See Page 2
Rain in morning;
Seventy Years of Editorial Freedom
VOL. LXXI, No. 27S ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, FRIDAY, AUGUST 4, 1961 FIVE CENTS
Tunisia Offers Negotiations
TUNIS (A) - -Tunisian Presi-
dent Habib Bourguiba yesterday
openly invited France to settle the
Bizerte dispute through negotia-
He hinted that future coopera-
tion between the two countries is
The Tunisian president also ap-
pealed indirectly to the United
States to put pressure on France
to induce it to negotiate on grad-
ual evacuation of its troops from
the big naval base at Bizerte.
He promised a "reasonable
evacuation calendar" and said once
the problem is solved "we could
start again the work of con-
Strikes Optimistic Echo
Bourguiba's statement struck an
optimistic echo among Western
diplomats in the Tunisian capital.
His speech was seen as by far
the most conciliatory and con-
structive since Tunisia's pressure
on France to pull out of Bizerte
exploded into bloody fighting
which claimed at least 670 Tu-
Bourguiba's frequent references
to President John F., Kennedy's
statement on underdeveloped
countries were seen as another
sign that the Tunisian statesman
is still counting on the West.
Realizes Washington Position
Kennedy, Bourguiba said, "is a
sincere man, a man who believes
in what he says." He said he re-
alizes that America's alliance with
France puts Washington in a deli-
Bourguiba promised to stop Tu-
nisia's diplomatic drive against
France at the United Nations if
the French agree to negotiate on
withdrawal of their troops from
Asian and African diplomats at
UN headquarters were close to
signing up the majority of mem-
bers needed to call a special Gen-
eral Assembly session. It appeared
the Tunisians were using this
threat of a UN condemnation as
a lever to bring France to the
Bourguiba warned that if France
fails to negotiate, he would be
forced to pursue his proposed
plans. He admitted that the con-
sequences of a UN showdown could
be grave and hinted that he hopes
the United States will see that
they are avoided.
In Washington Adlai Stevenson,
United States ambassador to the
United Nations, told newsmen a
solution of the Tunisian crisis will
not be easily found but said "it's
possible." He made the remarks
after talking with President John
F. Kennedy and said he would
brief the President more fully
over the weekend.
LEOPOLDVILLE () - The new
premier of the Congo promised
yesterday to reverse the secession
of. Katanga province "in the days
immediately to come," and the
United Nations said it will not
stand in his way.,
Cyrille Adoula, head of the new
coalition government, said in an
OPEN INVITATION - Tunisian President Habib Bourguiba
offered France a chance to hold direct negotiations aimed at
settling the Bizerte crisis. His talk was broadcast over national
Arizona Hijacekers Fail
To Kidnap Jet A irliner
By 1Lhe Associated Press
EL PASO - A gun-waving Arizona youth and his father yes-
terday staged an abortive attempt to hijack a jet passenger plane
and take it to Cuba.
A punch by a border patrolman ended the chaotic adventure
nine hours later. Gunfire at one point blew out the plane's tires
and engine and blocked an attempt to takeoff from International
Big Three's Letters
BERLIN (') - The Western
Big Three occupying powers asked
the Soviet Union yesterday to end
restrictions without delay on free
movement of commuting workers
into West Berlin from Communist
Generals commanding the Unit-
ed States, British and French
troops in Berlin sent identical let-
ters of protest to the Soviet com-
mandant, Col. Andrei . Solovyev.
There was no immediate indica-
tion of reaction. The Russians
usually say they have no authority
over East German Red officials,
who are taking sharp action
against people under their control
with jobs in West Berlin.
Grab ID Cards
Communist police during the day
grabbed identity cards from some
commuters and sent them home.
These measures have so far suc-
ceeded with only a small number
of the border-crossing commuters.
Most of the estimated 80,000 man-
aged to get to their jobs. How long
they will be able to do so is not
West Berlin authorities said
about 800 have given up their
The three generals said the ac-
tion against the commuters is in-
consistent with Western-Soviet
agreements, objectionable on hu-
manitarian grounds, and bound
to worsen the atmosphere in Ber-
"The declared aim of these
measures," they wrote. "is to in-
timidate these people into giving
up their work in the western sec-
tor of Berlin..
