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August 09, 1961 - Image 5

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Michigan Daily, 1961-08-09

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'ABOLITION' OPPONENTS
FACE PROBLEMS
See Page 2

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Lit igtau

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MOSTLY CLOUDY
High-87
Low--68
Warm, humid;
scattered showers.

Seventy Years of Editorial Freedom
VOL. LXXI, No. 30S ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 9, 1961 FIVE CENTS

FOUR PAGES

Russians Warn
Of Larger Bomb
Renews Threats of Berlin Treaty;
Calls Western Retaliation 'Suicide'
MOSCOW (P) - Premier Nikita Khrushchev last night climaxed
a bouyant'day celebrating the Soviet Union's power in outer space
with a grim boast that Soviet scientists can make a bomb far bigger
than any ever built before.
He warned that he would give his scientists the signal to build
it if prospects for peace do not improve, and he disclosed he had
already passed this word to the West.
"Scientists have suggested to the Soviet government that they
can create a bomb equal to 100 million tons of TNT - only one
bomb,' Khrushchev said at a Kremlin reception for Soviet spaceman
Gherman Titov. "I told this to John McCloy (chief U. S. dis-
'armament negotiator) and to pre-

NIKITA KHRUSHCHEV
. . bomb boasts

IN UN:
Bar Backs
Nationalists
ST. LOUIS (P)-The American
Bar Association yesterday strong-
ly backed the United Nations as
the world's "best hope" and op-
posed the entry of Red China into
the UN as a replacement for Chi-
ang Kai-shek's regime.
It also heard a Southerner pro-
test against an ABA committee
calling, in effect, for Southern
states to give up the fight for
continued segregation. This re-
port did not call for any ABA ac-
tion and none was taken.
Approves Resolution
Without an audible dissent, the
ABA's policy-making body, the
House of Delegates, approved a.
resolution saying the UN "remains
as probably man's best hope for
a peaceful and law - abiding
world."
Presented by a committee head-
ed by W. St. John Garwood of
Austin, Tex., the report indorsed
the United States opposition to
the replacement of Nationalist
China by Red China in UN coun-
cils; It also opposed Soviet Rus-
sia's attempts to abolish the UN
office of Secretary General and
substitute a three-headed com-
mittee representing the West, the
Red' orbit and so-called neutral
states.
Without mentioning Premier
Khrushchev's shoe pounding, the
resolution deplored "abuses" of
the UN and "most unstatesmanlike
language and behavior."
Protests Aeport
Over the integration issue, At-
torney Ben R. Miller of Baton
Rouge, La., arose before the House
of Delegates to protest that a com-
mittee report contained "intem-
perate" and "overzealous" lan-
guage.
He said an erroneous impression
had spread that this report spoke
for 'the ABA and he warned that
such things might cost the ABA
a large number of members.
Prepared by a Bill of Rights
committee headed by Rush H.
Limbaugh of Cape Giraradeau,
Mo., the report said it is now sol-
idly settled by Supreme Court de-
cisions that "racial differentiation
in public treatment offends the
Constitution."
Labor To Add
New Assistant
WASHINGTON (j') - Congress
vetrdI-av authorized an additional

