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July 01, 1961 - Image 1

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Michigan Daily, 1961-07-01

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KUWAIT CHALLENGES
UNITED STATES
See Page 2

, t43Aau

~E~aitF

WARM, HUMID
High-90
Low-64
Chance of showers
in late afternoon.

Seventy Years of Editorial Freedom
VOL. LXXI, No.3S5 ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, SATURDAY, JULY 1, 1961 FIVE CENTS

FOUR PAGES

Tshombe To Retain
Independent Katanga
States Reversal of Earlier Decision
Before National Assembly Meeting
ELISABETHVILLE, Katanga (W)-President Moise Tshombe re-
versed himself yesterday and proclaimed that he will keep this copper-
rich land independent from the rest of the Congo, come what may.
"We shall defend an independent Katanga at all cost and will do
everything to maintain our nation in -the face of all opposition," the
Negro leader told his national assembly.
Tshombe was home again after two months of imprisonment
by President Joseph Kasavubu's central Congolese government in
Leopoldville, an imprisonment he,

PAUL C. KAUPER
.. freedom is- balanced

Court Seeks
New Balance
By FREDERICK ULEMAN
While the United States Con-
stitution protects the rights of the
individual to freedom of speech,
recent court decisions have indi-
cated thiat a balance must be
struck between personal liberty
and national interest, Prof. Paul
C. Kauper of the Law School said.
Prof. Kauper, in the last lec-
ture of the special summer school
for lawyers, further noted the wide
range of interpretation indicated
by the recent Supreme Court split
decisions.
The difference in opinion is
probably best represented by the
definitional and pragmatic inter-
pretations of the constitution, he
said.
No Abridgement
Justice Black, representing the
former, has called for absolutely
no abridgement of personal free-
dom, while Justice Frankfurter
has stated that freedoms are "sub-
ject to a rational exercise of leg-
islative power."
In one case, which established
individual liability-on a conspira-
cy charge, the majority opinion
of the court felt that the national
interest ,sanctions the restriction
of his personal liberty.
Justice'Black however, speaking
in disseit, referred to such a bal-
ance of interest interpretation as
"erosion upon and frittering away
of First Amendment freedoms."
Rule on NAACP
While affirming that members
of a political party which advo-
cates the violent overthrow of the
government must register its
membership, the court also ruled
that the NAACP, an organization
dedicated to legally approved
goals, need not make its mem-
bership list available if so doing
would result in reprisals against
them.
Thus, with an overwhelming
majority favoring registration of
the Communist party, the court
seems to be in general agreement'
with Justice Harlan's statement
that "no constitutional rights are
absolute."
In such an atmosphere, one can
expect future decisions of the Su-
preme Court to balance the na-
tional interest against personal
freedom before handing down a
decision.
Approve Aid
V ASHINGTON (P)-The Senate
Foreign Relations Committee yes-
terday called for a foreign aid
policy of "self-help" projects
geared to the needs of the people
in the countries receiving assist-
ance.
The committee tentatively ap-