"I therefore request you to give
your attention to this situation
and bring about without delay the
termination of the restrictive
measures which affect the work-
ing population of Berlin."
Take New Action
West Berlin officials said, mean-
while, the East German police
had taken new action to force
East German townsmen near Ber-
lin to give up jobs in West Berlin.
They said the police had started
picking up the identity cards of
such East Germans and issuing
them special ones barring them
In the harassment of the whole
group, the East German regime
Warned the commuters they
Told them they cannot live in
Forbidden them to buy such
East German items as cars, motor-
cycles, washing machines and
other heavy consumer goods;
Threatened to bar their children
from day nurseries and higher
Run a press campaign, threat-
ening to make them pay for rents
and public utilities in Western
currency, which is worth almost
five times as much as Communist
PREPARATION-Ground crews of the Air National Guard's 113th Tactical Fighter Squadr
a F84F fighter aircraft after being put on alert by the Defense Department. Defense actio
boost yesterday when Kennedy signed a military equipment authorization bill.
Rus Sets Conditons foT6
WASHINGTON (A)--After con-
ferring with President John F. ister Antonio Segni before return-
Kennedy, Secretary of State Dean ing to the United States about
Rusk said yesterday the Western Aug. 10.
allies will be ready to discuss Ger- United States diplomats were
many with the Soviets provided especially interested in Soviet
"There is peace in
there is no need to d
Rusk said. "There is i
West Berlin and we ca
there is no loss of freedom for
Rusk received last-minute in-
FAA To Let
WASHINGTON (A) - Commer-
cial airline pilots and crews were
authorized yesterday to carry guns
to prevent any more hijackers
fromseizing American planes.
The Federal Aviation Agency
authorized the arming of crews
soon after two hijackers, who took
over a jet airliner at gunpoint,
surrendered to federal officers at
El Paso, Tex.
Najeeb E. Halaby, FAA adminis-
trator, said crew members should
be armed "only when they have
recent training and demonstrable
proficiency" in using sidearms.
The federal authorization drew
a critical response from, a repre-
sentative of the Air Line Pilots
Association, John Carroll, who
said pilots were unenthusiastic
about the idea.
He claimed the safety value of
arming crews was dubious because
of the great hazard involved in
firing a gun in a pressurized air-
The announcements reflected
FAirport here. Asst. United States
Attorney Larry Fuller identified
the hijackers of the Continental
Airlines Boeing 707 jet as Leon
Beardon and his son, Cody Bear-
don from Collidge, Ariz.
Charged with kidnapping and
transporting a stolen plane across
state lines, each was held under
The $5 million jet - headed
from Los Angeles to Houston with
stops at Phoenix and El Paso -
carried 67 passengers and a crew
of six, including the hijackers,
when it set down in pre-dawn
darkness in this far west Texas
city to refuel.
Sitting quietly and unidentified
among the passengers, and then
volunteering as a hostage was
Border Patrolman Glenn Gilman.
After all other passengers and
crew men hadl been released and
when the older man dropped his
guard, Gilman slugged him with
a blow that laid open the man's
VANDENBERG AIR FORCE
BASE, Calif. W)-Discoverer 28
shot aloft, but failed to orbit and'
apparently dropped in the ocean
Air Force officials blamed tech-
nical difficulties. They said the
satellite did not appear in orbit
The satellite was loaded with
structions from Kennedy at a 1%'A-
hour White House session before
heading for Paris and a meeting
with the foreign ministers of Brit-
ain, France and West Germany.
The United States foreign af-
fairs leader set forth twin themes
of firmness and readiness to ne-
gotiate in a pre-departure state-
The Western Big Four foreign
ministers are gathering in the
French capital Saturday through
Monday to strengthen Allied pre-
paredness on Berlin.