mier Fanfani (of Italy)."
Tempers Speech
Although the speech was one
of his most belligerent in months,
he tried to temper it by repeatedly
mixing his warning with this
phrase: "We do not want war."
A bomb such as Khrushchev
described would be about five
times more powerful than the
average Hydrogen bomb in United
States arsenals. Western scientists
say that while increasing the size
of a Hydrogen bomb to the power
of 100 million tons of TNT is not
a complicated technical process, it
would in effect disregard the law
of diminishing military returns.
Existing Hydrogen bombs are al-
ready powerful enough to wipe
out most cities at one strike.
Threatens Treaty
Khrushchev said that Western
threats would not prevent the
Soviet Union from signing a peace
treaty with East Germany, thus
giving the East German regime
control over Western access rights
to Berlin.
"We believe there will be no war
after this (treaty)," he said. "Only
lunatics think of a war after a
peace treaty ... we are not threat-
ening anybody but if anyone at-
tacks us we will consider it an act
of suicide. We will destroy him by
counterblows. .We have spent
money on rockets and bombs and
they are not for'cutting sausages."
Houses Agree
On Defense Bill
In Conference
WASHINGTON (P)--Senate and
House conferees agreed yesterday
on a compromise bill appropriat-
ing approximately $46,664,000,000
to the Defense Department for the
year ending neat June 30.
The total includes most of the
$3.5 billion recently requested by
President John F. Kennedy to bol-
ster conventional fighting forces,
plus almost $1 billion to continue
production and development of
big jet bombers and to shore up
reserve and National G u a r d
forces.
The compromise figure is about
$184 million less than the Senate
originally approved but about $4
billion more than the House vot-
ed before the President's emer-
gency fund request.,
Left in disagreement was a Sen-
ate allotment of $207.6 million for
Civil Defense activities recently
shifted to the Defense Depart-
ment. The House was expected to
accept all or part of this sum
when it considers the compromise
today.
Retained in the compromise
was a Senate allotment of $525
million to maintain production of
heavy long-range jet bombers.

Diplomats
May Seek
Meeting
PARIS (R) - The Big Three
Western powers will loose a dip-
lomatic offensive aimed at an
East-West conference on theaBer-
lin and German problems before
Moscow can sign a separate peace
treaty with the East German re-
gime.
Highly-placed Western inform-
ants said yesterday the United
States, Britain and France will
shortly touch off this drive along
with a military buildup in Western
Europe. They hope to head off a
major crisis with the Soviet Union
later in the year.
Summit Meeting
The informants hinted that the
West will openly take the initia-
tive at a Western summit meeting
soon after the West German na-
tional elections, Sept. 17, and be-
fore the Mscow Communist Party
Congress in late October.
In advance of a public move,
the Western powers intend to con-
tact the Russians between now
and Sept. 17 in an effort to con-
vince Moscow of their determina-
tion to protect their rights in West
Berlin and to voice their desire
to negotiate a reasonable settle-
ment.
Adopt Strategy
The American,, British, French
and West German foreign minis-
ters adopted this diplomatic
strategy over the weekend. Secre-
tary of State Dean Rusk person-
ally communicated it to other
members of the North Atlantic
alliance in a council session Tues-
day.
Rusk himself continued his
soundings among Western states-
men by flying to Rome where he
met with Premier Amintore Fan-
fani and foreign minister An-
tonio Segni to dscus their recent
visit in Moscow.
Before returning to Washington
the secretary will visit West Ger-
man Chancellor Konrad Adentu-
er's vacation hideout in northern
Italy tomorrow.
Plan Steps
While holding out the hope for
a negotiated settlement, the West-
ern powers also are planning a
series of economic and military
steps, these informants said, to
shore up the Western position in
case the German-Berlin issue
grows to an explosive stage.
The United States, it was learn-
ed, has informed its allies of a
build-up of its conventional mili-
tary forces, both at home and in
Europe, and has requested they
follow suit. The allied planners
hope the other NATO members
will promptly carry out their long-
standing commitments by bring-
ing their forces up to full strength
with manpower, and with improved
equipment, firepower and mo-
bility.
Sweden Gives
Tunis Majority
STOCKHOLM (P) -- Sweden's
United delegation yesterday was
instructed to give a positive an-
swer to the request by Tunisia
for a special UN General Assem-
bly session.
The Swedish vote is the 50th
and decisive one, which carries
the request through.
With the majority of the As-
sembly's 99 members lined up,
diplomats at UN headquarters ex-
pect the session to start toward

the end of next week.

