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August 16, 1961 - Image 2

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1961-08-16

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"Where Do You Think The Enemy Is, Anyhow?"

Seventy-First Year
Truth Will Prevail"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily ex press the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

U.S. Won't Fight
For East Berlin
Associated Press News Analyst
THE LAST THING the United States wants to hear right now is the
cry for reunification of Germany put up by West Berliners demon-
strating against new division of the city.
Ordinarily an anti-Communist demonstration in any part of the
world, and particularly along the borders of the Communist sphere
would be welcome. But not now in Berlin. There's too much danger
in the possibility that desperate East Germans might be emboldened
to start an uprising, drawing in West Berliners and perhaps volunteer
freedom fighters from all of Germany.
That would face the United States and the other Western powers
with an agonizing decision-to commit military aid as the Soviets dc

Eiehmann Trial
Fails in Purpose

T HE JUDGES of Adolph Eichmann will hear
no more evidence. The trial of the former
Nazi bureaucrat, accused of playing a leading
role in the execution of six million people,
ended Monday.
The three judges, German-born Israeli citi-
zens, will spend the next month or so arriving
at a verdict and a sentence for Eichmann.
Their period of consultation could not have
come at a more meaningful time in the Jewish
For next month marks the Jewish High Holy
Days, the two-day celebation of the New Year
and the Day of Atonement ten days later. Jews
believe that God is reviewing their record on
earth in the intervening period, passing judg-
ment on what they have done and determining
their fate for the next year. On the Day of
Atonement, a man's' destiny for the next
twelfth month is sealed. During the previous
week, he seeks to expiate his sins, making
amends for his wrong doing. The climax comes
on Yom Kippur itself, when the Jew mortifies
his body by fast and day-long prayer, con-
fesses his sins and begs for repentence.
THE WORLD, in turn, will be judging Eich-
- mann. Not that his guilt or innocence is still
a question. This was decided .long ago, as far
back as the Nuremberg trials. If the public
had forgotten Eichmann, it quickly learned
whom he was in the hundreds of newspaper
and magazine articles, books and photographs
which revealed the atrocities of the German
prison camps. Eichmann was judged guilty
by all before he ever stepped into his glass-
enclosed prisoner's dock.
Early arguments about the trial made much
of the transgressions of international law which
Israel committed in kidnapping Eichmann
from Argentina and of the moral right or moral
wisdom of trying him in Israel, Germany, or
the United Nations. These debates, while still
ethically important, are not immediately rele-
vant as the issue, in a practical sense, has been
decided. Israel kept Eichmann, and brought
him to trial.
IN SUMMARIZING his case for the defense,
Robert Servatius asked for a judgment "be-
fitting Solomon - a judgment which will show
the wisdom of the Jewish people.",
Servatius accurately pointed out the unique-
ness of the trial, the attempt to make it an
event of historical significance. "We are not
requesting forgiveness and forgetfulness here,"
he said, "but rather thought and truth ... The
conviction of the accused cannot serve as ex-
piation for the atrocities committed. This trial
can only determine what happened and serve
as a warning for history."
Everyone would agree that the simple execu-
tion of one man cannot cancel the tragic deaths
of six million. The Bibical demand of an "eye
for an eye" can not be met in this case, nor
should it.
I do not think, moreover, that the Eichmann
trial will have any great historical significance,
if that phrase means powerful effect upon
great numbers of people.
IN THE LONG RANGE VIEW, history books
will link the Nuremberg trial and the Eich-
mann trial as variations* on the same theme.
No surprising facts were revealed during the
Eichmann testimony. No new revelations about
the_ conditions which lead to the mass execu-
tions were brought nor were any sought.