blamed on "misinformed people."
Pledges Aid
He had pledged cooperation in a
national unification campaign
when he was freed. It was believed
that the release was contingent
on an agreement for Katanga's re-
entry as a Congo province and
sluicing of some of its copper reve-
nues to Leopoldville's depleted
coffers.
But there was widespread skep-
ticism at the time that Tshombe
would actually knuckle under. It
was evident yesterday that he
wouldn't.
Kasavubu's administration also
is wooing the Communist-backed
Stanleyville regime of Antoine Gi-
zenga, who claims the Congo pre-
miership as a deputy of the slain
Premier Patrice Lumumba.
Taught a Lesson
Tshombe said events since his
arrest last April as he sought to
leave the Coquilhatville confer-
ence of Congolese political chief-
tains have taught him a lesson,
and now "I shall work only for
Katanga's people and the nation."
The President said his govern-
ment showed the world during his
iniprisonment that Katanga can
produce able politicians, "thanks
to whom we were saved."
He and his top men exchanged
compliments.
However, only five ministers sat
on the government bench and only
a smallhnumber of deputies at-
tended the assembly session.
House Passes
Defense Costs
Of .$42 Billioon'
WASHINGTON (/)--The House
yesterday voted. $42,711 billion to
provide men, machines and mis-
siles for President John F. Ken-
nedy's stepped up defense pro-
gram.
The roll call vote was 412-0.
The bill, which now goes to the
Senate, is to finance the military
establishment for the year starting
July 1. The total is $6.24 million
short of the amount requested by
the administration.
The measure fully supported all
the major weapons and missile
programs that were beefed up by
the administration as well as the
more modest increases for limited
war forces and equipment.
The major departure from the
Defense Department's spending
plans was the addition of $448.8
for the continued production of
strategic bombers. This action was
taken despite the repeated state-
ments by Defense Secretary Robert
S. McNamara that he did not in-
tend to spend the money even if it
were provided.
The House also added money,
beyond Pentagon requests, to
maintain a ready military reserve
force of about 1,000,000-or 70,000
more than the administration
scheduled.
The measure provides funds to
support an active duty military
force of 2,511,900.

Senate Gives
Space Plans
Full Funds
WASHINGTON ()-The Senate
unanimously passed last night the
first authorization for President
John F. Kennedy's expanded mul-
ti-billion dollar space program.
It includes an effort to beat
Soviet Russia to the moon and
back with a manned spacecraft.
Sen. Robert S. Kerr (D-Okla),
chairman of the Senate Space
Committee, won voice vote passage
after brief debate of a $1,784,300,-
000 authorization for the civilian
space programs during the next 12
months.
Kerr told the few senators pres-
ent that programs now planned for
the National Aeronautics and
Space Administration will cost be-
tween $33 billion and $35 billion
in the next 10 years.
The only questions about the
plan for a landing on the moon
and return to earth came from
Sen. Gordon Allott (R-Colo).
Allott said he had been unable
to sleep nights thinking of the bil-
lions of dollars being poured into
the moonshot effort.
He suggested a more profitable
goal might be an orbital manned
spacecraft which could circle the
earth and, if necessary, destroy
any hostile enemy spacecraft.
Iraq Claims
New Areas
BEIRUT (A') - Iraq hinted yes-
terday at expansion of Premier
Abdel Karim Kassem's bid for an-
nexation of Kuwait to all the oil-
bearing regions of the Persian
Gulf's west coast.
Radio Baghdad hoisted a trial
balloon in the Middle East storm
stirred up by Kassem's claim Sun-
day to Kuwait, an oil-wealthy
little sheikdom he covets as "Iraq's
southern district."
The station declared the Iraqi
people are cabling congratulations
to Kassem on his move to "liber-
ate Kuwait" and urging him to
"save all the other rings in the
chain of the Persian Gulf ter-
ritories and return them to the
Iraqi motherland."
These include Qatif and Ahsaa,
concession areas of the United
States owned Arabian-Amerian
Oil co., in Saudi Arabia, and the
British-protected sheikdoms of
Qatar, Bahrain and Abu Dhabi.
The left-leaning Government ap-
peared unabashed by the vehement
stand of such powers as Saudi
Arabia and the United Arab Re-
public against the claim to Ku-
wait and backing of the sheik-
dom's sovereignty by the United
States and Britain.
Iraqi use of radio and press to
chart possible lines of action in
advance resembles that of the
Soviet sphere. No mention was
made of how Iraq might hope to
plant its flag in territories which
wind down more than 800 miles of
sandy coastland.
Kassem broke with the West
after overthrowing a pro-Western
government in the 1958 rebellion
that cost the life of King Faisal
II. He alienated many of his Arab
neighbods by military suppression
of his critics and letting Commun-
ists infltrate the country. He
turned to the Soviet Union for
arms.
. The British government, which
restored control of Kuwait foreign
affairs to the former British pro-
tectorate last week, reaffirmed
today its support of Kuwait against
the threat of annexation.

