TUESDAY, JULY 29, 1964
THE MICHIGAN DA LY
TUESDAY, JULY 28, 1964 TEE MICHIGAN DAILY
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Can Einstein Be Improved?
Britain's famed cosmologist,
Prof. Fred Hoyle, has a controver-
sial theory of gravitation which
modifies the ideas of Einstein.
It may lead to a unified theory
of the universe.
Hoyle and his Indian-born re-
search associate, Dr. Jayant V.
Narlikar, say the theory accords
with the up-to-date knowledge
about the universe.
Where Einstein nearly 50 years
ago explained his famous general
theory of relativity in terms of
time-space geometry, Hoyle claims
to have fitted gravitation into
an analysis which takes account
of the known properties of matter.
One of the greatest difficulties
about Einstein's theory has been
that it tends to be ambiguous and
to lead to apparent absurdities if two centuries in time to Sir Issac
carried to logical limits. Newton.
For example Einstein chose to
explain gravity in terms of space
and time, not matter. But, Hoyle
says, the relativity theory does not
tell us why an apple actually falls
to the ground instead of shooting
upwards into space. In Einstein's
equations gravity can repel as well
Einstein also argued that if,
in theory, all matter were removed
from the universe, gravity would
still exist. It was a result of his
fundamentally abstract mathema-
Hoyle is determined both to keep
apples falling to the ground and
go beyond purely theoretical con-
cepts. His quest has led him back
Newton said that objects in
space act upon each other at a
distance in direct proportion to
their size. The bigger the object,
the bigger its gravitational pull
on another object.
Hoyle goes beyond this, however,
to say that all elements in the
universe interact with all other
elements. Something happening in
the farthest-flung galaxy must
have an influence on our own
His theory amounts to saying
that the universe is a seamless
garment. Alteration to a single
stitch affects the whole. Einstein
would not have accepted this.
Where Einstein said that the
theoretical removal of half the
universe would merely reduce the
number of stars. Hoyle argues that
it would bring our planet closer
to the sun. Not only that, the sun
would become 100 times brighter.
MIAMI BEACH W-)-Leroy Col-
lins, head of the new federal Civil
Rights Agency, said yesterday
hoodlumism and violence, even in
the name of civil rights, would de-
stroy American democracy.
He also said his new agency
had decided to take its first ac-
tion in St. Helena Parish, La. The
Louisiana attorney general sent
the agency a formal request for
help in working out a school de-
segregation plan, Collins said.
At this point in his reasoning
Hoyle's background as a cosmolo-
gist becomes crucial.
'Big Bang' Rejected'
He is already the originator of
the creation field (C-field) theory
of the universe. Instead of saying
that the universe was created at
a particular point in time, in "one
big bang" he says the elements
of matter are all the time being
destroyed and created in the wake
of heavenly bodies flying outwards
Hoyle believes his new gravita-
tional theory builds a bridge be-
tween Einstein's geometry and his
own creation field concept. If his
gravitational equations are blend-
ed into Einstein's, there is no es-
sential incompatibility with the
idea of a universe in a state of
Hoyle's packed audience at the
Royal Society saw this demon-
strated with what he himself de-
scribed as "an even fiercer set of
equations than Einstein's."
By no means all those present
could follow his elaborate mathe-
matics. And many of those who
could chose to remain skeptical.
The next few months will certain-
ly see a storm of controversy de-
Hoyle is being listened to care-
fully because some of his most
recent ideas about radio stars are
tending to be confirmed by the
But what makes his latest form-
ulation exciting is that it offers
the possibility of reconciling a lot
of apparently conflicting ideas
about the nature of matter and
of the universe in general.
Einstein's theory did little to
explain the relationship between
and the myriad forms matter as-
sumes under varying conditions.
Hoyle hopes his new theory of
gravitation will provide a com-
mon denominator and allow theo-
retical physicists to develop a
single theory uniting and explain-
ing what we know about the uni-
Copyright, Christian Science Monitor
FOLK SINGERS NOWADAYS are a hardy lot ... or so it would seem to look at this contingent,
camping out on the beach in unusually cold weather during the Newport Folk Festival last weekend.
GOLDWA TER SUPPORTERS
Will Higgins Give Romney Trouble?
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(Continued from Page 2)
should not inhibit the party orga-
nization from working for the elec-
tion of the entire Republican tick-
et "from top to bottom."
Although virtually no one con-
cedes Higgins a chance of upset-
ting Romney, political soundings
around the state indicate that in
some Goldwater strongholds-such
as southwestern Michigan and the
Midland area-the governor may
suffer at the ballot box for his
coolness toward the nominee.
One Republican official said that
while he expected Romney to win
by an impressive margin, there
were some GOP pockets where the
Goldwater backers are so rabid,
emotional and newly antagonistic
toward the governor that they are
doing everything they can to pile
up a Higgins vote and embarrass
GOP spokesmen are virtually
unanimous in their reluctance to
predict the winning margin for
A source close to the governor
recalled the embarrassment suf-
fered by those who forecast a low
vote for Alabama Gov. Wallace in
the presidential primary.
Durant said he felt Romney's
position on Goldwater "will kick
back at him to such an extent
that he's almost going to have
to change it."
At the governors' conference in
Cleveland last June 7, Romney
"There is no substantial popu-
lar support in Michigan of Senator
Goldwater at this time . . . Unless
there were a miraculous change,
it (a Goldwater candidacy) would
not help Republican candidates
Evidence of an attempt to
smooth things over came in a
letter sent to Republican leaders
by State Chairman Arthur El-
liott this week.
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