Sets

Up

Assistance

4)

To Consider
Foreign Aid
Amendment
WASHINGTON ()P-Amid pre-
dictions that the Administration
has the Senate votes to put over
its long-term foreign aid pro-
gram, a compromise amendment
was attracting Republican inter-
est last night.
Sen. J. William Fulbright (D-
Ark) proposed that House and
Senate Foreign Relations Com-
mittees be given a 30-day advance
report on any proposed loan of
$10 million or more.
Proposes Substitute
This was advanced as a sub-
stitute for GOP suggestions that
Congress retain a veto over loans
of that size.
President John F. Kennedy has
asked for a five-year $8.8-billion
foreign aid program of develop-
ment loans to needy nations fi-
nanced by Treasury borrowing.
The Senate is expected to vote
today on the amendment proposed
by Sen. Harry F. Byrd (D-Va)
which would require financing of
a long-range foreign aid loan pro-
gram through annual appropria-
tions by Congress.
Asks Check
Opponents of the Kennedy for-
eign aid program say the borrow-
ing method is backdoor financing
and that Congress would be re-
linquishing its purse string power
by permitting five-year commit-
ments. To keep a check on the
aid program, Byrd proposed his
amendment for annual appropria-
tions.
Kennedy Administration offi--
cials maintain that commitments
would not do the job.
Seek Control
In another move yesterday, Sen.
Winston L. Prouty (R-Vt) offer-
ed to support the long-range bor-
rowing authority Kennedy seeks
in exchange for a form of con-
gressional control.
He proposed an amendment un-
der which either the Senate For-
eign Relations Committee or the
House Foreign Affairs Committee
could veto any loan in excess of
$10 million within 30 days after
its submossion by the Foreign Aid
Agency.
This modification of a previous
amendment by Sen. Kenneth B.
Keating (R-NY) and others under
which the Senate or the House
could exercise suc ha veto.
Prouty said he offered the
amendment as an alternative to
Byrd's.
Under it, the Foreign Relations
and Foreign Affairs Committgees
of the Senate and House would be
given complete reports at least 30
days in advance concerning any
proposed loan of more than $10
million.
"While they could not veto,"
Fulbright said, these committees
or their members could publicly
or through official channels pro-
test any project or features of a
project in an effort to induce a
reversal or corrective action.
Fulbright told reporters his sug-
gested substitute was acceptable
to the Kennedy Administration.

TO WEST GERMANY:
Suppiy Shortages
Rush Refugee Flight
BERLIN (P) - More than 2,000 more refugees fled : to West
Berlin yesterday as new supply shortages struck Communist East
Germany.
Special flights of planes were hurrying the refugees to the haven
of West Germany. The total of refugees for the year neared 150,000,
compared with 200,000 for all 1960.
"We may not be able to get through much longer," was the
refugees' explanation as their exodus swelled despite Red attempts
to stop it.
The Soviet threat worries them, but only insofar as it threatens
to cut them off from friends and relatives in West Germany. Once

'Passenger'
Steals Plane
Over Mexico
NEW YORK (AP) - A com-
mercial airline's DC8 jetliner was
hijacked over Mexico yesterday
and flown to Havana with 81 per-
sons captive aboard it.
However, the Cuban government
quickly granted permission for it
to leave for the United States.
American military planes failed
in an attempt to overtake and
divert the airliner as it cruised
toward Cuba at nearly 600 m.p.h.
Two Air Force and two Navy jet
fighters were sent aloft from
Florida bases in a vain attempt
to intercept it.
Among passengers aboard the
hijacked airliner that was en route
from Houston, Tex., to Panama
City, Panama, was the foreign
minister of Columbia, Julio Cesar
Turbay Ayala, his wife and two
high diplomatic aides.
A storm of protest greeted the
latest hijacking. The United States
demanded immediate return of the
plane, its passengers and crew.
Mexico protested the hijacking.
over its territory.
Columbia Asks
Explanation
BOGOTA, Columbia (A) - Co-
lombia told Cuba yesterday any
detention of its foreign minister
Julio Cesar Turbay Ayala, a pas-
senger aboard the jet airliner hi-
jacked and taken to Havana,
would be considered an official
act of hostility.
Premier Fidel Castro's regime
announced during the evening that
the plane would be released "in
deference to the Colombia for-
eign minister."
Columbia also warned that if a
satisfactory explanation is not
forthcoming it will "take all mea-
sures necessary to insure that the
incident does not compromise the
national honor."
Turbay long has denounced
Cuba's ties with the Communist
bloc and when it was reported he
was aboard the hijacked jet, Co-
lombian officials quickly went in-
to action.1

