual academic
areas.

many-bellied mistress (Diana Dors
but not the mistress. As his im-
personator, Kaye is expected to
live up to these proclivities.
He fails.
As is so often the case in real
life, the meek low-born American
falls in love with the high-born
British Lady. And, as the realistic
example dictates, the love is re-
turned.
* * *
BUT this is not all. In case the
love motif doesn't completely sat-
isfy you, there is always the sight
of Kaye running around Berlin in
his underwear. (How he got to
Berlin had better be left unsaid.)
But while privateand Lady join
hands across the ocean (blood is
thicker than water) invidous
agents of the Third Reich are try-
ing their best to kill the private
who they think is planning the
invasion of France.
Will they succeed? For a while
their chances look excellent, but
then everything goes wrong for
them. The good guys, led by Kaye,
prove that the mild-mannered
will inherit the city of Earth.
At the end there is the celebra-
tion of the successful invasion (of
the German defenses) and an im-
pending marriage (of the beauti-
ful wife). The Germans, you see,
had the good taste to kill Husband
Number One without realizing it.
* * *
AND up to the end of the show
no one knows who the top rank-
ing Nazi spy really is. But all the
loose ends are tied together by
the masterful scriptwriters, and
the hero himself makes the vital
discovery.
Almost, though, he gets shot.
And he is saved by the same Al-
lied master-spy who decided to
risk Kaye's life in the first place.
So the irony of great drama, and
of real life, both add their bit to-
ward making this comedy really
funny.
-Peter Steinberger
Modern
Trend
'THE CLASSICAL liberals of the
eighteenth and nineteenth
centuries based their- optimistic
appreciation of mankind's future
upon the assumption that the mi-
nority of eminent and honest men
would always be able to guide by
persuasion the majority of infer-
ior people along the way leading
to peace and prosperity .. .
"We may leave it undecided
whether the error of these opti-
mists consisted in over-rating the
elite or the masses or both. At
any rate it is a fact that the im-
mense majority of our contem-
poraries is fanatically committed
to policies that ultimately aim at
abolishing the social order in
which the most ingenious citizens
are impelled to serve the masses
in the best possible way.
"The masses-including those
called the intellectuals-passion-
ately advocate a system in which
they no longer will be the cus-
tomers who give the orders but
wards of an omnipotent author-
ity ...
"Yet this outcome is not inevit-
able. It is the goal to which the
prevailing trends in our contem-
porary world are leading.
"But trends can change and
hitherto they always have chang-
ed. The trend toward socialism too
may be replaced by a different
one. To accomplish such a change
is the task of the rising genera-
tion."
-Ludwig von Mises
Modern Age