And this is where the great tragedy of the
Eichmann trial lies. Israel was able to focus
world attention on the terror and brutality
of Nazi thought and action as a manifestation
of man's lowest depths. Millions of words of
testimony recounted each nightmare of the
prison camp in excrutiating detail.
The public's attention, however, is a fickle
one and newer crises took over the headlines
as the trial continued on and on. The people
in Germany no longer riveted their attention
on Jerusalem, but on Moscow, Washington and
the Brandenburg Gate. For them, the main
issue of daily life was the possibility that
Berlin would soon become the center of a
shooting (and nuclear) war. The people who
had most to benefit from the trial, then, had
no time to follow it. One hardship was enough.
But even careful attention to the proceed-
ings, would not have brought much illumina-
tion; only a numbness which sets in when a
sense of decency can no longer absorb horror.
IF THE EICHMANN TRIAL is going to help
the world avoid another Auschwitz, it can
not stop now. To realize that man is capable
of barbarism and irrationality is not a signifi-
cant gain in knowledge. It has been apparent
in any recounting of the history of civilization,
though the Nazis probably displayed a greater
degree in a shorter span of time than any
previous people.
To prevent a recurrence of this horror, we
must know why it originated. What were con-
ditions in post-Versailles Germany that al-
lowed a Hitler to rise to power and carry out
his program? One must remember that Ger-
many had a wide degree of suffrage when
the National Socialists were elected and their
government was thus a reflection of what the
people wanted.
The millions of dollars spent in recording
testimony and experiences of prison camp life
could have been directed to a study of the
German nation and the German people and
the conditions which give rise and contribute to
totalitarianism. Eichmann, if asked, might
have been able to shed light on these vital
areas. He was not asked. Nor was anyone else,
and thus the trial will fail.
THE TRIAL IS OVER, yes. For the people in
1975, the Eichmann trial will have the same
effect as the Nuremberg trials have today -
The Israelis, however, have yet to deal with
Eichmann. A Solomonic judgment, embracing
the Jewish conception of a God of Mercy, would
free him. It seems doubtful, however, that
such an action will be politically acceptable
to a population whose buried fears and hatreds
have been so aroused by the propaganda of
the last year.
Some will say that it is in the trial's publi-
cation of Nazi atrocities that its historical
significance will lie. Others would claim that
the sentence which falls on Eichmann is the
important question. I would deny both of these.
The real significance of the trial - which is its
failure - was the attempt to make Eichmann
a symbol, the symbol of anti-Semitism and
Nazi brutality.
The symbol itself was never examined, its
nature and development never probed. We have
not helped Eichmann, nor helped ourselves
through him.

of ut TH si L -

Protest Ecumenical Assembly,

Daily Staff Writer
IN A MANNER reminiscent of the
hypocrisy of the medieval cru-
sades, the Ann Arbor branch of
the International Christian Youth
is planning a protest against the
North American Ecumenical Youth
Assembly which opens on the
campus Wednesday.
The ICY, in a statement issued
yesterday, says it rejects any at-
tempt of the NAEYA to give the
impression that it "speaks for the
Protestant youth of North Amer-
Charging that the theological
basis of the organization is con-
trary to the Bible "in which we
believe," the ICY further charged
that NAEYA's "political and social
viewpoints are opposed to the con-
servative principles we espounse."
The Assembly opening Wednes-
day is sponsored by youth agen-
cies of the National Council of
Churches and related church bod-
ies. Its featured speakers are eith-
er leaders or active participants
in the national council.
* * *
THE MAIN CHARGE leveled by
ICY against the NAEYA is that
the council which it represents has
always "advocated theologically
liberal and politically left-wing
ideas and programs."
The ICY along with its state-
ment circulated a pamphlet form
of the report on the National
Council of the Churches of Christ
in the United States by the St.
Mark's Vestry Committee of St.
Mark's Episcopal C h u r c h of
Shreveport, La.
The pamphlet contains the find-
ings of a committee appointed at
a meeting of the Vestry of St.
Mark's Church in June 1960, to
study the NCCCA.
The findings indicate, in the
opinions of the vestry, that the
NCCCA has "done and is doing a
great number of things incon-
sistent, with the best interest of
our church and contrary to the
purpose for which it was formed."
* * *
at the NCCCA are speaking out,
as the official voice of American
Protestantism, on such controver-
sial issues as federal aid to edu-
cation, the right-to-work-laws, the
ethical considerations of the steel
dispute, the seating of Red China
in the United Nations, participat-
ing in lobbying activities before
the United States Congress in
fields of economic and political
controversy, and making no at-
tempt to determine the attitude of
the individual churches but at the
same time allowing the public to
gain the impression that it is voic-
ing the views of 39 million Prot-
estants in the United States.
The committee therefore re-
solved that the bishop of Louisi-
ana be petitioned immediately to
take such steps as may be neces-
sary and expedient to cause the
Protestant Episcopal Church in
the United States to withdraw
from the NCCCA.
S* ,, A

