SAUGUST 8,1964 THE MICHIGAN DAILY
EDITOR:S NOTE:n harcabin
boy, once a cook, an author, and
perhaps once a visitor to America.
Now he is the leader of North Viet
i4. Namn. But who is President tonChi
S Minh? What is his background of
revolutionary activity? What is his
country's real political and military
philosophy? And just what appeal
4 has Ho for his country's citizens?
Here is a portrait of the country
of North Viet Nam and its leader,
as they face the pressures of a
world in ferment and revolution.
By The Associated Press
TOKYO-The veteran Marxist
ruler of a little known corner of
Southeast Asia suddenly has be-
come the object of 'United States
military attacks, his torpedo boats
the targets of a five-hour U.S.
White-haired Ho Chi Minh, one
time cabin boy, cook and Soviet
student, is regarded by almost all
in his Democratic Republic of
[DENT HO CI! MINI! (North) Vit Nam-and by very
[DENT__H_________H many in South Viet Nam-as his
country's greatest patriot, the un-
St10R "Cdisputed leader of Indochina's
fight for independence from
France and the West.
chef l~n , Under his frail and benign ex-
Sterior lies one of the most sin-
gle-minded, experienced, and skill-
intinued from Pge 1) ful of the world's Communist lead-
g and approval proced- ers. From his headquarters in the
hey have evolved in the North, he is in contact with and
ears. aids a movement in the south
ocument is available to called Revolutionary Fighters of
members and interested the National Liberation Front --
better known to the West as the
ablishes a four - stage Viet Cong.
Lg and approval process: Driving Force
rganization would first The driving force behind the
he University Calendar Viet Cong was originally a band
e where it would obtain of guerrillas, most of them train-
of the time, date and ed by Ho. Now the Viet Cong lives
largely off the land, captures many
would prepare proper of its weapons from the South
d petitions explaining the Vietnamese,, often looks upon
ftihe event g much of Ho's aid as gravy. It is
organization would take the enemy of the expanded forces
approval and petitions to of American advisors to strong-
irnistrative secretary of man Maj. Gen. Nguyen Khanh's
re the president of SGC Republic of South Viet Nam.
letermine whether the The two Vietnamese Republics
of an all-campus nature, that face each other today across
er it affects only a small the 17th parallel are the. troubled
of the campus. offspring of the Indochina war
events could be given which Ho Chi Minh brought to an
e approval by the presi- end in 1954. By crushing the
other executive officer). French colonial armies at Dien
'oval would be announced Bien Phu, Ho's guerrilla army of
aily Official Bulletin. It 110,000 men conquered a French
come effective 24 hours force that once totalled 700,000
>lication unless the vice- men during the seven-year war.
for student affairs in- Many expected Ho to dictate
and referred the event his own terms to the defeated
"ouncil. French, but French and Soviet
r campus events would pressure forced him in the Gene-
o the' Council for consid- va agreement of 1954 to postpone
The routine approvals the unification of Viet Nam, in
the president would also favor of a divided country.
need at Council meetings. Within three years, both Ho and
np said that giving the the United States had violated the
power to handle routine terms of the Geneva agreement.
follows a historical prec- Ho had brought more troops in-
the University. This was to his country, and the U.S. had
imary" power given to increased military aid to South
:an of the Committee on Viet Nam. Both actions violated
Affairs which approved the agreement, which stated that
) years ago. It was dis- armed forces should remain static.
'ter SGC's formation in Ho's guerrillas then initiated the
campaign against the South Viet-
ILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN-
j A - -
# i-t Y~rr P~r
THIS IS HO CHI MINH'S North Viet Nam and its surrounding
area. Ho is beset by pressure from all sides; he is torn between
Russia and China in the Sino-Soviet quarrel, and he is faced
with determined oppistion from the United States.
tween the north and the south.
His anxieties are not over the
damage which might be done to
his country's sparse industry or
to the remote possibility that his
armies might be defeated by those
of the south. He reserves his real
apprehensions for his giant neigh-
bor, the People's Republic of
Mao To Rescue?