Rusk said he also will stop in
Milan to see Italian Foreign Min-
MOSCOW I)-Premier Nikita
Khrushchev and Italian Premier
Amintore Fanfani agreed yester-
day a negotiated settlement of
the Berlin problem is possible, but
apparently they moved not one
inch toward it.
Khrushchev repeated his warn-
ing that if an agreed solution is
not reached he will sign a peace
treaty before the end of the year
with East Germany "to regulate"
the Berlin situation.
As the two wound up their talks,
Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei
Gromyko handed notes on the
Berlin situation to Moscow envoys
of Britain, France, West Germany
and the United States. The notes,
the contents of which were not
immediately disclosed, replied to
Western notes delivered July 17
contending that millions of lives
are being endangered by Soviet
threats to West Berlin.
Premier Nikita Khrushchev's lat- that freedom to be u
est statement that whatever guar- or destroyed .. .
antees the West want for West "We ourselves and
Berlin would be included in the would like to see an im
peace treaty he proposes to sign in the status quo . . b
with East Germany. Rusk's state- not admit to a chan
ment exuded a tone of moderation status quo at the cost
and willingness to negotiate, and freedom."
British Parliament Bac
Common Market Entry
$4.5 Billion Budget
To Boost Defenses
machinery that is pumping an
added $4.5 billion into a stepped-
up United States military effort
whirred on at high speed yester-
President John F. Kennedy sign-
ed an authorization bill permit-
ting him to spend almost $1 bil-
._ lion on military equipment while
the Senate moved swiftly toward
passage of a record peacetime de-
fense budget of about $47 billion.
The money measure before the
Senate went almost $1 billion be-
on check yond the $3.5 billion Kennedy ask-
ns got a ed to implement a build-up of
United States military might -
especially in ground forces - in
lhs the face of fresh Communist
Tithreats to West Berlin.
The House already had voted
defense appropriations of about
Berlin and $43 billion before the President
isturb it," called for the expanded program.
freedom in The bill as revised by the Senate
will go back to the House which
nnot allow is expected to concur quickly in
ndermined the added spending.
The bill authorizing the Presi-
the West dent to spend an extra $958 mil-
provement lion to arm and equip the new
ut we can- forces was signed less than 24
ge in the hours after the House completed
t of peace Congressional action with a vote
of 403 to 0.
Earlier, both houses swiftly gave
the. Chief Executive the authority
k G he requested to call to active duty
up to 250,000 national guardsmen
and reservists and to extend by
12months the service periods of
7' men now on duty.
st night to This authorization bill also was
n Common signed quickly so final aproval
of Kennedy's over-all program now
needs only passage of the actual
arold Mac- appropriations measure and that
ined. The is expected within a few days. Pros-
pects are good that the whole
he way for complex legislative operation will
terms of be completed within two weeks of
the time Kennedy asked for the
The only real discussion o the
huge defense budget bill in the
Senate centered on the effort of
Sen. William E. Proxmire (D-
Wis) to eliminate $525 million for
continued production of B52 jet
bombers. Proxmire argued that
Secretary of Defense Robert S.
McNamara has said this money
is not needed and he probably will
not use it even if appropriated.
The added money for planes is
part of almost $1 billion the Sen-
ate appropriations committee add-
ed to the President's requests for
$3.5 billion above the original de-
Insist on Retention
Sen. Stuart Symington (D-Mo
t a former Air Force Secretary, was
y f among those insisting on reten-
' '~' tion of the $525 million for bomb-
LLAN ers. He argued that, unlike nu-
proves clear missiles, they can be used
in limited warfare.
Symington questioned also Mc-
Namara's competence to judge
whether more bombers are needed.
He called the secretary able and
iots " "1"* "''
intelligent but noted McNamara
1, has been on the defense job only
ice a few months and Senators should
heed the advice of colleagues "who
have been in this for years."
Chairman Richard B. Russell
(D-Ga), of the Senate Armed
lub-swing- Services Committee, joining in
d through opposing the cut.
day, break- -#
he baleCongress Acts
ns injured, On Farm Bill
en and 8
d camera- WASHINGTON TA') - Congress
oke out in lost no time yesterday in voting
shinari dis- final passage of a compromise
farm bill and sending it to Presi-
men have dent John F. Kennedy.
