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Seventy-Three Years of Editorial Freedom
,XXIV, No. 29-S
ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, SATURDAY, AUGUST 1, 1964
King More Hopeful
For South than North
ATLANTA ()-Dr. Martin Luther King warned yesterday that
more violence is inevitable in the North unless the big cities move
decisively and quickly to clean up Negro ghettos.
Asked for a comparison, King said in an interview that he is
generally optimistic about the South, less optimistic and more con-
cerned about the North.
"The North is potentially more explosive," King said.
"There is an urgency. If the states, the cities and the federal
government temporize and feel that they can make small gains, we
Ranger 7 Show
Seconds Before ,I
Senate-House Conference Okays
$47 Billion Compromise Budget
WASHINGTON (R)-Economy advocates scored gains yesterday
en a compromise defense funds bill of $47 billion was approved
a Senate-House conference after some unusual figure-shuffling.
The total is more than $22 million under the amount voted by
Senate this week and more than $7 million below the sum pre-
usly approved by the House.
The result was possible because the Senate had eliminated nearly
million of defense funds and projects approved by the House
. ,. a*F~ 4
SEN. RICHARD RUSSELL
WASHINGTON (R) - A "free-
doni of information" bill won
Senate approval a second time last
night and now goes to the House,
with its fate there uncertain.
Urged by newsmen and many
others, the measure spells out in
detail the right of the public to
information from many govern-
ment departments and agencies.
The Senate bill was developed
by Sen. Edward V. Long (D-Mo)
with cooperation of Sen. Everett
M. D i r k s e n (R-Ill) through
lengthy hearings before a Senate
Among other things, the bill
would permit suits in' federal
courts to knock down secrecy
barriers not, permitted by its
terms, place the burden of proof
on the agencies to defend any
challenged refusal to give out in-
formation and require them to
pay the costs of the litigation if
f they lost the case.
It also would suspend the effec-
tiveness of agency rules and orders
which have not been published as
required,°by the House.
The freedom of information bill
would supplant existing law which.
the judiciary committee, after ex-
teasive hearings, ,described as
oThe committee said the law now
authorizes' the withholding of in-
formation "for good cause" or "in
the public interest" and that these
restrictions are so vague they
have been abused widely to with-
hold Jinformation which merely
would embarrass.some bureaucrat.
The bill first breezed through
the: Senate on. Tuesday without a
record vote despite opposition of
some federal government agencies
But Sen. Hubert H. Humphrey
(D-Minn), a s s is t a n t majority
leader, later moved to reconsider
the passage action and this stalled
the bill in the 'Senate.
After most other senatgrs had
departed, Humphrey and Long
agreed upon several technical
amendments which Humphrey
said should clarify the measure.
Then the bill was passed again
without opposition. It now goes to
the House. .
and then added $105 million of its
own for a net increase of $15
The compromise cuts back sev-
eral of the Senate increases and
restored only part of the House
reductions to fall below the pre-
vious House total.
The total is $1.47 billion below
,last year's defense appropriation
and about $720 million under
President Lyndon B. Johnson's
Sen. Richard B. Russell (D-Ga)
and Rep George H. Mahon (D-
Tex) headed groups from the Sen-
ate and House which hammered.
out the agreement in less than
Final Approval Needed
This biggest annual money bill,
supplying billions to operate and
equip the nation's fighting forces
for the current fiscal year that
began July 1, must be approved
again by both House and Senate
before it goes to the President.
The quick compromise indicated
final congressional approval early
The compromise will give Sec-
retary of Defense Robert S. Mc-
Namara a $125 million fund for
emergency use on any sudden ad-
vances in research, testing and
development of new military weap-
ons or hardware.
The House had voted $150 mil-
lion for this special fund but the'
Senate may cut it back to $100
Dropped was a Senate proposal
to permit the secretary to trans-
fer two per cent, or about $136
million, between the military stock
funds used jointly by the several
services. Retained was a House
provision which permits the sec-
retary to use up to $240 million
from these same funds to meet
unanticipated military personnel
Cut from $50 million to $4 mil-
lion was a Senate addition for
procurement of spare engines and
parts for military aircraft.
NEW YORK (P) - New York
Mayor Robert F. Wagner yester-
day turned down demands of Ne-
gro civil rights leaders for an in-
dependent board to review com-
plaints of police brutality.
The Negro leaders have made
the demands almost daily since
clashes between Negroes and police
in racial riots last week in Harlem
Negro reaction to the mayor's
position was one of disappoint-
ment. Leaders in the Negro com-
munity have called the lack of an
independent review board the crux
of unrest in the city.