Should the Vietnamese military
situation deteriorate, China's Mac'
Tse-tung, himself an excellent
military strategist, might well car-
ry out his repeated promises to
come to the aid of North Viet
Nam. Ho, remembering Viet Nam's
history as vassal and satellite of
the old Chinese empire for 1000
years, no doubt keeps almost as
close an eye on his Chinese
frinds as he does on his anti-
Though the name of Ho Chi
Minh is famous throughout the
world, it is not his original one.
No one quite knows what this man
was called when he was born in
Nge An, in north Annam, in 1890.
Son of a Vietnamese national-
ist, he left Viet Nam in 1911 as a
cabin boy aboard a French mer-
chant ship, is said to have spent
some time in the United States,
worked as an assistant to the great
French cook Escoffier in London
and from Germany reached Paris
where he got a job retouching
But his tastes were predomi-
nantly for politicseand reading.
He joined the "League for the
Rights of Man," the French So-
cialist Party, and met such French
socialist leaders as Leon Blum
and Marcel Cachin.
Went to Jail
Known as Nguyen Ai Quoc, he
spent much time in European jails
because of his socialist views. In
namese government headed until
last year by Ngo Dinh Diem.
There Was Talk
Even before the crisis in the
Gulf of Tonkin this week, there
had been increasing talk in Asia
and in the U.S. of the possibility
of American attacks on North Viet
Nam as a means of cutting supply
lines to the Viet Cong.
Ho previously had dismissed the
logic of this strategy.
"How can they talk about!
marching into the north when they
cannot even control areas in the
immediate vicinity of Saigon?"1
he questioned. "This is sheer stu-
pidity." Last wek, some Viet Cong!
units had approached within three
miles of Saigon.
Despite his comments, Ho is
probably deeply worried over the
effects of an American-South Viet
Nam strike at the north, or the
possibility of open warfare be-
1919, with Cachin and others, he
became a founding member of the
French Communist Party, and
wrote a book which soon became
famous, "French Colonialization on
Trial." Smuggled into Indochina,
it inflamed the passions of young
patriots and made Nguyen Ai Quoc
a household name there.
He went to Moscow in 1923 as
a delegate of the French Commu-
nist Party to the Peasant Inter-
national and remained in the So-
viet capital as a student for al-
most a year.
His next stop was Canton, in
China, where he was secretary to
Michael Borodin, the Soviet ad-
visor to Sun Yat-sen's emerging
Kuomintang. There he met Chou
En-lai and many Chinese Com-
munists then collaborating with
the Kuomintang in its drive to
unify China. In Canton, Nguyen
Ai Quoc formed an association of
Vietnamese revolutionary youth.
the forerunner of the Communist
Party which he created in 1931
at Hong Kong. By that time, the
Kuomintang and the Communistt
had quarreled, and Nguyen Ai
Quoc had been forced to flee first
to Moscow then to the British
During World War II the al-
lies in Chungking used the rev-
olutionary movements in Indo-
china to gather intelligence and
carry out sabotage against- the
Japanese. Nguyen Ai Quoc, known
as a Communist, landed in jail in
south China but he soon persuaded
his captor, Gov. Chang Fa-kwei
that his group could do a better
job than the Nationalists. To get
him out of jail and supplied with
the funds he needed from Chung-
king, Nguyen did a simple and easy
thing: he changed his name to
Ho Chi Minh, "The Enlightener."
When World War II ended, Ho
had an underground army sup-
plied, equipped and encouraged by
the United States and its allies. He
was able to enter Hanoi-no long-
er, on the face of it, a Commu-
nist, since he had with shrewd
forethought abolished the party
some months earlier. Ho decided
for purposes of unity, that in the
struggle to follow, he would lead
Viet Nam not as a Communist
but as a nationalist. He ended this
policy in 1951, when he formed
the Lien Viet (United National
Front) in which the Lao Dong
(Communist) Party was to be the
During the long years of war
against the French, Ho used the
loyalty of his men, his cunning
political and military skill, and
occasional Machiavellian methqds
to maintain his power.
At the time of Dien Bien Phu
in 1954, he was in complete con-
trol of the nationalist government.
on the ground outside the hamlets
as the enemy.
Ho Has Support
But Ho's government has the
advantage of the support of its
people, something which the U.S.-
maintained Khanh government
In North Viet Nam today there
is an uneasy balance between the
pro-Chinese faction and the pro-
Russians headed by Gen. Vo Ngu-
yen Giap, the victor of Dien Bien
Phu who is minister of defense.
