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July 06, 1961 - Image 2

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Michigan Daily, 1961-07-06

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- axs+f :Nj m r all mal
Seventy-First Year
Truth Will Prevail" STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily ex press the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This mus t be noted in all reprints.

Central Curriculum Control

Challenge Union Status
As Private Club

(LI)TORS NOE: hisis the
fir4 of ahree.-part analysis of the
needs of the nation's school sys-
l)AIy Staff Writer
VITHI ALL the recent fuss about
Soviet scholastic achievement,
it has become fashionably patri-
otie to denounce the American
system of education.
Writers and educators wring
their hands over the fact that
American sehools are not produe-
ng scienists, mathematicians and
translators of the calibre of their
Soviet counterparts. They cry for
something to be done to remedy
:he situation, but deplore the ef-
ficient means by which the Rus-
sians control their schools' out-
The "essential features" of the
Russian educational system, how-
ever, are not in the least incom-
patible with free education in a
democratic society, and are used
by several European countries, in-
cluding Great Britain.
Three of the main features are
centrally controlled curriculum,
ability grouping and state support,
They could easily and profitably
be applied to American school

ONE of the greatest problems of
American students entering col-
lege is the vast inequality exist-
ing between various areas of the
country. Some of the inequalities
are revealed by the percentages
of potential soldiers rejected by
the armed forces on the basis of
illiteracy. During the past ten
years 19.2 per cent of all candi-
dates for military training were
rejected. Of these 2.3 per cent were
from Utah, 9.3 per cent from Cali-
fornia, 13 per cent from Michigan
and New York, 22 per cent from
Texas, 36.1 per cent from Georgia
and 58.3 per cent from South Car-
In the July 1 issue of the Sat-
urday Evening Post, a 13-year-old
boy from Milan, Tennessee writes,
"I will be in the 8th grade when
school begins again in Septem-
ber, and they will still be feeding
us second-grade reading matter.
"At least that's the way of it in
Tennessee. I don't know about the
civilized world."
* * *
BUT in'many parts of the "civ-
ilized world" students are finding
the same problem. In rural school
districts, which cater to the needs
of local students who will not con-

vate club-- announced recently when two
non-members were asked to leave the Union
Grill-is being challenged.
The argument is simple. If the Union is in
fact a "private club" as its General Manager
Frank Kuenzel asserts, then membership ought
not to be compulsory. Since each male student
in the University has a sum deducted from his
general tuition payment for Union dues which
entitles him to life membership after eight
semesters, and since the student is given no
option in paying this sum, membership in the
Union is clearly compulsory.
(The University allocates a sum to the Union
from the tuition fees in its general fund, but
this sum is not based on per capita assessments,
Therefore, membership fees are not paid di-
rectly, but in effect each member contributbs
through his tuition payments.)
The letter recently sent to Union President
Paul Carder by a student requesting the refund
of the money deducted from his tuition pay-
ment for use by the Union will, at least, bring
the question to the attention of Union officials.
Presumably, they will recognize a certain logic
in the argument. They may even recognize that
such a request pinpoints the practical fallacy
of their contention that the Union is a private
INHERE IS A practical fallacy in that the
Union in reality functions as a public place.
Non-members are permitted to use certain
facilities (for example, the dining room, the
barber shop and-until recently-the Grill)
subject to none of the restrictions associated
with private clubs. They are not required to

acquire the status of a member's guest; they
are not charged rates in excess of those which
members pay. (All students - members and
non-members - are exempted from state tax
in the Michigan Union Grill, although life
members are not). Their status in using these
facilities differs in no observable way from the
status of members. The fact is that the public
uses the Union and that in this sense, the
Union is a public place.
Recognizing that the Union operates as a
public place, it is likely that its officials will
rely on its legal status as a basis upon which
to excuse the arbitrary ousting of persons whom
they consider "undesirable." It is upon this
basis that the request of the author of the
letter will likely be denied.
The Union has a peculiar status within the
University which, in turn, has a peculiar status
under law. Hence, there is some question as to
whether this now public, now private organiza-
tion can legally operate as it does.
MORALLY, however, and on the basis of com-
mon sense, there is not a question. The
Union functions as a public place. For all
practicaly purposes, it is a public place. An
argument to the contrary is theoretical and
sophistic. Moreover, the phenomenon of a pri-
vate club with compulsory membership is an
apparent contradiction.
Logically, if the Union wishes to be in fact
(rather than in expedient theory) a private
club, it is bound to meet the letter's request
and refund the money of one who does not
desire membership. The alternative is to deny
the request, thereby denying its status as a
private club.b

