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June 25, 1964 - Image 5

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Publication:
Michigan Daily, 1964-06-25

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l

THURSDAY, JUNE 25, 1964

THE MICHIGAN DAILY

PAGE m

'U' COMMUNITY
Unveil Future Language Aid

(Continued from Page 1)
between the tape and repeat, des-
ignating both the magnitude and
direction of error.
SAID, a lofty bank of gray
machinery, actually has two crea-
tors. Its theoretical builder is Prof.
Harlan Lane of the psychology
department whose verbal behavior
research has lead into the field
of teaching machines. But the
actual designer is Buiten, a mem-

are all satisfactory. Then, the
tape recorder moves on to slightly
more difficult sentence.
While the student is learning a
foreign language, the SAID is
learning about the student. From
his first utterance, it adapts its
satisfaction rating system to take
into account the natural pitch,
volume and speed of the voice.
"Student and machine form a
reinforcing friendship," Buiten

are defective or if he is totally
deaf, the machine will be able to
make him talk without hearing.
SAID can open new voice vistas
as easily for aphasics and deaf
persons as it can for the most
healthy Peace Corps trainee en
route to Iran.
The future? For Buiten, it's
research, research and more re-
search. "After all," he laments,
"You can't have a bulky $150,000
piece of merchandise in every
classroom."
Prof. James C. O'Neil, chairman
of the romance languages depart-
ment, also expresses some concern
for the teaching machine future.
As he chides, "Not all Americans
like to talk to a machine." But
he is highly enthusiastic for its
prospects, particularly in the
"drill and repetition stages" of
language training.
On the West Coast the Univer-
sity of California has introduced
teaching machines on a smaller
scale. Clark Kerr, president of the
university, sees great prospects
for machines like SAID. Ironically
enough, he contends "they will re-
store the personal touch on a large
campus because machines can
take over the tasks that are me-
chanical, instead of allowing pro-
fessors, research fellows and ad-
visers to act like machines."
Buiten is not so openly enthu-
siastic-yet. He cautions that a
host of problems connected with
the machine's use must be in-
vestigated. One unanswered ques-
tion: What degree of repetive ac-
curacy constitutes fluency. For its
answer, Buiten is prepared to call
in "natives" to help the machine
do its grading.
i But questions or not, the world
is nterested. Buiten, a graduate of
Calvin College in Grand Rapids
and also a holder of a electrical
engineering degree from the Uni-
versity, will make a seven-nation
European junket in August to un-
veil his findings.
Then it will be back to Ann
Arbor for the long struggle to get
Speech Auto-Instructional Device
out of the laboratory and into the
classroom.

THIS IS THE student's portion of Speech Auto-Instructional
Device (SAID), designed by Roger Buiten which is an experi-
mental model for teaching certain features of speech. The stu-
dent imitates a foreign language sentence, heard through ampli-
fier (right), by speaking into the microphone. As he talks, the
computer (see photo below) indicates on the dial whether his
pitch, tempo and loudness are satisfactory.

ber of Lane's Behavior Analysis
Laboratory team.
SAID's technique is teaching
foreign languages by concentrat-
ing the student on imitating the
"prosodic" features of speech,
n a m e ly pitch, loudness and
rhythm.
It's a remarkable combination of
recorder and computer, to which
all languages-except cycles-per-
second, seconds and decibels-are
foreign. As far as SAID is con-
cerned, a sentence is a series of
(measurable utterances and the
student merely a cheap imitation.
Buiten explains that "SAID
presents the student with a tape-
recorded sentence spoken by a
native. The device then accepts
the student's imitation of the
sentence and evaluates his per-
formance."
The student is assessed on tem-
po, pitch' and loudness-one at a
time ow the simple dial in front
of:him:
The evaluation process does not
even wait until the end of the
sentence. The dial informs the
student after each utterance or
syllable. He "receives a continuous
feedback on his accuracy and
fluency," Buiten emphasizes. Thus,
he can continually correct his
mistakes as he moves through the
sentence.
If, for example, pitch is being
measured, the machine flashes on
the dial whether the student is
too high or too low. By the con-
tinuous intra-sentence trial and
correction method, the student
gains in accuracy and fluency on
a syllable basis.
Once an acceptable pitch sound-
ing has been made for an entire
sentence, the machine flashes its
sign for "nice going"-a click and
a flash to let the student know it
is moving on to tempo practice.
The same process is repeated
until pitch, tempo and loudness