West Ready,
May Initiate
Berlin Talks
Khrushchev Warns
Against Mobilization
WASHINGTON (A') -Top-rank-
ing United States officials said yes-
terday the West may take the
initiative in calling a conference
with Soviet Russia on Germany
and Berlin.
This report from high officials,
who could not be identified, came
after President John F. Kennedy
and Soviet Premier Khrushchev
traded new warnings on Berlin but
opened the door to negotiations.
Kennedy told a news conference
Khrushchev will be making "a
grave mistake" if he thinks
"threats or fresh aggressive acts"
can undermine Western firmness.
But "we shall always be ready
to discuss" any proposals for a
peaceful settlement which main-
tains the German peoples' free-
dom, Kennedy said.
Khrushchev, addressing a Krem-
lin rally at about the same time,
declared the Soviets "are taking
necessary measures, and, if neces-
sary, will take additional meas-
ures" if the West mobilizes over
Berlin. But "we are ready to nego-
tiate honestly," he said.
Britain's Prime Minister Harold
Macmillan stressed the negotiation
possibility yesterday in discussing
the Berlin dispute in Parliament.
Kennedy said no proposal for
mobilization over the Berlin threat
"has been placed before me at the
present time." He said what steps
might be taken to protect Red-
encircled West Berlin would be dis-
cussed at a National Security
Council meeting tomorrow.
In a memorandum at their June
3-4 Vienna meeting, Khrushchev
spelled out to Kennedy his plan to
sign a peace treaty with Com-
munist East Germany by the end
of the year.
New Satellites
CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. (IP)
-A triple header rocket blast-
ed off last night in an unprece-
dented effort to hurl three sat-
ellites into orbit around the
earth. One of them carried the
first atomic battery ever sent
into space.
A 50-ton Thor - Able - Star
rocket zoomed skyward at 11:22
p.m. with the complex payload
packed in its nose. The. space
triplets were aimed at separ-
ate circular orbits about 575
miles above the earth.
Principal passenger w a s
Transit 4-A, first operational
prototype of the Navy's plan-
ned satellite navigation sys-
tem. The 175-pound drum-
shaped payload contained a
small nuclear auxiliary battery
in a pioneering effort to study
the feasibility of using atomic
energy as a power source for
space vehicles.
The heart of the 4 -pound
generator was a small chunk of
plutonium 238, a non-fission-
able element.

fir Flights to

UAW Begins Contract Talks

-AP Wirephoto
POWERFUL GRIP - General Motors Vice-president and chief negotiator Louis G. Seaton (left)
and United Auto Workers President Walter P. Reuther precede negotiations for a 1961 contract with
a handshake across the bargaining table in Detroit. Reuther declined to state specific bargain-
ing objectives but asked that the auto industry take the lead in stimulating the nation's economy by
increasing workers' living standards. In connection with Secretary of Labor Arthur J. Goldberg's
statement that a strike would be intolerable at this time, both men expressed hopes for a peaceful set-
tlement.

East Germans Demand

Raise Limit
For Deficit
WASHINGTON (MP)-The Senate
last night sent to President John
F. Kennedy a bill to raise the na-
tional debt limit to $298 billion
for the fiscal year starting Satur-
day.
This is $5 billion higher than
the present temporary limit and
$13 billion over the permanent
ceiling of $285 billion which would
go back into effect Saturday if
the President did not sign the bill
before then.
The Senate acted by voice vote
with only about a dozen members
present. Leaders had agreed in ad-
vance there would be no record
vote.
Passage came after about an
hour's debate in which Republi-
cans assailed spending programs of
the administration and Democrats
insisted the country actually was
in pretty good fiancial shape.
Congress has passed bills to
boost the debt ceiling nearly every
year since 1954.
The $298 billion limit for fiscal
1962 carried in the current bill will
take the ceiling up almost to it's
record peak.