ITo The Editorj

U.S. Tesing Unjustifiable

warned that we may resume the testing of
nuclear weapons if the Russians do not stop
their trial runs. There is no justification for
such a resumption of American testing. Ethical
and practical reasons demand our continuation
of the present testing moratorium.
The two leading armed powers-the United
States and the Soviet Union - have already
stockpiled enough nuclear warheads so that
either one of them could level all existence from
this planet. The atomic bomb dropped on Hiro-
shima had the explosive power of 20,000 tons
of TNT. It killed 60,000 people and wounded
another 100,000. The largest weapon yet ex-
ploded by the United States was a hydrogen
bomb with an explosive capacity of 15 million
tons of TNT. It vaporized a Pacific island.
The proposed development of a neutron bomb
has recently been used as an argument for re-
sumption of the testing. This new bomb does
not rely on a fission-bomb trigger nor does it
release harmful radiation. It kills by the re-
lease of lethal neutrons-and has the dubious
advantage of merely destroying human life
while leaving homes, factories, arsenals and
other military fortifications unharmed.
This bomb is nowhere near the testing stage.
Nuclear scientists disagree about its feasibility
and the weapon is at present only ready for
preliminary laboratory studies.
will not hinder the development of this new
super bomb for several years. Even the resump-
tion of tests when the bomb is considered ready
for use seems a bit outlandish. How do you test'
a weapon which will not destroy inanimate
Paths of
MUCH HAS HAPPENED during the past few
months to create a climate of gloom and
frustration in the United States.
Castro jeers at the Yankees, the Communist
supported rebels advanced in Laos, and Ken-
nedy returns from Vienna told by Khrushchev
that the United States had better give in on
Visibly, and demonstrably, things have not
been going too well for America lately in
some areas.
Also, the United States has recently seen
the rapid growth of a quasi-secret political
movement within its midst, the John Birch
While its purported goal is to save this coun-
try from communism, we believe it portends
something far more deep and disturbing..
Admittedly small at present, its position as
a political force in this country has several
frightening precedents in the Europe of the
OTH Hitler and Mussolini were able to ex-
pand their followings, and come to power in
situations that in some ways could be well
likened to our own delay.
Hitler's coup d'etat in Germany followed a
war in which a people humiliated by Versailles,
ond imnnerisho hu 'tbneavinn wer ol +nn

objects unless you deliberately subject living
beings to a merciless death?
Practically speaking, the Russians may de-
velop a. better bomb faster if we do not con-
tinue testing but just continue stockpiling our
hydrogen bombs. Once you reach the point of
controlling means for total destruction, how-
ever, what is the sense of adding to your capa-
Resumption of tests of nuclear weapons will
only continue to increase the amount of radio-
active fallout about us. Now, we are continually
assured that this amount is well below the
maximum permissable dose, but the absolute
amount keeps getting closer, while the Atomic
Energy Commission keeps lowering its estimates
of this "safe" amount.
THE CALCULATED radioactive poisoning of
our own people and the propagation of un-
known infirmities on future generations is not
justified under any circumstance. When it is
done with no cause at all-"national security"
is already "guaranteed" by our ability to an-
nihilate everyone-it is a gross violation of any
rational code of ethical behavior.
A continued moratorium on nuclear testing,
coupled within intelligent disarmament pro-
posals, would demonstrate our desire to secure
the world against nuclear bombardment or
radioactive poisonings. As more and more na-
tions acquire atomic bombs, accident or just
plain folly will inevitably lead to disaster and
nuclear holacast.
We must prevent this from happening and
the best way to start is maintain our stand
of unilaterial test cessations.
ready to reject the democratic institutions of
the Weimar Republic.
Mussolini gave the Italian people much of
the same. Over and over again he told a poor,
and unhappy nation that they had, "Been
stabbed in the back," by the Allies following
World War I.
Although we can draw no exact parallels be-
tween the rise of Fascism in these two coun-
tries, and the growth of the John Birch So-
ciety in this country today, a few pertinent
similarities should be mentioned. While the
United States is far from being poor, and has
not tasted the anguish of defeat, we are begin-
ning to feel the discomfort of withdrawal.
IT IS NOT PLEASANT to talk of shifts in
world power, and to realize that we no
longer have the voice in the United Nations that
we once had. It is much easier to talk of in-
ternal subversion, and sinister workings from
within as others talked so well before of Inter-
national Bankers crippling from behind the
lines of battle. You can get mad and fight ene-
mies right next door with far greater ease, than
if you go half way around the globe to look for
them in any numbers.
Reading the Blue Book of the Birch Society,
we find much of the same cast of thought tat
dominates the totalitarian minds. To mention
a few examples we refer to nassages in ihe book