Week of Quiet
The mayor's rejection of their
demand came after a week of
quiet in Harlem and Brooklyn.
In a five-page statement, Wag-
ner made no reference to other
appeals by the leaders for the
ouster of Police Cgmmissioner
Michael J. Murphy and suspen-
sion and arrest of police Lt.
The rioting broke out after Gil-
ligan shot and fatally wounded a
Negro youth July 16. Gilligan, who
is white, said he acted in self-
defense because the youth was
coming at him with a knife. Some
Negro leaders contend the youth
had no knife.
A grand jury is investigating the
A spokesman for the Congress
of Racial Equality (CORE) said
"We are deeply disappointed by
the mayor's inflexible position on
the vital questions of Gilligan's
arrest and the creation of a civil-
ian review board."
Wagner's statement was his first
on the racial situation since he
issued an appeal July 22 for peace
in the strife-torn areas.
He declared vastly increased
federal and state help is needed
to eliminate basic factors underly-
ing racial unrest.
4are in for some very tragic per-
iods of rioting and violence.
The main difference between
North and South, he said, "grows
out of the fact that in the North
discrimination is more subtle, co-
vert and hidden than in the South.
"It is precisely for this reason
that the problem is much more
difficult to get at in the North
and much more frustrating to the
Negro. In the South, discrimina-
tion is so visible that you can
attack it easier.
Denial of Access
"Major areas of discrimination
in the South have been voting,
public facilities, schools and the
entire system. One thing among
many others that has reminded
the Negro of his inferior status
has been denial of access to pub-
"His quest to gain access has
often ended in arrest," King said.
"In the North, it isn't public ac-
commodations at all. It is job
discrimination, poor dilapidated
housing conditions and de facto
segregation in the public schools."
"In the South we have very
specific and open goals, clearly de-
fined, and the protest is directed
at these specifics," he said of dif-
ferences in protest activity. "But
in the North, you often find a sort
of aimless, generalized protest with
no specific goal in mind.
Pockets of Progress
"In the South, because the sys-
tem has been so open, we have
been able to attack it more and
see pockets of progress here and
"Every day, you see concrete
progress in the South and this
eeps alive the candle of hope..
But in the North, the Negro can1
see only retrogression-discrimi-1
nation and automation. He finds
himself moving from one ghetto
"There are two unemployed Ne-
groes for every unemployed white.
Then there is the problem created
by numbers-the masses 'packed
into the ghettos-unemployed, un-
der-employed and unemployable.
"And they are so often exploit-
ed by the slumlords," he said. t
'Get Rid of Harlem'R
"Big northern cities must devel-'
op a broad, massive and well plan-t
ned program to clean up the slums
and ghettos. My theory is that
you will never solve the problem
of Harlem until you get rid of1
Harlem-as a ghetto.-
"The cities can't do it alone.I
They must have help from the1
states and the federal government,
It would be a good start to make
Harlem a real pilot project of thei
President's anti-poverty program,'
he noted. . .
"If the North is not very care-
ful and if the nation isn't, the1
South can pass the North in race
relations. With the exception of'
Mississippi, I am much more hope-
ful about the South in race rela-
tions than I am about many sec-'
tions of the North."1
THIS PHOTOGRAPH of the moon was made by the Ranger spacecraft from about three miles up
and about 2.3 seconds before the vehicle hit the moon's surface. It shows a clusterings of very small
craters that were apparently produced by rock fragments tossed from a larger crater nearby. The in-
formation in the picture will give space technologists valuable information for developing manned
and unmanned craft to land on the moon.
50 KILOTONS BY MIRAGE
France Becomes '-PowU~%er
By RICHARD K. O'MALLEY v
Associated Press Staff Writer
BORDEAUX, France - France
seems to be swiftlyuapproaching
~the day it cad~ mount a nuclear
aerial defense around the clock.
Even today,,'official sources say,
the French could if necessary de-
The Ann Arbor Chapter of the
Congress of Racial Equality has
announced it willahold two dem-
onstrations today-one in Detroit
and one in Ann Arbor.
The Detroit demonstration will
be at the downtown offices of
the Cutler Hubble Co., 5700 Wood-
ward Ave., from 9 to 11:30 a.m.
CORE has charged that the com-
pany's Ann Arbor apartment
house, Arbordale Manor, has dis-
criminated against Negro appli-
cants and is backing the charges
against the company before the
State Civil Rights Commission.
The second demonstration will
be held at !Delhi Park, starting
at 2:30 p.m. The park will be
the site of a picnic in honor of
Rep. George Meader (R-Ann Ar-
bor), candidate for Congress.