But, again, trying to unify his Ho has maintained this pi
country along "non-partisan" carious balancing act iot or
lines, he established a coalition domestically but in the woi
government, with a number of Communist movement as well.
non-Communists in high posts. the early days of the Soviet-Cl
Then came the division of the nese quarrel he sought frantic
country. ly to patch things up, recogn
ing that he needed the assistar
Today, the North is reported of both countries for his industr
caught in the grip of economic program.
hard times, with food shortages, There have been signs, ho
some un. mploy te, a nd lowever, that the pressures from F
wages. Rice is rationed, and the kigae nc as ga dtht v
rice crop -- heavily damaged by king are ncreasing and that et
drought and storms - dropped the pro-Russians are beginning
slightly last year. But it Is at bend toward their next door neig
least as well off as the south bor's political philosophy. But
where most of the population outh: refuses to come down on eiti
side of Saigonis herded into crowd- side in the Chinese-Soviet qui
ed "strategic hamlets," and where rel. He knows that Russia is pi
South Vietnamese planes often haps his only guarantee agai
consider almost anything moving evehntually being absorbed
n" n cr ri ^,i+ iA+1,-n1-1-4--e China.
"If South Viet Nam and
U.S. lackeys insist on attacking
Democratic Republic of North
Nam, we shall not sit idly
with folded hands," went the f
Chinese reaction to the U.S. bor
ing raids on the North Viet T1
It is one of the ironies of p
er politics that those words r
ring almost as ominously in
ears of the old revolutionary
Hanoi as they do in those of
NEXT WEEK'S EVENTS
Today, August 8
8 p.m.-The University Players
and music school will present Dan-
iel Auber's opera "Fra Diavolo" in
Lydia Mndelssohn Theatre.
8:30 p.m.-Carolyn Lawler, pian-
ist, will giv a degree recital in
Recital Hall in the music school
Tomorrow, August 9
4:30 p.m.-Myrna Asch, pian-
ist, will give a degree recital in
Recital Hall in the music school
7:15 p.m.-John Payne will give
a carillon recital at Burton Me-
8:30 p.m.--F. Austin Walter will
conduct the University Summer
Sssion Choir Concert at Hill
Monday, August 10
8:45 p.m.-The Michigan Union
will host the annual Leadership
'Training Workshop, including stu-
dent government leaders from
Michigan high schools. Discussion
topics will include faculty and stu-
dent relations, government aims,
and council structure. The work-
shop is sponsored by the Bureau
of School Services.
8:30 p.m.-Lois Fees, violinist,
will give a degree recital in Re-
cital Hall in the music school
8:30 p.m.-Jean Lewis, organist,
will give a degree recital in Hill
Tuesday, August 11
8:30 a.m.-Th Michigan Union
will host the second day of the
annual high school Leadership
Training Conference, sponsored by
the Bureau of School Services.
1:30 p.m.-Margurite Hood will
give a musical lecture-demonstra-
tion, "Learning Music with Orff
Instruments," in Recital Hall in
the music school bldg.
7:30 p.m.-Paul L. Garvin of the
Bunker-Ramo Corporation will
give a linguistics department for-
um lecture on "Computation in
Linguistics" in Rackham Amphi-
8:30 p.m.-Kathleen Halley,
pianist will give a doctoral de-
gree recital in Recital Hall in the
music school bldg.
8:30 p.m.-William Osborne, or-
ganist, will give a doctoral degree
recital in Hill Aud.
Wednesday, August 12
8:30 a.m.-The Michigan Union
will host the third day of the an-
nual high school Leadership
Training Conference, sponsored
by the Bureau of School Services.
8:30 p.m.-Robert Cox, clarinet-
ist, will give a degree recital in
Recital Hall in the music school
Sales, Service & Parts
8:30 p.m.-Arlyn Fuerst, organ-
ist, will give a degree recital in
Thursday, August 13
8:30 a.m.-The Michigan Union
will host the fourth day of the
high school Leadership Training
Conference, sponsored by the Bu-
reau of School Services.
8:30 p.m. - Elizabeth Erskine
mezzo-soprano, will give a degree
recital in Recital Hall in the mu-
sic school bldg.