Union . .
To the Editor:
The following text is a copy of
a letter sent by me to Paul Carder,
president of the Michigan Union.
"In attempting to defend
the recent expulsion of two
persons from the Michigan
Union Grill, Mr. Kuenzel, gen-
eral manager, has maintained
that the Union is a 'private
club.' This assertion surprised
me and, probably, many oth-
ers. Up to now I had thought
that a male student's 'dues'
were taken automatically from
his tuition and that a male
student had no choice in de-
ciding whether to become a
Union 'member' or not. But if
the Union is a truly 'private
club,' thlen membership should
be voluntary, not compulsory,
"I therefore submit my res-
ignation from the Michigan
Union. I would like my 'dues'
for the summer session, which
were included in my tuition,
refunded as soon as possible."
-Victor J. Streeter, Grad.
Tro the Editor:
IN YOUR ISSUE of June 27 you
published an editorial entitled
"Israeli Justice and U.S. Morality"
which is based entirely on dis-
torted facts. The maincontention
of the editorial can be summar-
:"ed by the quotation: "We do
not like to hear of a man pun-
ished only for doing his duty, for
doing a good job." In making this
statement the editorial complete-
ly irnoes the evidence developed
both inside the present Jerusalem
trial and elsewhere-except for
Eichmann's own statements in his
defense before the Israeli tribunal.
This is indeed a strange selec-
tion of the available facts.
There exists for example the
autobipgraphy of Rudolf Hoess,
commander of the concentration
camp at Auschwitz and later dep-
uty inspector general of all con-
centration camps. In it he makes
the following remarks: "Even
when we were completely alone to-
gether and had loosened up after
a couple of drinks he (Eichmann)
showed that he was completely
obsessd with the idea of destroy-
ing every single Jew that he could
lay his hands on. He pointed out
that we must complete this exter-
mination as rapidly as possible
without pity and in cold blood.
Any compromise, even the slight-
est, would have to be paid for bit-
terly at a later date."
Further evidence concerning
Eichmann's guilt can be found in
the affidavit of SS Hauptsturm-
fuhrer Dieter Wisliceny given at

the Nuremberg war crimes trial in
1946. Wisliceny was a subordinate
of Eichmann. There are countless
other affidavits and statements
made by witnesses before the in-
ternational tribunal in Nuremberg
which all confirm Eichmann's re-
sponsibility. There are finally
Eichmann's personal memoirs. A
few edited excerpts of these were
published by LIFE last year. Here
he confirms (for example) his re-
mark made to Wisliceny a few
days before Germany's collapse
that he would jump into his grave
laughing because it gave him great
satisfaction to have the death of
five milion enemies of the Reich
on his conscience. Contrary to
your editorial Eichmann was not
merely following orders (and even
then his prosecution would have
been justified of course); but he
was actually one of the top five
persons in charge of the persecu-
tion and murder of Jews, and he
was the one person whose direct
and only task consisted in carry-
ing out this program.
In addition it must be asked
why his superiors.happened to se-
lect Eichmann to carry out the
mass extermination of Jews. Eich-
mann's first major assignment was
the one as head of the emigration
office for Jews in Vienna which
was created shortly after the in-
corporation of Austria into the
Reich. Eichmann's success in in-
ducing a large number of Aus-
trian Jews to emigrate was based
on terrorizing the Jewish popula-
tion. It was mainly this record in
Vienna that recommended him to
his superiors as head of the Jew-
ish Affairs Section of the Gesta-
po, entrusted with the so-called
"final solution of the Jewish ques-
tion." Consequently he was by no
means the hapless civil servant
who unwittingly stumbled into an
assignment distasteful to him and
then had to follow orders. But to
the contrary he had qualified for
his position by exceptional zeal,
eficiency, and brutality, and was
selected precisely because he had
the right qualifications and the
necessary enthusiasm for this par-
ticular task.
In conclusion I should like to
say that your editorial misrepre-
sents and partly ignores the avail-
able facts. In so doing the ten-'
dency of the editorial both con-
cerning Eichmann's responsibility
and Israeli justice is distinctly
pro-Nazi. I want to protest in the
strongest terms the presence on
your staff of a student with such
tendencies. There is no place on
the editorial board of a student
newspaper for a person who uses
his position to distort the facts
and engage in Nazi propaganda.
-Ernest G. Fontheim
Associate Research Physicist