Control

West Berlin

CONGRESS:
Pass Housing Measure;
Ready on Social Security

By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON-Congress sent
to President John F. Kennedy yes-
terday his omnibus housing bill,
one of the top-priority adminis-
tration measures.
Another Kennedy measure, the'
social security bill, was readied
for action today.
The housing bill's loan and
grant authorization is estimated
at $5,646,000,000 by Democrats,
but at more than $9 billion in
ultimate effect by Republicans.
House Follows Senate
The House completed legislative
action by voting 221-176 for the
compromise within an hour after
the Senate passed it 53-38. A last,
minute Republican effort to cut
the measure by $1.6 billion failed
in the Senate.
The bill authorizes loans and
grants for a variety of housing
projects.
Included is a provision for fam-
ilies of moderate income to buy
homes worth up to $15,000 with a

Halle C Sees, 'Difficulty'
In School Bill Passage
WASHINGTON (A') - Rep. Charles A Halleck (R-Ind), the
House Republican leader, said yesterday it is an open secret that
the general educational bill proposed by President John F. Ken-
nedy is in "serious difficulty."

low down payment and a 35 to 40-
year mortgage. Sponsors called
this the heart of the bill.
New Authorizations
There also are new authoriza-
tions for urban renewal or slum
clearance, college dormitories,
community facility loans to small
cities, farm housing, homes for
the elderly, low-rent public hous-
ing, and other programs.
The bill was a compromise
worked out by a Senate-House
conference committee Tuesday.
Earlier bills passed by the Senate
and House differed.
The Senate passed the compro-
mise after turning down a Repub-
lican attempt to cut $1.6 billion
from the bill. The attempt was
beaten 47-52.
Charge 'Extravagance,
The vote came after some Re-
publicans and Southern Democrats
bitterly attacked the compromise
as extravagant, inflationary and
worse than the original Senate
version.
President Kennedy's social se-
curity bill, permitting men to re-
tire at 62 and raising minimum
monthly payments, was cleared
yesterday for final congressional
action today.
The conferees reconciled rela-
tively minor differences in the ver-
sions passed by the two cham-
bers. They kept intact provisions
increasing benefits to 4,420,000
persons and costing an estimated
$825 million during the first year.
The cost would be met by an
increase, effective Jan. 1, of 1/8 of
1 "per cent in the tax" on the first
$4,800 annual earnings of persons
in covered employment and a sim-
ilar tax on their employers. For
self-employed persons the increase
would be 1/5 of one per cent.
President Kennedy's social se-
curity bill, permitting men to re-
tire at 62 and raising minimum
monthly payments, was cleared
yesterday for final Congressional
action today.
The conferees reconciled rela-
tively minor differences in the ver-
sions passed by the two chambers.
They kept intact provisions in-
creasing benefits to 4,429,000 per-
sons and costing an estimated
$825 million during the first year.
The cost would be met by an
increase, effective Jan. 1, of 1/8 of
1 per cent in the tax on the first
$4,800 annual earnings of persons
in covered employment and a simi-
lar tax on their employers.
}7y r "" i