Friday, August 14
8:30 a.m.-The Michigan Union
will host the fifth day of the an-
nual high school Leadership Train-
ing Conference, sponsored by the
Bureau of School Services.
"'The myths of our society" take
the brunt of the attack' of the
Freedom Schools operating in Mis-
sissippi this summer.
The schools are run by volun-
teers from the Council of Federat-
ed Organizations (COFO) who are"
also registering Mississippi Negroes
to 'vote in November. It is hoped
that Negro "students" in the
schools will perceive more clearly
the, realities and possible alter-
natives which their social condi-
Each school has from 5 to 15
student teachers and 35 to 50
students. It is an informal day
school, usually held in churches
stores or homes. While teacher,
attempt to avoid an academic at-
mosphere, they do present an in-
tensive curriculum designed tc
meet three needs:
1) To sharpen the student's abil-
ities to read, write and work math-
ematical problems. The teacher
concentrates upon stimulating
general interest in learning and
on finding special abilities in these
Within the six weeks of the
school's session, the student must
be prepared sufficiently so he can
take maximum advantage of
regular public education.
2) To provide a knowledge
basic social institutions affect
the student's life. This "citizi
ship curriculum" consists of si
topics as the Negro in Miss
sippi, the Negro in the Nor
Myths about the Negro, the PoN
Structure, the Poor Negro and1
Poor White, Material Things v
sus Soul Things and the Mo,
Students are encouraged'to fc
personal opinions about social p
nomena, their heritage as t
groes and their futures. Spec
attention is devoted to the c
rights movement - its histo
philosophical assumptions und
lying pressures for social chat
and current issues.
3) To provide relavation throe
a recreational and cultural c
riculum. This curriculum takei
large part of each day and off
new forms of expression -
arts, drama, music and sports.
The school day is concentr
ed in the morning and afterno
with students encouraged to Jl
various other COFO activities
0lL . MIS-KEEiMN WYNi
Shows Start at
1-3-5-7 & 9 P.M.
#A Jerry Lewis Production
MICHIGAN UNION MAIN DINING ROOM
will remain open the month of August,
except Saturdays and Sundays, through
Recommendations for Departmental
Honors: Teaching departments wishing
to recommend tentative August grad-1
uates from the College of Literature,
Science, and the Arts, for honors or !
high honors should recommend such
students by forwarding a letter (in
two copies; one copy for Honors Coun-
cil, one copy for the Office of Regis-
tration and Records) to the Director,
Honors Council, 12101 Angell Hall, by
3 p.m., Tues., Aug. 18.
Teaching departments in the School
of Education should forward letters'
directly to the Office of Registration
and ~ Records, Room 1513 Administra-
tion Bldg., by-11 a.m., Wed., Aug. 19.
Attention August Graduates: College
of Literature, Science, and the Arts,
School of Education, School of Music.
School of Public Health, School of
Business Administration: Students are
advised not to request grades of I or
X in August. When such .grades are
absolutely imperative, the work must
be made up in time to allow your
instructor to report the make-up grade
not later than 11 a.m., Aug. 19. Grades
received after that time may defer
the student's graduation until a later'
Leadership Training Workshop-aeg-
istrao. n Soth Quadrangle, 4 p.m.
School of Music Degree Recital-Lois
Fees, violinist: Recital Hall,'.School of
Music, 8:30 p.m.
School of. Music Degree Recital-Jean
Lewis, organist: Hill Aud., 8:30 p.m..
Pl ace'rten t
Moore Business Forms, Inc., Detroit-
Sales Rep. Male; bachelors degree; bus.
bkgd. sales, general accounting.
Ford Motor Credit Co., Dearborn,
Mich. - Computer Programmers. BS
math, bus. ad.,, indust. engrg., course-
work computer prog. tech. 5 yrs. exp.
procedures analysis; 2 yrs. program-
ming exp.. pref.,
IBM Corp., Kingston, N.Y.-Clinical
Psychologist. PhD psych., bajor-clin.
psych. Must meet N.Y. certification as
U.S. Civil Service--Navigational Sci-
entist. Bkgd, navigation, computation,
geophys., teaching inrelated fields.
National Soc. for 'Crippled Children
& Adults, Chicago-Executive-Ad., Oc-
cupational Therapy, Phys. Ther., Psy-
chology, Rehab.. & Vocational Counsel-
ing, Soc. SerV.,' Spec. Ed., Speech Ther.