Guests at the picnic will be Gov.
George Romney and former Rep.
Walter Judd (R-Minn). The picket
will be "a protest against Mead-
er's active opposition to civil rights
legislation," the spokesman said.
liver 50-kiloton atomic bombs via
the twin-jet Mirage 4 bomber, at
a radius of up to 1800 miles.
Delta-winged Mirages are roll-
ing off the assembly line daily at
the big Dassault aircraft works in
a closely guarded complex at Bor-
deaux-Merignac, a few miles from
this port city.
French President Charles de
Gaulle's f o r c e de disuassion
(atomic deterrent force) is gath-
The exact number of Mirages
turned over to the French Air
Force is. not announced, but it
can be reported that several a
month are being supplied in a
delivery program that will be com-
pleted in 1966.
There are already enough su-
personic Mirage 4's in military
service so that France could mount
a nuclear reaction within min-
utes, according to available infor-
-The finned bomb itself, snug-
ged half-in, half-out of the plane's
belly, is a model of compactness.
It is less than 20 feet long and
has multiple safeguards built in
should an accident occur.
For example, if an emergency
occurred the bombardier-navigator
can drop it by parachute and land
it "inert." It can be set off by
radio at either high or low alti-
tudes, by time fuse at high alti-
tude or radar at low altitude.
Finally, it can be set off sim-
ply by impact. Each explosion sys-
tem can be selected by the navi-
The bomb is composed of a plu-
tonium core surrounded by con-
ventional explosives that set off
the atomic blast by implosion.
The Mirage 4 has gone through
successful bombing tests. About
100 drops have been made with
dummy casings loaded with tele-
metric instruments. All test bombs
weigh the same as an armed
Those who have reason to know
say that France has a substantial
number of stockpiled a-bombs.
The aircraft is equipped with
highly developed components. It
has a top-secret radar system.
The navigation and bombing
systems are the brain-child of
Jean Rouault, Dassault veteran
who developed both from scratch.
He likens the plane's perform-
ance to the American B-58 Hus-
tler, a larger plane with a larger
crew. The Mirage has a two-man
crew flying in tandem position.
Small by U.S. Standard
He acknowledges that the air-
craft is small by American nu-
clear bomber standards, but ex-
"The Americans like to install
dual systems, one inoperative until
the other develops a fault. This
takes up a good deal of valuable
space. We feel that a fallback
system need not be a twin of the
regular system. Thus we saved
space by installing a different and
more compact fallback."
PASADENA, Calif. ()-Ranger
's historic first close ups of
the moon, released -last night,
showed the surface in its impact
area to be a smooth plain pocked
with hundreds of small craters.
Scientists at the jet propulsion
laboratory, which made and guid-
ed the spacecraft, released five pic-
tures and commented on what they
Clustering of the crters, invisi-
ble to earth telescopes, indicates
they were caused by rocks thrown
from the larger crater of Coper-
nicus 200 miles north of theA Sea
of Clouds where Ranger hit, with-
in 10 miles of its target.
Dr. Gerard Kuyper of the Lun-
ar Planetary Laboratory of the
University of Arizona called the
pictures truly remarkable and said
they show progress in lunar pho-
tography by a factor of 1000.
The tiny camera-packed space
voyager crashed into the Sea of
Clouds at 6:25 a.m. after broad-
casting more than 4000 of the first
close ups of lunar terrain.
The feat snapped a string of
12 straight failures over six years.
Daylong study of the pictures,
taken from an altitude of 1300
miles on down to almost the in-
instant of impact, began provid-
ing answers to mysteries about
the moon's surface that have pu-
zled man since antiquity.
A slide shown at the laboratory
indicated what Kuyper called "a
emarkable clustering of very small
craters" apparently produced when
the larger Copernicus "tossed out
small rock fragments and made
He said this area was rough,
and "a region as badly battered
as this 'ought t be avoided" by
The historic photos, take by
two wide-angle and four narrow-
angle cameras during the last 16
Wiinutes and 40 seconds before im-
pact, were hailed as a huge stride
toward a lunar landing by astro-
A key question in the lunar ex-
ploration program has been how
rough is the moon's surface in
its sea areas? If too rugged, space
craft would have trouble landing.
Kuyper ' said two important
things learned from the photos are
the rounded features of small cra-
ters. and the large numbers of
"Perhaps the most significant
observation," Dr. Kuyper said, "is
that these pictures have not re-
sulted in any totally unpredicted
problems for lunar landing." l i
Kuyper said for example that
it is now known the craters come
as small as three feet in diameter.