says. "When the student is cor-
rect, he is rewarded by the click
and flash which mean onward."
When he errs, there are no words
of scorn from SAID, only a quick
zip of the tape backward-and a
fresh start.
"The possibilities of SAID are
endless," Buiten acknowledges..
Due to its size and expense, SAID

Economist
Sees Growth
Coming Up
The prospect for the United
States economy is more vigorous
growth ahead, a University econ-
omist told the California Invest-
ment Bankers Association Tues-
day.
There are persuasive reasons,
Prof. Paul W. McCracken of the
Graduate School of Business Ad-
ministration, declared, for pre-
dicting that we are moving into
a period which will be "at least
substantially better than what we
have experienced in recent years."
The "arthritic pace" of the
United States economy since 1958
was the result of two factors, he
stated. "The sharply tilted char-
acter of the tax system" resulted
in "dragging our economy down
to a limping pace after the 1950's,"
he said.
Price Squeeze
"The second source of the econ-
omy's subnormal performance in
recent years was the persistent
tendency of costs to crowd too
hard against prices, with profits
getting caught in the squeeze . .
not a state of affairs that en-
courages rapid expansion of busi-
ness activity."
We have taken decisive action
to deal with one problem by the
recent tax cut, the former member
of President Eisenhower's Council
of Economic Advisors continued.
But, he added, on the matter of
price squeeze, how much progress
has been made in relieving "these
relentless pressures toward rising
costs as the economy approaches
full employment is not at all
clear."
More moderate increases in unit
costs in recent years are encour-
aging, McCracken said, adding
that the tax bite and profits
squeeze will probably be of reduc-
ed significance in the current ex-
pansion.
Boom or Bust?
The University economist at-
tacked the theory that the United
States has a boom or bust econ-
omy. "Ours has been an economy
historically with a strong ten-
dency toward full employment,"
he pointed out. "The American
economy has throughout its his-
tory, in fact, exhibited a remark-
able capacity to sustain resonably
full employment and vigorous job-
creation.
"The sub-normal economic per-
formance since 1958 has, there-
fore, been quite out of character
with our history."
Population changes which the
nation is undergoing do pose ser-
ious problems, he said, but they
also will exert an expansive effect
on the economy.
Job Creation
To cope with the swelling mem-
bers of young people "the job-
creation process must operate
about twice as effectively as it
has thus far in the 1960's if the
rest of the decade is to be one
of full employment," McCracken
declared.
But, he pointed out, these popu-
lation changes also will make for
"a more vigorous economy because
they mean a substantial increase
in relatively young families, and
families at this early stage have
a strong inclination to buy."
McCracken tempered his opti-
mistic outlook on the economy
with a few notes of caution. "The
quality of credit"-particularly in
the mortgage area where the de-
fault rate on FHA mortgages has
doubled in the past four years, he
singled out as one of the worries.
Still Doubts
Then, too, "We cannot be sure
that the cost squeeze of the 1950's
will not again be operative in the

1960's."
And finally, he warned, "there
is always danger that in our very
proper zeal for regaining full em-
ployment, we may pursue an ex-
pansive monetary and credit pol-
icy too long-launching thereby
an unsustainable and disorderly
expansion."
Freedom Fund
Seeking Bail
For Workers
The Michigan Freedom Fund is
currently soliciting contributions
for a bail fund for five University
students and an Ann Arbor resi-
dent working on Negro voter regis-
tration in Mississippi this summer.
The fund has established a goal,
of $500 reserve bail money for
each of the six. The local Friends
Meeting has agreed to coordinate
solicitations for the various civil
rights groups involved.
About $2200 is still needed to
meet the fund's goal, Walter
Scheider, chairman of the Friends'
Social Action Committee said.
Before the Mississippi program
began about a week ago various
people interested in civil rights-
including the six now in the South
-spoke before local groups to ask
for funds and explain the program.
Currently Rev. Paul Dotson of