Among its objects are assistance
in spreading the Christian reli-
gion and encouragement of Chris-
tianity in its basic religious tenets
of faith, fellowship and charity.
The pamphlet says that the
NCCCA since the adoption of its
constitution may have achieved
some of its aims in the purely
Christian religious fields, but that
it has also become "a national and
even international propaganda
machine in controversial politi-
cal issues involving baffling prob-
lems in constitutional and statu-
tory laws which have split Con-
gresses, created deep schisms with-
in both major political parties,
divided bar associations, resulted
even in reversal by the Supreme
Court of its own previous deci-
sions, and provoked basic differ-
ences of opinion in groups every-
where.-. *
"knows of no instance where any
responsible person has accused
the NCCCA of being Communist
." the vestry committee main-
tains that there "is room for dis-
cussion" to the extent to which
decisions, pronouncements or ac-
tions of the NCCCA or its officials
might have paralleled propaganda
of the Communists.
Examples of such actions are
decisions made at the Fifth World
Order Study Conference of the
NCCCA held in Cleveland in No-
vember, 1958.
At this conference the NCCCA
urged the seating of Red China
in the United Nations, urged abo-
lition of universal military train-
ing, urged the unilateral suspen-
sion of atomic testing if neces-
sary, urged abandonment of mil-
arts, the new (communist)
draft program offers little. It says
nothing at all about greater legal
guarantees of the person against
the police. In discussing freedom
of speech and press it departs in
no way from the Stalin period in-
sistence that black is white. The
party bureaucracy dare not admit
that these rights are still real in
the West and exist only on paper
in the East.
"As for the arts, the draft pro-
gram clings to 'socialist realism'
. . . The bureaucracy's ideal in
this respect is the same Philistine
ideal as that of the bourgeoisie.
Both . . . are wholly unable to
understand the creative agonies."
-I. F. Stone

itary alliances such as SEATO
and expressed bitter opposition to
the House Committee on Un-
American Activities, proposing
what amounts to its dissolution.
* * *
HERE the vestry committee is
using the old method of guilt by
association, assuming that any or-
ganization which may advocate
steps similar to those desired by
the Communists must naturally be
suspect as an organization oper-
ating for purposes contrary to the
general welfare of the country.
The Episcopal Church is, of
course, perfectly free to withdraw
from the NCCCA if, it so chooses.
Nevertheless, it ought to re-exam-'
ine some of its charges in the
light of common sense and the
very Christian doctrines it is de-
The ICY, yesterday, reaffirmed
its "belief in the Bible as the in-
fallible, inerrant Word of God,"
and proclaimed that on social
matters it stresses Biblical prin-
ciples of individual responsibility
and stewardship, divine right of
property, submission to law and
use of lawful means of social
change and the free enterprise
IT IS DUBIOUS whether "di-
vine right of propertyand the free
enterprise system" or even general
"conservative principles" can be
regarded as necessary prerequi-
sites for a sincere belief "in the
Bible as the infallible, inerrant,
Word of God."
While some political matters,
perhaps, should not be, the con-
cern of a religious organization,
and certainly should not be de-
cided by such an organization,
why should not an organization of
American churches be free to ex-
press the opinion of its members
on problems which have not only
a political, but also a highly moral
The fate of the world, quite ob-
viously, will have a profound ef-
fect on the Christian church, and
a thoughtful consideration of sec-
ular problems by a religious or-
ganization seems altogether in or-
der at this point.
* * *
the Cleveland Conference, wheth-
er or not they are practicable,
are sincere and were expressed in
a firm desire for world peace.
The NCCA made no recom-
mendations which overstepped
the line drawn between Church
and state. It is the right of all
organizations to express opinions
freely in the United States, a right
which the ICY will surely uphold..