the refugees get to West Germany,
they have no fear of getting a job.
There are half a million jobs
going begging in West Germany,
and fewer than 100,000 unem-
ployed.
Halt Flow
Communist efforts to halt the
flow still were stopping short of
the measure that would be ef-
fective - closing the borders to
West Berlin.
A private West Berlin intelli-
gence agency calculated the Com-
munists have sentenced 28 people
to jail in the past 10 days for
helping or encouraging refugees.
Another 14 were said to be await-
ing trial.
The agencykalso reported the
Reds were taking away identifi-
cation cards from an increased
number of people trying to get
to Berlin. In exchange, those sus-
pected of wanting to flee were
getting new cards stamped "not
valid for Berlin."
Report Shortages
Speeding the flight of East Ger-
mans, the heaviest since the anti-
Communist uprising in East Ger-
many eight years ago, was the
shortages of food and goods. And
fresh reports came out of the
East yesterday.
Rationing of potatoes was an-
nounced. East German officials
reported that in the first six
months of the year factories had
failed to reach their goals in pro-
duction of consumer goods ranging
from shoes to refrigerators.
West Berlin officials are speed-
ing up procedures for flying refu-
gees to the safety of West Ger-
many.
A spokesman of the Refugee
Ministry said between 1,300 and
1,400 are being flown daily to
West Germany.

DOUGLAS DILLON
... two concessions
SHARP .CUT:
To Propose
School Bill
WASHINGTON (--The Ad-
ministration was reported yes-
terday to be planning one more ef-
fort to force a stripped - down
school aid bill through the House.
The bill would provide $975
million for school construction
over a three-year period and con-
tinue at a sharply reduced rate a
program of aid to school districts
with large populations of federal
employes.
One other provision reported
still under consideration would
call for extension of the National
Defense Education Act at its pres-
ent spending level.
Plans call for the bill to be
brought up under a special pro-
cedure known as Calendar Wed-
nesday in order to sidetrack the
House Rules Committee, which
has throttled all other education
bills for the session.
Secretary of Welfare Abraham
A. Ribicoff reportedly made the
final decision to go ahead with the
bill after conferring yesterday
with Speaker Sam Rayburn of
Texas and other congressional
leaders.

To Complete
Formal Act
Next Week
Expect All But Cuba
To Sign Declaration
PUNTA DEL ESTE, Uruguay ()
- The United States swung be-
hind a Latin American version
of President John F. Kennedy's
Alliance for Progress program
yesterday.
It agreed to the Latins' mini-
mum $20 billion price tag and
agreed to drop some aspects orig-
inally backed by United States
representatives.
Delegates drew encouragement
from estimates circulating at the
Inter-American Economic and So-
cial Conference that $20 billion
may not even be the minimum
committed by United States and
other foreign sources in a decade
of development to starve Com-
munism out of Latin America.
To Compile Act
The Alliance for Progress blue-
print was outlined as the key-
stone for what will be called the
Act of Punta Del Este. Delegates
from all 20 Latin nations except
Cuba are expected to complete
work on it by Aug. 16.
It seemed sure that Cuba's Er-
nesto Guevara - whose two hour
and 15 minute anti Yankee tirade
Tuesday night got nowhere -
would not sign the Punta Del Este
declaration.
Chief architects of the act were
Argentina and Brazil -- the two
most powerful countries in South
America.
It asks that funds come not only
from the United States but also
Italy and Japan.
Yield to Objections
The United States yielded to the
Latins' two major objections to
the overall Alliance for Progress
project: establishment of a public
relations machine in Latin
America and a powerful seven-
man board to coordinate the hem-
ispheric drive against hunger and
poverty.
The public relations proposal
probably will be shelved to calm
the ruffled feelings of some dele-
gates who feared it smelled too
much of a propagandaset up.
The supervising agency proposal
will be replaced by one with looser
reins.
Minimize Changes
The United States delegation,
minimizing the changes, was re-
ported pleased with the way things
are going at this seaside conven-
tion.
All governments were asked to
get their programs ready within
18 months - a clear indication
the sponsors want each nations to
do its own planning.
Informed sources said the $20
billion in capital which could flow
into Latin America in 10 years
from all sources is really a mini-
mum. They said it could be higher
if the Latin American nations take
the internal measures necessary
to spur their own development.
Even Guevara's anti-United
States charges, obviously aimed at
disrupting the conference, gener-
ally were brushed aside by dele-
gates as "lies" and Communist-line
propaganda.
Senate Agrees
To Nomination
WASHINGTON (P) - President
John F. Kennedy's nomination of

