THE MICHIGAN DAILY
31. 1964 THE MICHIGAN DAILY
Battle in the Beef Industry
EDITOR'S NOTE: There has been'
a hot battle going on in Washing-
ton over the reasons behind slump-
ing bee! prices. Associated Press
farm writer Ovid A. Martin here
reviews some of the facets of the
By OVID A. MARTIN
Associated Press Staff Writer
WASHINGTON 6P) - The ad-
ministration of President Lyndon
B. Johnson is looking to the House
to reverse a Senate setback in a
long and somewhat bitter battle
it has been waging with the cattle
industry over meat imports and a
sharp decline in beef prices.
The Senate passed by 72-15 vote
Wednesday a bill which would
cut back imports of beef, veal
and lamb nearly 30 per cent below
The House has yet to act upon
the import quota bill. Administra-
tion officials are fairly confident
that the House will not pass it.
The measure is being pushed,
by the American beef cattle in-
dustry, which is politically strong
in many states because it is the
largest single element, from an in-
come standpoit, in agriculture.
The administration on the oth-
er hand opposes the measure and
has indicated President Johnson1
would veto it if it should pass
The controversy began with a
decline in cattle prices which
started in January, 1963. Prices
were down nearly 30 per cent by
May of this year. Many cattle-
m en suffered financial losses-a
act upon which both the admin-
istration and the industry agree.
Earlier, cattlemen had aroused
administration ire by helping to
defeat White House-sponsored leg
islation which would have given
the Agriculture Department au-
thority, subject to a producer ref-
erendum, to extend controls to the
The core of the present con-
flict is an argument over what
caused the sharp break in cattle
prices. Livestock men contend
that a big increase in beef im-
ports in recent years was to blame.
But the administration argues
that imports play only a minlor
part A major factor, it says, was
a sharp expansion in cattle pro-
duction in this country.
In the past six years herds
have grown to record-high levels
and the end is not in sight.
Critics also blame the admin-
istration's feed grain program
which tended to hold corn prices
lower than they otherwise might
have been-thus encouraging the
heavy feeding of cattle and pro-
duction of a large tonnage of beef.
Only a part of the decline in
cattle prices has been passed on
to consumers in the form of lower
The administration holds that
legislated restrictions on beef im-
ports are not needed and would be
embarrassing to the government in
current trade negotiations at Ge-
This country is trying to per-
suade other nations to lower their
tariffs, and reduce or eliminate
import quotas and other restric-
tions on world trade.
It says a quota measure is not
needed because the big beef ex-
porters-Australia, New Zealand,
and Mexico - hav entered into
voluntary agreements to cut back
shipments to this country to
about the level proposed in the
But the cattle industry and con-
gressional backers of the quota
bill argue that the livestock in-
dustry needs greater protection
than would be provided by volun-
tary agreements. -.
The Human Relations Commis-
sion remained deadlocked two
nights ago over the choice of a
A five to five vote was taken
at a special meeting called after
the HRC failed for the second
month in a row to agree on a
chairman. The choice is between
acting chairman Paul C. Wagner
and Tarry A. Mial, a member of
Ballotting at Wednesday night's
meeting was under a changed rul-
ing that allowed a simple major-
ity of those present at the meet-
ing to elect the chairman. Previ-
ously, a majority of the full 12-
member commission was required.
The closest the HRC has come
to ending the deadlock was a six
to four vote for Mial under the
old rules a week ago Wednesday.j
Wagner has acted as chairman
since May, when his regular term
expired. Mial has been on the
HRC since December, 1963.
The administration has been
doing other things in an effort to
bring higher cattle prices and take
some of the steam out of the push
for the quota bill. It has been
buying large quantities of beef for
welfare use and it has been try-
ing to promote sales of both cat-
tle and beef abroad. In recent
years, this country has exported
very little beef.
These and other factors have
contributed to a slight increase in
cattle prices in recent weeks. But
the administration is not willing
yet to forecast that the price loss
suffered since the beginning of
1963 will offset in the foreseeable
Undoubtedly, politics in this na-
bional election year are playing a
role in the controversy. A number
Df staunch administration Demo-
crats voted for the bill in the Sen-
ate. Some of them are up for re-
election this fall in states where
the cattle industry is strong.