FOR RENT
CAMPUS-3 bedroom, furnished. Grad.
students preferred. 8-8417. Cl
BOARDING FOR MEN-Friends Center
Intn'l. Co-op, 1416 11111 St. Summer
$70. 4 hrs. work required. Call 3-3856'
or 2-9890. Cl
MALE ROOMMATE wanted to share
air-conditioned apt. for summer. Call
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ARBOR FOREST APARTMENTS
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721 S. FOREST
Fall occupancy-1 and 2 bedroom fur-
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Free parking, Apply manager, 9 a.m.
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ON CAMPUS-SUMMER & FALL or
SUMMER ONLY-Efficiency and one
bedroom. Call 5-8330 after 1 p.m. C5
GIRL WANTED to share large cool
apt. this summer. Near campus. Call
2-9277 atfer 5 weekends or Univ. 3-
1511, Ext. 678 Mon.-Fri. C4
HAVE A NICELY furnished 2 rm. apt.,
formica kitchen, new bath. $90 mo.
by the year. Free parking. Call 3-
1937. C3
3 ROOM & bath, $100. 2 room and bath,
$85/mo. Utilities incl. Both i2 mile
from campus. Call 5-9296. C7
CAMPUS AREA - Single room, newly
decorated, mod. furn. 3-6528. C8
FURNISHED
ROOMS
for men students, near campus.
Lobby with TV9and snack facilities.
$6 and $8. 8-9593. C6
410 Observatory
SUMMER OR FALL
Two bedroom modern furnished apart-
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one and two bedroom furnished and
unfurnished mn o d e r n apartments
available for the fall. Some air-condi-
tioned.
Campus Management
662-7787 days eves. 663-9064
C9
MUSICAL MDSE.,
RADIOS, REPAIRS
A-1 New and Used Instruments
BANJOS, GUITARS, AND BONGOS
- Rental Purchase Plan
PAUL'S MUSICAL REPAIR
119 W. Washington
GUITARS, ETC.
Make Repairs, Buy and Sell
Private and Group Instruction
Hoots Daily
Herb David Guitar Studio
NO 5-8001
209 S. STATE

CAR SERVICE, ACCESSORIES
ANNOUNCING
Whit's Truck Rental
202 W. Washington St.
Ann Arbor
Call
NO 5-6875
Pick-ups Panels
Small Vans
FOREIGN CAR SERVICE
We service all makes and models
of Foreign and Sports Cars.
Lubrication $1.50
Nye Motor Sales
514 E. Washington
RENT-A-CAR
$8 For 24 Hours
Plus 8c per mile
All rates include gas, oil
and necessary insurance
SPECIAL
Week-End Rate
From Friday Noon
Until Monday Noon
$3.50 Per Day
Plus 8c per mile
RENT-a-CAR
Call NO 3-4156
514 E. Washington St.
BUSINESS SERVICES
TYPING IT YOURSELF?
Grad. students inquire about penny
master and our offset process. Pro-
fessional Service Associates, 665-8184.
J
HAVE YOUR PAPERS and reports
typed quickly and efficiently by an
experienced legal secretary. Phone
NO 5-8560. J1
665-8184
MANUSCRIPT typing, transcription,
medical, legal, technical conferences,
mimeographing, offset.
Quick, Accurate, Experienced
ANN ARBOR PROFESSIONAL
SERVICE ASSOCIATES
334 Catherine
J
LOST AND FOUND
LOST-Ladies watch on E. Univ. near
P.A. building. The girl on the bike
please return. Contact Meg at 663-
3881 for reward. Al
LOST:
SUMMER DAILY STAFF MEMBER
Can be easily identified by
rapturous look and swinging gait.
Reward: An interesting summer
Please Return to
420 Maynard Street
┬žkeep trim
& ARCADE BARBERS
NICKELS ARCADE

For Direct Classified Ad Service, Phone NO 24786
from 1:00 to 2:30 P.M. Monday through Friday, and Saturday 9:30 'til Ii :30 4.M.