when there is an uprising on their
side as in Laos, Cuba and the
Congo, or to keep hands off and
take the political consequences.
There is wide recognition of the
danger to relations with uncom-
mitted countries and with already
nervous allies in backing away
from such a situation. The politi-
cal defeat would be hard to bear.
big three Western powers to fight
for West Berlin does not repre-
sent a current willingness to be-
gin a war of liberation for enemy-
held areas. And while the Soviet
obligation not to do what they
are doing is being made clear be-
fore the world diplomatically,
there is no hope of dislodging
them from East Berlin or East
Germany any time soon without
nuclear war.
Indeed, State Department ad-
visers are taking the view that,
from a strictly political stand-
point, while the demonstration of
the failure of Communism in East
Germany is fine, it would really be
better if the refugees stayed home.
* * * '
AMERICAN diplomats still hope
that the historical danger of at-
tempting to keep a powerful coun-
try like Germany divided will re-
quire, in the end, a German set-
tlement looking toward reunifica-
tion through self-determination.
And in this there will be a need
in East Germany for the votes
and influence of just the kind of
people who have been leaving.
Working from the basis of this
thinking, it appears that any move
by the West to retaliate by re-
stricting intercourse from the
Western side would have a double
entendre, whether intentional or
not. It would deter West German
encouragement of any patriotic
outburst in East Germany.
AS FOR OTHER forms of re-
taliation now being discussed by
the West, Soviet Premier Khrush-
chev is being quoted in Washing-
ton as having said about the gen-
eral Berlin crisis:
"They won't fight. They might
break diplomatic relations or try
economic sanctions, but we'll live
through that."
He was wrong about the will-
ingness to fight for the people of
West Berlin. But as of now he is
right about the people of East
Berlin, and they had best be
Christian science Monitor News Analyst
ently further nettled by Com-
munist attacks on his recent
sweeping economic measures, and
the press and radio in the United
Arab Republic are hitting back
vigorously. So far Moscow has not
joined openly in the latest polem-
The criticism which seems to
have stung Nasser wasvoiced in
a Communist newspaper in Leb-
anon. But the UAR replies to this
criticism include scathing com-
ments on Communism in the So-
viet Union.
The latest "socialist revolution-
ary laws"-as one Cairo newspa-
per called them-were promul-,
gated at the time of the ninth an-
niversary last month of the coup
which brought Nasser to power,
They are intended to implement
what the UAR leader calls "Arab
socialism." Their effect is to es-

tablish state ownership or state
control of the bulk of the most
important economic enterprises in
the UAR.
* * *
EXPLAINING these sweeping
moves in a long speech on the
anniversary of the 1952 revolu-
tion, Nasser described them as a
step forward in establishing the
"socialist, democratic, cooperative
society" which is his aim. This
socialist society, he continued, did
away with class differences. The
nationalization law converted "ex-
ploitative, capitalist ownership
into public ownership."
Nasser was careful to point out
that he did not mean that every
owner of capital was an exploiter.
"Had we been against ownership,
_tanriI _ avesrPr.. AA ,o nnf_