). Of course, he neglects the wife
to the
EDITOR
Eichmannn
To the Editor:
WE WERE CURIOUS to know
something of the background
of Peter Steinberger, night edi-
tor of the Michigan Daily. His
editorial "Israeli Justice and U.S.
Morality" seems to be the product
of an immature and rash mind,
and we wonder how he reached his
position on the Daily staff.
The use of the first person plur-
al "we" instead of the singular "I"
seems to be the prerogative of the
writers of editorials, and Mr.
Steinberger leaves no doubt that
he feels he is expressing the es-
sence of the thoughts of many
millions of Americans.
*4. *
IN HIS SECOND paragraph, Mr.
Steinberger dismisses the "two
purposes" of the Eichmann trial
in 44 words. The second purpose,
stated in the second of two sen-
tences, was that the Israelis " .
wanted to warn their Arab neigh-
bors and assorted others that it
doesn't pay to kill Jews." We fail
to see any justification for the
attitude that this was a purpose
of the trial, and we wonder how
the idea occurred to Mr. Stein-
berger. We would have been hap-
pier if Mr. Steinberger had given
more thought and space to this
topic.
In the 7th and 8th paragraphs
Mr. Steinberger writer: "We do
not like to hear of a man punish-
ed only for doing his duty, for
doing a good job. We can approve
any punishment for a personal
fault-for lust, or greed, or per-
verted ambition. But Eichmann,
as has become only too clear, is
the sufferer of none of these dis-
eases." Mr. Steinberger refers to
Eichmann's "love for efficiency,"
and "entirely normal ambition,"
and suggests that Eichmann was
"doing a good job." We do not see
what was normal about Eich-
mann's ambition, and we cannot
understand the attitude that as
long as man is doing his job well
and efficiently, he is in no way re-
sponsible for his actions.
THE UNIQUE and powerful Po-
sition an editorial writer has in
a community places certain re-
sponsibilities on his shoulders;
one of these, we believe, is for
the writer to always have his wits
about him, so that the opinions
he expresses, if not identical to
our own, can at least be seen to
have been derived in a logical and
sane manner from the particular
prejudice or point of view of the
editorialist. Mr. Steinberger, we
believe, has failed this responsibil-
ity.
-Stanley Bernstein, Grad.
-Robert B. Marcus, Grad.
Union
FOR MORE than a decade now,
the nations bordering the North
Atlantic have been living off the
capital provided by the great ini-
tiative of the Marshall Plan .
But with the achievement-indeed
the surpassing-of the vision of a
decade ago, it has become ever
more important to relate these
prosperous states to each other.
The leap forward required in the
next decade' is the creation of a
political framework that will go
beyond the nationalism which-has
dominated the past century and a
half."
--The Reporter

1

{

i

s

FROM OTHER CAMPUSES:
N-Bomb Testing

UJP ON CAPITOL HILL a bitter fight is going
on in secret hearings about whether or not
the United States should undertake to develop
an N-bomb. The neutron bomb would be a
revolutionary advance in atomic warfare, for
it would destroy life within its range but
would leave all other objects undamaged
and free from contamination.
Four years ago the possibility of developing
this weapon was revealed in secret testimony
by three scientists from the Livermore Radia-
tion Laboratory in California. Because of this
nation's voluntary halt to nuclear testing,
however, the plans for the N-bomb never
went beyond the disclosure stage and were
placed on the closet shelf while test ban talks
went on at Geneva.
Now that the Russians with their troika
stand have shattered any hopes for draft.-
ing a. treaty to end testing, the N-bomb design
has been brought back out and dusted off with
spirited discussion. The do-produce and the
don't-produce stands revolve around the ques-
Editorial Staff
MICHAEL BURNS..........................Co-Editor
SUSAN FARRELL...........................Co-Editor
DAVE KIMBALL.......................Sports Editor
RUTH EVENBUIS..................... Night Editor
MICHAEL OLINICK...................Night Editor
JUDITH OPPENHEIM ..................Night Editor
PETER STEINBERGER .................. Night Editor
__ It..

tion of "Is it needed?" and "Would it ever be
used as a battlefield weapon?"
THE ANSWER to the first query is yes. Be-
cause of events in Laos, fears have grown
in European countries recently that the United
States might not come to her defense if the
Russians started an all-out offensive. The
feeling is based on the fact that our defense
structure is still geared to a massive retalia-
tion policy while the strength of NATO has
not kept pace with the Communist troop
build-up in Europe. Europeans in some quar-
ters believe that if the Russians attacked
NATO would be overwhelmed, and the United
States, from her distant position, would be
forced to rely on and reply with heavy nuclear
weapons. This happening would not spare
Europe.
If the United States developed the N-bomb,
it could be turned over to the NATO establish-
ment, which it has hesitated to do with large
atomic weapons. The N-bomb's range can be
adapted to a variety of battlefield- conditions
and it would be entirely feasible for NATO's
weapons system. It would go a long way in
ameliorating our allies' concern over their
safety if the Russians started up trouble.
T HE ANSWER to the second question can-
not be determined empirically. The United
States and other NATO members will not
use any weapons unless they are forced into
it. What the designs of the Russians are no
one knows, but their threats toward Berlin are
ominous. The N-Bomb in the possession of
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