PERSONAL
CO-ED(S) WANTED to cook for four
graduate students. Call NO 8-7651. F3,
WANTED-Two tickets for MY 4AIR
LADY Fri. or Sat, Call 439-3129
after 6. F4
THERE'S ALWAY ROOM
FOR ONE MORE
ON THE STAFF OF
THE SUMMER DAILY
IF YOUR NAME, address, or phone
'were incorrect at registration, and
you wish to make a correction in
the Student Directory, come to Stu-
dent Publications, 420 Maynard, be-
fore Thursday noon. F1
Whenever you need the services
of a DRUG STORE remember-
The Village Apothecary
1112 So. University
open 9 to 9
F2
Meet the Right People
The purpose of our organization, usfng"
established techniques of personality
appraisal and an IBM system, is to
introduce unmarried persons to others
whose background and ideals are
congenial with their own. Interviews
by appointment. Phone after 9 a n.,-
NO 2-4867.
MICHIGAN SCIENTIFIC
INTRODUCTION SERVICE
WHY subscribe to the
SUMMER DAILY?
1) Apartment not air-conditioned?
DAILY makes a great fan!
2) Worried about sun stroke?
DAILY snakes a good sun shield!
3) No garbage disposal?
DAILY makes good wrapping
paper!
4) Worried about grass stains?
Sit on the DAILY!t
5) Going on a picnic?
DAILY is good for starting fires!
6) Want to stay informed?
The DAILY is good for that, too!
F25
TRANSPORTATION
ECON-O-CAR
RENT A COMPACT CAR
$3.99
per 12 hr. period plus
pennies per mile
ECON-O-CAR
of ANN ARBOR
341 E. Huron NO 3-2033
PHOTO SUPPLIES
CAMERA FOR SALE
Leica II (2 Summitar Lens, speeds to
500, Syne for flash, coupled; lens
finder-allattachments in excellent
pond, Orig.elst.price $375-,sae price
$150. Call George Hall, X3584 or 3-
37,18. Dl

BIKES AND SCOOTERS
1963 HONDA 305c.c. dream, black,
saddle-bags, windshield. Cost $723-
will sacrifice for $475. Call 663-2012,
Z3
LAMBRETTA SCOOTER 125-Like"new,
2 seats, windshield. Owner leaving
Ann Arbor. $350. Call 663-9954. Z1
YOU meet the nicest people on a
HONDA! Join the fun at HONDA of
Ann Arbor. .1906 Packard Rd. 665-
9281. Z2
NICHOLSON MOTORCYCLE SALES
Triumph, Yamaha, BMW
Scooter Repairs
224 S. First St. 662-7409
A Bike Is A Necessity
Michigan's Campus becomes
accessible with a
BEAVER BIKE
Ride Our Rentals-
Complete Rental Service
We have EVERYTH ING
in bike accessories.
Beaver -Bike .Shop
605 Church NO 5-6607
MISCELLANEOUS
LATE, LATE SNACKS?
RALPH'S MARKET
IS OPEN EVERY NIGHT
TILL MIDNIGH1T
anything your little stomach desires
709 Packard
BARGAIN CORNER
SAM'S STORE
Has Genuine LEVI's Galore!
"WHI TE LEVI'S"
SLIM FITS
4.49
FOR "GUYS AND DOLLS"
Black, brown, loden,
"white," cactus, light blue
SAM'S STORE
122 E. Washington
WELCOME
STUDENTS!
CONTI NENTAL
RAZOR-CUTTING
A SPECIALTY?
U-M Barbers
Next to Kresge's

X)