Leader Asks
Peace Talks
With Allies
Ulbricht Makes Bid
Far Adenauer's Aid
To End Berlin Issue
BERLIN ()-Walter Ulbricht,
East German Communist leader,
reached yesterday for power over
isolated West Berlin.
From his capital in the Red-
ruled eastern sector of the city,
Ulbricht made two moves:
Asks Treaty
1) He had a law issued that
could threaten the western allies'
air communications with Berlin.
A giant airlift saved the city when
it was threatened by a Soviet
blockade of rail, waterway and
highway routes 12 years ago.
2) He called on West German
Chancellor Konrad Adenauer to
join him in talks for a peace set-
tlement with the World War II
allies and the reunification of
Germany. Such a treaty would
settle the fate of West Berlin, he
said.
The United States, Britain and
France, together with the Rus-
sians, now control air traffic to
Berlin.
Ulbricht's new law says that ef-
fective Aug. 1 all aircraft with
radios must receive special per-
mission from East German au-
thorities to cross East Germany.
But if a country signed a regular
air agreement with East Germany
its planes would be exempted from
getting special permission for each
flight.
Refuse Recognition
The United States and other
Western nations refused to recog-
nize East Germany or sign any
agreements with it.
The East Germans-and Soviet
Premier Khrushchev-have re-
peatedly said that when Moscow
signs a separate peace treaty with
them they will have full control
over all traffic by air, land and
wanter into West Berlin, 110 miles
behind the Iron Curtain.
Virtually all air traffic into West
Berlin is run by three major West-
ern airlines and by the air forces
of the three Western powers.
Ignores Corridors
Ulbricht's new law makes no
reference to the air corridors-
which Russia has recognized by
agreement with the Western pow-
ers-used for this Western traf-
fic.
Western experts said this was
the first time they could recall
that the East Germans have is-
sued a law on air traffic. Until
now the Russians always have
spoken for East Germany in deal-
ings with the outside world.
One of the last remnants of
East-West cooperation in Berlin is
the Air Safety Center.
It is not clear what would hap-
pen to the center if and when the
Russians sign a separate peace
treaty with East Germany.
Presumably the East German
regime would claim full power to
control air traffic over its terri-
tory, unless some previous East-
West agreement limited its au-
thority.
Ulbricht made plain that he
dislikes the airfield at Tempelhof
in West Berlin. The East Ger-
man Communists would rather
have traffic from the West land
at Schoenefeld, just outside the
city, in territory they occupy.
Democrats Set
For Election

The Washtenaw County Demo-
cratic Party membership commit-
tee will elect a new county chair-
man tonight in the Ann Arbor
Public Library.
The contest between Peter Dar-
row of Ann Arbor and Charles
Gray of Ypsilanti will be decided
by secret ballot. The names of the
candidates were proposed by the

He referred to a deep split among Democrats on the
Rules Committee over the aid for parochial schools issue
threatens to doom the whole schools program for this

House
which
year.

FOOD SHORTAGES:
Eekstein, Discusses Chinese Economy

By PETER STEINBERGER
"China's food shortage isn't a
famine and probably won't cause
a rebellion; it has been caused
not so much by the bad weather
as by miscalculations of the coun-
try's rulers."
Prof. Alexander Eckstein, who
will join the University's econom-
ics department in the fall, gave
this expert's view of Red China's
current troubles at the start, yes-
terday, of a series of lectures on
Communist China.
"The present food shortage was
caused by the withdrawal of some

"-Halleck, speaking to newsmen af-
ter the weekly meeting of GOP
congressional leaders, also read a
letter by former President Dwight
D. Eisenhower calling for defeat
of the educational bill. Eisenhower
said it was a measure that would
"ultimately result in federal con-
trol of education.'
Bill in Committee
The GOP House leader didn't
profess to know whether Ken-
nedy's education bill would get out
of the Rules Committee.
But Halleck said, in his opinion,'

stein said, food production has
just managed- to keep pace with
China's rising population. This is
because the regime's emphasis on
heavy industry (which it learned
from the Soviets) has caused it to
neglect capital improvement on
the farms.
"The 'great leap forward' was
the result of a plan to develop
capital almost purely out of labor
-because China had so much raw
manpower and little capital. The
first five-year plan. which lasted
from 1953 to 1958, hadn't advanc-
ed the country fast enough for the
Communists.

were brought about by the need
to mobilize huge numbers of work-
ers for work on special projects.
The farm collectives were too
small to serve as such centers.
'But the communes never had
the extreme characteristics publi-
cised here," he said. "The division
of families was tried only ex-
perimentally, and the regime
didn't make the practice common.
Most communes were administra-
tive centers rather than actual
centers of production."
Follows Harvest
Prof. Eckstein noted that the
Communist economic 'offensives'

if it reaches the House floor "it
will be decisively rejected."
He said it would be extremely
difficult to amend the school-aid
bill to his satisfaction.
Aid Allures
Halleck added that aid to areas
of heavy . defense employment,
which most Republicans support,

77'

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