Lawrence J. O'Connor Jr. to the
Federal Power Commission won
an 83-12 vote of confirmation in
the Senate yesterday.
The vote climaxed a marathon,
round-the-clock battle against the
appointment by Sen. William
Proxmire (D-Wis) who called O'-
Connor an "industry man."
O'Connor is a former oil com-
pany executive of Houston, Tex.,
who has been serving as oil import
administrator for the Interior De-
partment. Kennedy nominated him
on June 30 for a five-year term

U.S., Latin America

Conference
Agreement

I

RED CHINA MISUNDERSTOOD:

.Duke Quits Social Club
For Bar Against Negroes
g 9
WASHINGTON (-) - Angier Biddle Duke, State Department
protocol chief, said yesterday he quit Washington's oldest social
club because of its bar against Negroes.
His job as a link between the White House and the diplomatic
corps, which includes an increasing number of Negroes, would have
made continued membership inconsistent, Duke told an interviewer.
"I quietly resigned without much fuss," he said.
Officials of the club, the Metropolitan, were not immediately
available for comment.
Duke said he told them last March he would leave unless the
Negro ban were lifted. A member for 20 years, he left in April. The
protocol chief called himself a
"militant" fighter against dis-
crimination.
Views Coincide
an W ar "My private views coincide with
ian arthe views of the Administration
in this respect," he said.
The Chinese Communists then After an incident involving
asked themselves whether Moscow another government official ear-
was working generally in the best lier this year, a Metropolitan of-
interests of the local parties or ficer said club tradition excluded
for their own gains, and for that Negroes as members or guests.
matter, whether the leaders in . .
Russia know how to advance. The government official, former
Build Philosophy Assistant Secretary of Labor
George C. Lodge, had canceled a
From these questions, the Chi- luncheon reservation at the club
nese decided upon building their for himself and a Negro guest,
philosophy on the more basic George L. P. Weaver. President
foundation of Marxist and Lenin John F. Kennedy later appointed
teachings. The advent of the Weaver to succeed Lodge.
communes, even though they have News acounts of the incident
been forced into a more family wNe w edabyts ti c den
and worker oriented scheme, is were followed by critical state-
one example. I-ents from Atty. Gen. Robert F.

. ._

Whiting Foresees No Red Chinese, Russi

By JOHN McREYNOLDS
"In spite of the hopes of a num-
ber of Americans, there will be no
war between Communist China
and Russia in the foreseeable fu-
ture," Allen Whiting of the Rand
Corporation said in a lecture on
"Red China and the USSR."
Whiting has spent a number of
years working in Formosa and
Hong Kong.
"Red China," he said, "is prob-
ably the most misunderstood
country in the world, including
Russia.
Notes. Controversy

ber of factors differentiating the
Chinese and the Russians, which
come under chauvinism and ex-
perience.
"First, there is xenophobia, an
intense fear of foreigners, which
can be and has been whipped up
by the Communist leaders into a
nationalistic spirit.
"Second, there is scorn for peo-
ples of histories measured only in
centuries while the Chinese is
measured in millenium.
Feel Frustration
"Third, there is a certain frus-
tration in facing Russia's super-
ior technology continually, which

1936, orders from Moscow revers-
ed Chinese decisions concerning
their major opposition, Chiang
Kai-shek.
"In 1926 when Chiang as chief
of the military forces of Sun Yat
Sen had just engineered his coup
d'etat over the Sun Yat Sen gov-
ernment, Moscow ordered that the
Communists stay under the party
in power, even though there was
a possibility that the Communists
could overthrow Chiang and be-
come the ruling party. The Com-
munists suffered under Chiang.
Kidnaps Chiang
"In 1936 a war lord, seeing the

....... . m m a

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