. Among other things, he said,
"this clearly shows we are not
dealing with large areas of dust-
its not like sand."
Sign Up over
The unionization drive on cam-
pus showed a gain of a little over
50 members in last week's sign-up
campaign, Ben Moore reported
Moore, staff representative of
University Employe Local 1583,
noted that that last week's sign-
up brought the union's total mem-
bership up to almost 500. The
goal of tne membership drive,
which was launched last week in
a mass meeting, is to sign up a
majority of the University's 4700
non-teaching and non-manage-
The union office, at 400 E. Lib-
erty, will be open next week from
9 a.m. to 9 p.m. daily.
If the union signs up a majority
of those eligible, it will ask state
Atty. Gen. Frank Kelley whether
it can petition the National Labor
Relations Board for a representa-
tion election to determine who is
to be the negotiator representing
eligible employes. State law is un-
clear on whether a publicly-em-
ployed union can negotiate with
its employer. Such unions are,
however, forbidden to strike.
A majority of employes at Mich-
igan Technological U n i v e r s i t y
have also asked Kelley for an
nninnn n t ia-vmira. .ti.a.
By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON-Secretary of State Dean Rusk yesterday urged
Congress to eliminate from immigration laws the last vestiges of
discrimination on the basis of race or national origin.
He told a Senate subcommittee that current immigration prac-
tices result in only 34 per cent of the 2.6 million immigrants coming
to the United States falling under quota statutes. But he said this
is not widely realized abroad, and unfriendly propaganda exploits the
discriminations which still remain.
He urged that Congress bring the law into line with practice in
order to "strengthen our position in the world struggle which we are
ROCHESTER, N.Y -Hundreds of helmeted city and state police'
patrolled Rochester's Negro sections last night, grimly determined to
prevent any renewal of last weekend's mob rioting and looting.
The police were assisted by sheriff's deputies and backed up by
combat-ready National Guard troops prepared to add their force if
Guardsmen have spent the past week sharpening anti-riot tech-
niques in the use of bayonets, tear gas and rifle butts. They are
camped in several public parks and armories.
* * * *
TWO ENDINGS, KEYSTONE COPS
By MICHAEL HARRAH
don B. Johnson yesterday a $2.4
An Exotic Showcase
passed and sent to President Lyn-
billion bill authorizing funds for a
"variety of highway programs for
a two-year period starting next
The legislation is on Johnson's
must list for the 1964 session. The
authorizings are made well in ad-
vance of the time the money will
be spent, to allow time for ad-
Biggest authorization is $1 bil-
lion for each year for the A-B-C
roads built by the states-the pri-
mary, secondary and farm-to-
market, and urban systems. The
President had asked $975 million
The states must match these
funds, which are divided 45 per
There is a collection of musical shows which almost defy
classification-the Gilbert and Sullivan operettas, Sigmund Romberg
shows such as "The Student Prince" and other miscellaneous "operas"
like Daniel Auber's "Fra Diavolo" with its take-your-choice endings.
To be completely strict in one definition of the term "opera,"
one might well have to classify them under this category; but when
put up against such operas as "Carmen" and "Aida," they clearly
do not deserve the term.
So musicians have come to term them "light opera," a classic
example of which opens Wednesday night in Lydia Mendelssohn
The libretto to Auber's "Fra Diavolo," the University Players'
final production on the Summer Playbill series, reads like a scenario
for a Keystone Cops film. (In fact the Hollywood production starred
slapstick favorites Laurel and Hardy.)
Fra Diavolo (Italian for The Devil's Brother) is disguised as the
The machinations of the plot are obvious. Lorenzo and Zerlina
try to figure out how to dump Francesco. The Marquis tries to
figure out how to relieve the Countess of some more jewels (he
missed a cache on the first round), with the help of Beppo and
Giacomo, his two blundering sidekicks.
The Marquis, Beppo and Giacomo steal into the inn at night
and get trapped in Zerlina's closet, where they are discovered. The
Marquis lets on that he was romancing Zerlina, which infuriates
Lorenzo. The Count, who is in on the discovery, is mad at the'
Marquis for courting favor with the Countess (they troup around
the countryside singing duets together) and anxious to get rid
of the Marquis (although he doesn't know that the Marquis is the
One can guess the climax; it is worthy of Gilbert and Sullivan in'
their finest hour. In fact, Auber even gives the director, Prof. Ralph
Herbert of the music school, his choice of endings. (To quote the
libretto: "The Marquis is either taken prisoner or shot by the