Republicans have not tried to
hide their pleasure at the admin-
istration's troubles. The GOP's na-
tional convention at San Fran-
cisco promised in its platform to
provide "meaningful safeguards
against irreparable injuries to
many domestic industries by dis-
duptive surges of imports, such
as in the case of beef and other
In Washington yesterday, Texas
cattlemen gave the meat imprt
bill a slight chance of winning
House approval. The most con-
troversial in the number was Jay
Taylor, who gave the bill hardly
Taylor, wealthy Amarillo ranch-
er who formerly headed both the
American and Texas Cattle Raisers
Associations, had this comment:.
"I am for the bill," he declared,
"but I have said that I have
found in Washington that it has
no chance of passing the House."
Taylor said he could understand
why the administration would not
support such legislation. But he
"I have been unable to believe
that the Eastern congressmen
from large consumer and exporting
areas would go along with legis-
lation of this type."
The United States Civil Service
Commission announced recently
that it is receiving applications
from college students for jobs in
The jobs are offered in connec-
tion with the commission's coop-
erative "work-study programs.'
Under these programs, academic
studies are combined with practi-
cal work experience and on-the-
job training as students alternate
attendance at college with per-
iods of employment.
No written test is required, but
students must have completed one
or twio full academic years in an
accredited college leading to a
bachelor's degree in mathematics
engineering, or the physical sci-
Sees Negro Writers
. Widening Viewpoint
"The main fault of a Negro's de- In early literature, the Negre
piction of himself in his own lit- epit y hieas ahs ien-
terature has been that it has been Lepicted himself as almost iden-
parochial - too little concerned tical with his white neinoboos, and
with the world around it," Bly- wos in colr s andteatuo s
den Jackson, dean of the South- white."
ern University Graduate School,
said recently. The second phase arrived in the
In recent years, however, Ne- 1920's, when many Negro writers
groes have learned to think with depicted the Negro as being ir
"informed concern of the outer some way superior to the white
world," Jackson continued. "It is man, Jackson said. "The charac-
this transition which is now help- ters were portrayed as having ir
ing Negro writers think and feel a way retained a primitive qual-
inside the characters they create, ity which contributed to the joy
and impose upon them drama of of living."
an external environment," he add- But with the Great Depression
ed. the Negro writers began to vis-
This awareness of his environ-. alize and illustrate the Negro ac
ment has helped the Negro in his a menace to the white man - "a
literature to attain a "perspective sign of the bitterness that per-
on his situation" and look inside vaded the thoughts of many Ne-
himself for some of the causes of groes in that period," Jackson weni
his frequent bitterness. on.
Speaking on "the Negro in Ne- This phase passed quickly anc
gro literature," Jackson noted that introduced another phase, one
Jhe most obvious characteristics of which Negro literature of toda3
the Negro in his own literature still erlfects. In this period, the
have been not aesthetic, but so- Negro has shown himself as "ar
ciological. imminent danger to himself be.
In addition to the parochial cause of his own hatred and bit-
"world view" a long-standing fea- terness toward the outer world."
It has been during this phase
ture of Negro literature has been that the Negro has become more
that the Negroes in it have un- aware of himself in relation to his
dergone several periods of change. environment, Jackson emphasized
The Audio-Visual Center will by Prof. Calvin Qualyle of th(
present two films, "City of Gold" speech department at 8 p.m. to
and "Siam" at 1:30 p.m. today in day in Lydia Mendelssohn Thea
the Multipurpose Rm. of the UGLi. tre.
Franklin Dybdahl, bass bari-
tone, will present a degree reci-
tal at 4:30 p.m. today in the
music school recital hall.
Cinema Guild will present
Charlie Chaplin and Paulette God-
dard in "Modern Times," Snub
Pollard in "Join the Circus" and
Mary Pickford and Kate Bruce in
"The Stranger Returns" at 7 and
9 p.m. in the Architecture Aud.
Prof. William A. Calder of Agnes
Scott College at Decatur, Ga., wil
speak on "The Measurement of
Distances in Astronomy," an as-
tronomy department V i s i t o r s'
Night program at 8:30 p.m. today
in Aud. D.
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319 W. Huron
One Show Only at 7:15 P.M.
Continuous Saturday from 1 P.M.
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The University Players will pre-
sent James Thurber's "A Thur-
ber Carnival," starring David Hir-
vela , Thomas Manning, Howard
Travis, Michael Gerlach, Stephen
Wyman, Betty Ellis, Joyce Edgar,
Linda Shaye, Barbara Manning
and Michael McClatchey, with
choreography by Janet O'Brien;
costumes by Prof. Zelma Weisfeld
of the speech department and sets
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