New Yrk Times News Analyst
TUNIS, Aug. 14-Qualified West-
ern observers here judge that
the situation in Tunisia is deter-
iorating, politically and econom-
This assessment is given as a
special session of the United Na-
tions General Assembly on Bizer-
te approaches without any sig-
nificant gesture toward negotia-
tion by France.
The announcement by Paris of
the withdrawal of one of the three
paratroop regiments brought .in
last monthto reinforce the Bi-
zerte naval-air base has left the
situation unchanged. The regi-
ment was departing slowly and
the camouflaged uniforms of
paratroopers, who are hated by
the Tunisians, were still in con-
stant evidence in the streets of
* e
charged that French troops at-
tacked - a Tunisian farm about
twelve miles from Bizerte Mon-
day and killed three Tunisians.
The French forces withdrew, ac-
cording to the communiqu, after
a clash with Tunisian soldiers.
No other details were given, but
the French are continuing to hold
a perimeter that extends deep into
the Tunisian countryside.
Saturday the Tunisian govern-
ment charged the French army
with violations of ,Tunisian ter-
ritory on the Algerian border.
* * *
ed by Tunisians as violations of
the precarious cease-fire that has
been in effect since July 22, fol-
lowing the French occupation of
most of Bizerte.
Western diplomatic observers
assert that the continued French
military occupation of Tunisian
territory effectively blocks any re-
laxation of the Tunisian position
despite hopeful expressions by
President Habib Bourguiba in his
recent speeches.
One authoritative Western ob-
server said:
"General de Gaulle seems to
want to push Bourguiba into So-
viet arms against Bourguiba's own
will. The continued occupation of
Tunisian territory by the French
army will probably produce worse
results, in the long run, than did
the initial French attack on Bi-
zerte and the loss of Tunisian lives
in July."
TUNISIA was saddled with
measures of "mourning" decreed
immediately after the Bizerte
debacle. These closed cabarets and
theatres, darkened the modern,
newly installed highway lighting
system and banned late hours for
restaurants. As long as the French
occupation continues, the govern-
ment can not relax these meas-
ures without the grave political
risk of appearing complacent.
The French continue to hold
about 400 Tunisian soldiers and
about 300 civilians in Bizerte. The
Tunisians had arrested and in-
terned about 200 French civilians
at the port of Sousse, seventy
miles south of here, and expelled
nearly 100 others.
In addition the Tunisian gov-
ernment had arrested the presi-
dent of the Tunis Bar Association,
a Tunisian lawyer, for criticizing
the justice administered during
the crisis. The executive commit-
tees of the bar associations of
Tunis, Sfax and Sousse were dis-
solved for protesting against the
rency were blocked or strictly con-
trolled. The newspaper Afrique-
Action reported that French sup-
pliers, who provide 66 per cent of
Tunisian imports, were creating a

squeeze by demanding cash in ad-
vance for all orders instead of ex-
tending the usual credit of thirty
to ninety days.
Copyright, 1961, The New York Times
Free Speech



U.S. Defeating Goals

ence in Uruguay developed some oddly non-
progressive tendencies yesterday.
United States delegates examined the 21-
page document approved by the conference, and
found it lacking in two respects. While it did
analyze the needs of member nations and pro-
pose ways of dealing with them, it didn't say
anything designed exclusively to insult Castro
or please America-firsters.
So this is being remedied.
A 600 word statement extolling free enter-
prise and free elections is being passed around.
So far it is uncertain how many nations will
sign the document. Certainly, no one should
sign it.
T HE EFFORT to get support for the state-
ment is bound to have had bad effects. If
"Country X" dislikes Castro but thinks it
ridiculous to sign a loyalty oath to free enter,
prise, that country is going to make the
United States look foolish.
Unless at least a large majority of the con-
ference nations sign the statement, it will
have no propaganda effect. So slackers are
only too liable to feel United States pressure
to sign. Such pressure - perhaps in the form of
threats to reduce aid, perhaps in other forms
- is bound to have an effect directly opposed
to the one hoped for.
This is, of course, to demonstrate the con-
fidence of Latin America in the good inten-

countries to sign a capitalist manifesto, a vote
of confidence - all because the United States
is anxious to discredit the Cuban regime.
T HE EASIEST WAY to discredit Castro is
to educate people as rapidly as he is doing,
to create housing as rapidly - only to do it
all without the sacrifice of democratic processes
that Castro is now famous for.
This, of course, is precisely what the Uru-
guay conference has set out to do. The part
the United States played in it - the crucial one
of financing it - cannot be praised too highly.
This is why it is discouraging to see the good
intentions of this country's planners spoiled
by the stupidity of an attempt to turn the
conference into a propaganda battlefield.
It was Guevara's own attempt to do this
that made him a ridiculous figure at tfie
conference. His efforts at turning the delegates
away from cooperation with the United States
aid plan didn't get anywhere precisely because
the delegates had come to Uruguay in the
hope of getting things done.
temporary throwback to old and outmoded
policy, then the good work of the conference
may be no worse off for it.
But is the United States is not seriously
committed to carrying out the programs it
supported at the conference, then the Uruguay
meetingr will end un nronganda disaster.


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