inue their education beyond high
school, the college preparatory
student suffers from an impover-
ished curriculum
Of course the vast difference in
academic calibre is partly attrib-
utable to the fact that in the
metropolitan areas there is a
denser population, a greater num-
ber of students intending to go
on to college, and, hence, keener
It is also true, however, that the
schools in the metropolitan areas
turn out better students because
they have better facilities, higher
standards, more complete curric-
ula, better trained teachers and
more funds.
To raise standards and keep
them uniformly high, a school dis-
trict must begin with a large
enough student base and suffi-
cient funds to offer a variety of
classes in an attempt to meet as
far as possible the individual needs
of all the students.
IN HIS REPORT on the Ameri-
can high school published in 1959,
former Harvard president James
B. Conant said that any high
school with less than 500 students
is too small to provide the essen-
tials of sound secondary educa-
He proposed the consolidation
of rural schools so that there
would be a large enough base to
support full four-year courses in
mathematics, sciences and several
foreign languages.
A logical accompaniment to such
a consolidation is a nationally
controlled plan for curriculum su-
pervision which would, insofar as
possible, insure an equal educa-
tion to students in all areas of
the country.
Such a plan would constitute
a "curriculum laboratory" of the
sort advocated by Thomas H.
Briggs, emeritus professor of edu-
cation at Columbia University.
"Such a laboratory, beginning
with interpretation of the desired
objectives, woulduprepare the raw
materials for courses of study
which schools anywhere in the
nation could adapt to local needs.
"Individual schools can do
something about curriculum re-
form, and a few have done much
to bring about some improvement.
But no single school or school
system has the potentials in mon-
ey or in personnel, even if it has
the concern, to develop the com-
prehensive coordinated curricu-
lum directed toward objectives set
by the public, with, of course, the
wisest and most convincing pro-
fessional advice"
WHAT IS NEEDED is a group
of educational experts-perhaps
members of the faculties of sev-
eral leading universities - who
could determine, not on the basis
of the nation's military needs, but
on the basis of what can reason-
ably be expected of bright high
school-age students, the best sort
of fundamental curriculum.
This curriculum could then be
modified to meet the individual
needs of individual communities.
The local school board, often
composed of citizens who have no
real knowledge of the educational
needs of the community, would
thus be replaced by a national co-
ordinating board of experts whose
concern would be to raise the level
of education of the entire coun-
try. The function of the local
school board would then become
simply advisory. The group could
meet with representatives of the
national board and work on means
of adapting thelnational curricu-
lum to the locality's needs.
Proposals such as this are al-
ways greeted by a barrage of pro-
test from those who argue that lo-
cal autonomy is essential to the
functioning of schools in a free

As Robert M. Hutchins, former
president of the University of Chi-
cago, points out, "decentralization
in education is weak in that it re-
sults in provincial thinking and
action. The tradition that educa-
tion is a local matter with a cer-
tain amount of state supervision
and support must yield to the fact
that it is a national concern."

' ?