- Parliament voted overwhelmingly las
for British entry into Europe's six-natio
Market, a bloc led by West Germany and France.
The House of Commons
millan's proposal by 313-5.
House of Lords voted 86-17
supported Prime Minister Ha
The Labor opposition absta
for the proposal.
inauigural address to parliament he indignation stirediVwasp
that Katanga President Moise ington by the latest hijacking.
Tamnarcflarr ad intccr
Tshombe and Belgian business in-
terests in Katanga have done "a
great wrong against the Congo."
He declared t h a t neither
Tshombe, nor the Union Miniere
(the Belgian mining company in
the province) "nor the Belgians
behind the Katanga secession can
prevent the Congolese people from
recovering their rightful heri-
Because of Tshombe's continued
refusal to cooperate with the cen-
tral government in Leopoldville,
none of his supporters was given
places in the new cabinet.
A deputy premiership went to a
north Katanga leader who is
Tshonbe's political enemy.
Adoula nevertheless said his 42-
member government takes in "all
the regions and the political ten-
dencies of the land." Though
Adoula was named by President
Joseph Kasavubu, many in the
government are former supporters
of Kasavubu's old foe, the late ex-
premier Patrice Lumumba,
'IT T Tb
T1empers iared ana words grew
bitter in Congress as clerks rushed
reports of 'the latest hijacking to
senators and representatives.
Most of the anger, however, was
aimed at Fidel Castro, for most
members of Congress assumed his
Cuban regime was behind the El
The decision after two days of brisk debate opened th
Britain to engage in talks, probably in October, on the
trade that will have to be met.
The problem for Britain is to in-
tegrate its tariffs, customs anda
excises, its imports and exports,
with its commitments among the
Parliament thus endorsed Mac-N
millan's plea to the British people
to cast off their traditional iso-A
lation from the Continent and r
seek to share in the prosperity the
Common Market has brought its
The British go-ahead probably
will give impetus to similar moves
among Britain's partners in the
European Free Trade Association
the seven-nation trade bloc Bri-
tain set up as a counterweight to
the Common Market.
The Labpor opposition to the pro-F
posal was based on two questions: . F
1) The government had allowed
trade with the Commonwealth to HAROLD MACMI
deteriorate rather than create a . .. Parliament app
free trade zone, and
2) Under alleged American in-
fluence, Britain was being pushed SLUMS:
into the European Econ'omic Com-
munity (EEC) at the risk of los- O k R
ing its political sovereignty.
Macmillan's conservatives in the
Parliament asserted that Britain ]Brng P'
must join a European community
for trade or else find itself outsidet
Western world councils when poli-
tical decisions are made. Deputy
Foreign Minister Edward Heath OSAKA, Japan (P)--C
rejected the charges of American ing policemen charge
influence as untrue and unjusti- Osaka's slums early tod
fiable. ing up a third conse
The Conservative majority it- night riot.
self was split slightly on the issue, Officials expect anot
but in the showdown there was no tonight.
problem for the government. Police list 551 person
including 389 policem
Japanese newsmen an
Salinger Denies men, since fighting br
the poverty-stricken Ni
Times CIA Story trict Tuesday night.
Six thousand police
CIVIL WAR REACTIONS:
Defeated South Wrote 'Idealized' Books
The vanquished South gave rise to an "idealized" post Civil War
Tu..;: .: :::literature that had no counterpart in the victorious North, a panel
9of English professors agreed last night.
For the authors of a defeated Confederacy, literature became
a means to "freeze" the past and elaborate upon it. The image of
S"?>an idyllic existence of the "Ole South" was reinforced over and
Panel Views Literature
Associate Dean of the literary college James H. Robertson
moderated a panel which included Professors Robert Haugh and
Marvin Felheim, both of the English department. Discussing a wide
range of topics with them was Prof. Arlin Turner, chairman of thej
? English department at Duke University.
._ horcll nn n ir.torv in the. Northern r'mnS