Argonne. National Laboratory,. Ar-
gonne, 1.-Industrial Relations. Male,
MBA pref. Exper. or training in indust.
rel., labor rel
a Navy Dept.-Clvilian job opportunities
as follows: Navy HQ-Enginers, Spec.,
Analysts, Prog. Manager. Washington,
D.C.-Engineers, Mathematicians, Re-
search Psych. In Indiana-Electronic
engnrs., Physicists. 'In Md.-Account-
ant, Elec. Engr. Lib., Physicists, Me-
teorologist, Arch., Chemists, Stat., Math.
In Va.-Engrs., Physicists. Overseas -
Elec., Eng., Libr., Safety inspec., Cable
Splicer, Mech., Shop planner, Quarter-
-* * *
For further information, please call
General Div.,,'Bureau of Appointments,
3200 SAB, Ext. 3544.
The following teaching vacancies
have been reported for Sept. 1964:
Bellevue, Mich.-SS/Head Basketball/
Asst. Football Coach; JH Science.
Bloomfield Hills, Mich.-JH Industrial
Brighton, Mich.-Geography (handle
testing and some Guidance).,
Highland Park, Mich.-Special Educ.
(man) for Mentally Retarded.
New Boston, Mich.-Ind. Arts; JH
Gen. Math/Mech. Draw.; HS Inst. Mu-
sic: HS French.
St. Joseph, Mich.-JH Math/Science.
For additional information contact
Education Division, Bureau of Ap-
' RIDE THE WILD SURF"
H ERB ESTES
319 W. Huron
-N il N
-N.Y. Daily News
JAB BAT i-I
ST. ANDREW'S CHURCH and
the EPISCOPAL STUDENT
8:00 a.m.-Holy Communion.
10:00 a.m.-Holy Communion
7:00 p.m.-Evening Prayer.
7:00 a.m.-Holy Communion.
12:10 p.m.-Holy Communion
(Is' and 3rd
(2nd and 4th
Open regular hours beginning August 24.
University of Michigan
417 N. Univ. Ave.
UNIVERSITY LUTHERAN CHAPEL
AND STUDENT CENTER
(The Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod)
1511 Washtenaw Ave.
Alfred T. Scheips, Pastor
John Koenig, Vicar
Sunday at 9:15 a.m.-Bible Class.
Sunday at 10:30 a.m. - Service, with Holy
Communion, "A Lesson About Christ -
Sunday at 6:00 p.m. - Supper and Program,
"The Church and Civil Rights."
Wednesday at 10:00 p.m.-Midweek Devotion.
ST. MARY'S STUDENT CHAPEL
SUNDAY-Masses at 7:00, 8:00, 9:30, 11:00,
MONDAY-SATURDAY-Masses at 6:00 a.m.,
6:30, 7:00, 8:00, 9:00, 10:00, 11:00
WEDNESDAY-7:30 p.m.-Mother Perpetual
Help Devotions. Confessions following.;
SATURDAY-Confessions: 3:30-5:00; 7:30-
ZION LUTHERAN CHURCH
1501 W. Liberty St.
Ralph B, Piper, David Brocklein,
Fred Holtfreter, Pastors
Worship Services-8:30 and 11:15 a.m.
Holy Communion - Second Sunday of each
Church School-9:45 a.m.
Holy Baptism-First Sunday of month.
Nursery facilities during worship services and
LUTHERAN STUDENT CENTER
(National Lutheran Council)
Hill St. at S, Forest Ave.
Dr. Henry 0. Yoder, Pastor
9:00 a.m.-Bible Study.
10:00 a.m.-Worship Service.
THE CHURCH OF CHRIST
6r ect Ca in fodernColing~
Mats. 75c; Eves. $1.00
W. Stadium at Edgewood
Across from Ann Arbor High
John G. Makin, Minister
10:00 a.m.-Bible School.
11:00 a.m.-Regular Worship.
6:00 p.m.-Evening Worship.
7:30 p.m.-Bible Study.
7:00 p.m.-Program of Dance,
Slides by Japanese Students.
BETHLEHEM UNITED CHURCH
Transportation furnished for all
. .... , .,._~ __.. d