USED CARS
1961 KARMANN GHIA. Radio. Low-low
mileage. Beautiful condition. Phone
NO 2-2009. N4
FALCON-'63, only 14,000 miles. Sacri-
fice for $1195. Call 5-9296. N
1957 CHEVY Convert, with recently
overhauled engine, $650. Call NO 2-
5475 between 5 and 12 p.m. N5
1958 VOLKSWAGEN in excellent con-
dition for sale. Phone NO 8-7492 after
5:00 p.m. N3
ROOM AND BOARD
FOR WOMEN GRAD STUDENTS -
Single rooms, pleasant, quiet. Call
663-7690, 6 to 10 p.m. E4
BOARD AND ROOM-Men and women.
Cali 665-5703, Miss Lane. El
BOARD FOR MEl and WOMEN. Phone
665-5703. E3
HELP WANTED
NURSERY SCHOOL TEACHER
Head teacher mornings in fall-Beth
Israel Nursery. Call NO 2-6188 for
application. H3
STUDENTS - Part or full time work
available with the fastest growing
company in Ann Arbor. Some stu-
dents earn $100 per week. Call NO 5-
8719 between 3-5 p.m. for appoint-
ments. No telephone interviews. H

THIS IS the SAID brain, its elaborate computer system. It is
responsible for presenting, then storing a sentence in its memory
cells, and finally comparing a student's imitation with the original.

remains only a research tool at
the moment. But a miniature
model may some day be able to
relieve the teacher of the anguish-
ing, preliminary steps in language
instruction.
Equally important are the rami-
fications from the dial indications
whereby the machine tells the stu-
dent's eyes what is wrong with
his voice. This means if his ears

Mayhew Cites Direct Action'
In Civil Rights Activities

The growing trend in civil rights
activitie sis toward bypassing pro-
cedures set up by law and going
directly to the source ofndiscrim-
ination, Prof. Leon Mayhew of
the sociology department said re-
cently.
Mayhew has done an extensive
study of the files of the Massa-
chusetts Commission Against Dis-
crimination. His findings, he said,
indicate that Negroes will take
their demand for a "fair share of
jobs an dthe national income"
straight to business and industry.
"They'll threaten to boycott a
firm or throw bricks through win-
dows or whatever it will take to
get what they want," he said.
Empty Phrases
"The Negro is no longer in-
terested in general statements
and empty phrases from industry
and individuals that they will
agree not to discriminate. The
Negro wants his fair share and
he wants it now.
"He'll go directly to the com-
pany and demand 10 per cent of
the jobs, or 15 per cent to be
filled with Negroes within a year,"
he commented.

Mayhew found was favored in
practice by the Massachusetts
Commission. Thus business can
anti-discrimination and continue
state its general agreement with
not hiring Negroes who it belives
would be "unsuited" for certain
types of jobs," he said.
"They are able to wrap up 'the
American creed," the profit motive
and 'reasonable discrimination' all
in one net little bundle."
Mayhew said that his studies of
the Massachusetts Commission in-
dicated three distinct definitions
of discrimination were in opera-
tion:
-Failure to represent the Negro
in proportionate numbers and fail-
ure to provide him with a fair
share in such areas as jobs and
school enrollments. This kind of
discrimination is the target of
civil rights groups.
-Failure to give equal treat-
ment to an individual because of
his color. The commission aimed
at eliminating this type of dis-
crimination.
--Failure to use Negro resources
to their full economic advantage,
which Mayhew termed the busi-

Conference
Views College,
City Relations
A three-day conference of city
and college leaders has decided
that University and city officials
must learn to talk to each other
before they can begin to solve the
complex problems of the urban
community, the Detroit News re-
ported yesterday.
The findings of the conference
were summarized for the 150 par-
ticipants yesterday by Dr. Leonard
J. Duhl, chief of the planning
staff of the National Institute of
Mental Health. Duhl is also editor
of a new book entitled "The Urban
Condition."
The first-of-its-kind conference
was sponsored by Wayne State
University and the American
Council on Education, a national
organization of 1300 colleges and
educational institutions. The
council hopes the conference will
start a more activecooperation
between urban universities and
cities.
Meanings Differ
Duhl said the first problem to
be conquered is "finding a common
language and ground rules" since
politicians and professors are not
talking about the same thing when
they talk about city planning.
The city official is talking about
buildings and services while the
university man includes attitudes
and beliefs, Duhl said.
"As a result," Duhl said, "politi-
cian talks to politician, educator
to educator, and expert to expert."
J. Martin Klotsche, provost of
the University of Wisconsin at
Milwaukee, warned that univer-

0

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