-Daily-Larry Jacobs
FIRST PERFORMANCE-The Stanley Quartet presented its first
summer concert last night. They will perform again on July 19
and August 2.
Stanley uatlet Spotty
SANDWICHING a contemporary quartet between two works of the
Classical period, the Stanley Quartet opened its summer concert
series at Rackham last night.
Starting with a Haydn quartet of Opus 76, a vintage opus for Haydn
quartets, the group produce a pleasing chamber music sound despite
some technical shortcoming and lack of tact in phrasing. Throughout
hte Haydn piece, the lower strings carried through with a solid accom-

paniment to first violinist Gilbert
Ross's somewhat imperfect presen-
tation of themes.
After this rather leisurely open-
ing, the Quartet switched to music
that is a far cry from Papa Hay-
dn's genial strains: Ross Lee Fin-
ney's Quartet No. 8. Using various
devices of contemporary chamber
music-such as group pizzicato and
glissando, with dissonance taken
for granted-the work proved a
difficult change of pace for the
The Finney piece, in one move-
ment, displayed a fouir-movement
series of alternating moods, from
slow and brooding to tense, back
to slow, capped by a photo-finish'
presto. The flutterings of a moth
which had lost its way in the audi-
torium provided interesting ac-
companiment to the presto's hectic
MOVING BACK to Classical
music and the Mozart C major
viola quintet, the group picked up
a guest artist, Lilian Fuchs, to
supply thesecond viola part (one
might wonder why the guest artist
was not given the much more sig-
nificant first viola part)'. Mozart's
viola quintets are sprinkled
through his works over a rather
large range, from the early Koe-
chel numbers until fairly late in
Mozart's career. The C major
quintet is not nearly as unconven-
tional a piece of Mozart as are
some of the earlier viola quintets.
In the C major work, K. 515, one
sees Mozart the "Hofmusikant,"
the court composer who is much
more familiar than is the brooding
tragic figure who appears in some
of the other quintets. As in the
Haydn work, Mr. Ross was in the
spotlight, but the results were a
bit disappointing. Discounting the
time he lost his place in the first
movement (which could haprcn to
anyone, and often does) Mr. Ross
lacked complete agreement inn-
po with his colleagues and missed
a free vibrato.
The projected programs of the
rest of the Stanley Quartet sum-
mer series include two late Bee-
thoven quartets, the Op. 130 and
the Op. 135, as well as the first
Bartok quartet.
--Mark lobin
" WISH to say for the benefit
of the President : . . that in
my judgment if he insists upon
his proposal to lift the ceiling in
regard to American military aid
to Latin America, we will pay
dearly in many parts of Latin,
America . .
-Sen. Wayne Morse


Me lodrama
"TEN DAYS That Shook the
World" may also 'shake its
audiences with laughter.
The movie, which portrays vari-
ous days of importance leading
eventually to the October revolu-
tion of 1917, suffers from an acute
case of party-line nationalism
that obscures many of its vir-
Understandable though this may
be in a film made to commemor-
ate the tenth anniversary of the
Russian revolution, one finds it
difficult to tolerate such a gross
over-dramatization of history
passing as art.
The crowds all yell "Lenin, Len-
in" ("The only man with a pro-
gram to save the nation") as he
arrives in Petrograd; the Bolshe-
vik philosophy spreads like wild-
fire amongst soldiers, farmers,
women, children and sailors; and
the, provisional government is a
corrupt tool of the old order that
has cheated the people out of
their revolution.
* * *
be in the film's view of history,
it is so melodramatically done
that the effect of sensitive cam-
era work and at least one fasci-
nating character portrayal is lost.
Eisenstein uses his camera to
produce a picture that, if it exag-
geratescertainlyacarries feeling.
If he has not captured the revo-
lution itself, he has at least caught
the spirit which he and many
others must have felt at its suc-
The portrayal of Kerensky is
very well done. He is depicted as
the saviour corrupted by power, ;a
Caesar or Napoleon.
Eisenstein uses the juxtaposition
of images and symbolism to de-
pict him. One first sees Kerensky,
then the picture changes immedi-
ately to a bust of Napoleon. Ker-
ensky stands before the chambers
of the Czar; then like Caesar, he
hesitates a moment and enters.
As the movie begins, there is a
warning not to take the story as
actual history, to regard it as a
"political cartoon." It is actually
more a political melodrama.
--David Marcus





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