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June 25, 1963 - Image 4

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1963-06-25

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* IV 1~idhigan BIai1l
Seventy-Third Year
Truth Will Prevail"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

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Y, JUNE .25, 1963



Pope Paul Takes Burden
Of Pope John's Humane Ideals

THE HEAVY BURDEN of updating and ad-
ancing Catholic Church doctrine and prac-
tice-especially its social conscience-has now
been placed on the shoulders of Giovanni
Batista Cardinal Montini-Pope Paul VI. His
late predecessor, Pope John XXIII, had taken
giant steps in bringing the church up to date.
t"'is up to Pope Paul to continue to move the
church forward.
The 80 cardinals picked a good man for
the job. Not only is Pope Paul well trained
for the papacy, serving nearly 30 years in
upper echelons of the church, but he brings
many of the strengths of his two predecessors,
with whom he worked closely,swith him.
An austere man, Pope Paul has the intense
itellectual energy of Pope Pius XII, but he
also has many of the humane qualities of
Pope John as well as the forward vision of
:la 'predecessor. His efforts as archbishop of
l4lan and his speeches at last fall's Ecumenical
Council amply demonstrate his qualities.
Pope Paul also has the backing of the, college
>f cardinals-the princes of the church. His
iuick election from their ranks is a clear
mdorsement of Pope John's humanistic policies
and Pope Paul's often repeated desire to con-
inue and extend them.
Pope Paul's election strongly reflects the
iumanistic change that his predecessor
wrought in the church. Pope John was elected
as interim pope who would do little to change
he- status quo. The cardinals wanted con-
olidation after the long and fruitful reign of
Pope. Pius, but what they got was massive
hange and the ventilation of the church by
)owerfl "winds of change."
jUT P0PE JOHN was more than an ad-
ministrative innovator or shrewd clerical
olitician. He 'was a great humanist, one of
he world leaders, rare in this century. His
oncern :for the welfare of mankind was
reater than his interest in international pol-
tics or ideologies. Pope John was the only
vorid leader who understood "magnanimity,"
". P. Snow said here two weeks ago, and at-
empted to bridge the gap between the rich
ond poor.
Putting his concern for mankind into ac-
ion, he brought the church's social thinking
klong wa towards meeting, the needs of all
f modern man-not just those in the elite
roups with whom the church has been his-
orically associated. His encyclicals "Mater et
Lagister" and "Pacem in Terris" took long
trides towards effectively meeting social prob-
ems, advancing the timid steps of Pope Leo
0II and Pius XI.
"Mater et Magster" was a stern assertion
f the right of all to a decent life and a moving
lemand that the rich 'nations help the poor.
"The solidarity which links all human beings
,nd makes them members of one family 'im-
oses the duty not to remain indifferent to
hose political communities whose members
re fighting the. hardships of poverty, misery
,nd hunger and do not enjoy elementary
luman rights.
"This is the more so since given the growing
rterdependence among the peoples of the
arth, it Is ,not possible to preserve lasting
eace if glaring social inequality exists."
FHUS POPE JOHN set the tone, urging Cath-
olics toward a greater concern for the
ecular welfare of their fellow men. He ex-
ended this admonition in "Pacem in Terris"
hich dealt with peace and its prerequisites.
ddressed to "all men of good will"- not just
atholics-this encyclical declared:
"Every human being is a person, that his
ature is endowed with intelligence and free
ill . . . He has rights and duties of his own,
lowing directly and simultaneously from his
ery nature, which are therefore universal, in-
iolable and inalienable.
"Every man has the right to life, to bodily
ategrity and to the means which are neces-
ary and suitable for the proper development
f life. These are primarily food, clothing,
helter, rest, medical care, and finally the

.ecessary social services. Therefore, a human
eing also has the right to security in cases
f sickness, inability to work, widowhood, old
ge, unemployment or in any other case in
rhich he is deprived of the means of sub-
istence through no fault of his own."

Calling for world peace and understanding,
Pope John denounced racism and supported
religious freedom. In many little ways, he put
his words into action. He expanded the College
of Cardinals to make it a world-wide body
rather than a narrow Italian one, appointing
its first Negro cardinal. He removed the words
"perfidious Jews" from the Good Friday service
and when he caught a priest saying them at
this year's service he had the erring cleric
repeat that portion of the mass.
POPE JOHN always had a warm -personal
touch. He was the first pope in decades
to travelhwidely outside thesVatican, often
visiting' the hospitals and prisons of Rome.

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Kennedy Rational: Pragmatic, Economi

WHAT SHOULD be the proper
rationale for federal aid to
education? Many have been of-
fered and it is important that fed-
eral government adopt the proper
ones to guide future action. The
wrong rationales can lead to grave
educational imbalances or to fed-
eral control.
A fact sheet given to last
spring'$ Federal Aid to Education
(FATE) Conference delegates lists
the rationales of Kennedy admin-
-The school age population has
more than doubled in the last 10
years and will nearly double again
by 1970;
-College enrollment will nearly
double by 1970, reaching an esti-
mated seven million;
-A serious classroom shortage
continues with an estimated 1.5
million students in overcrowded
classrooms and two million in sub-
standard ones;
-Current federal student loan
programs cover only five per cent
of students enrolled in participat-
ing colleges;
-Twenty-one million students
now in grade school will enter the
labor market in the 1960's without
a college degree;
-By the end of the decade the
cost of public education will more
than double, creating a burden too
large for state, local and private
sources to handle alone;
-Federal' programs are advan-
tageous both educationally and
economically; recent surveys have
shown. that nearly 40 per cent of
the-' nation's economic growth in
recent years is ia direct result of
investments in education; and
-Improved education is essen-
tial to national security, especial-
ly since the Soviets are graduating
three times as many engineers and
four times as many physicians.
* * *
SUCH ARE the selling points
the Kennedy administration is
using to push federal aid to educa-
tion. They are pragmatic and
economic, reflecting the general

tone of the New Frontier. While
vital, they do not nearly enough
reflect all the rationales for fed-
eral aid.
More emphasis than this list in-
dicates has been put into the de-
fense rationale. This Sputnik-era
reason, if carried out in aid legis-
lation, could dangerously twist
education away from the humani-
ties and some of the social sci-
This outlook was illustrated
when, the approximately 70 stu-
dent delegates to the FATE Con-
ference routinely endorsed and
lobbiea for President John F.
Kennedy's federal aid to educa-
tion program without really con-
sidering the grave implications in
some of the arguments for feder-
al aid. They easily defeated at-
tempts by the University's Ralph
Kaplan and a few others to warn
against tying education too closely
to the Cold War.
* * *
IN RECENT years, the national
defense theme has been the most
effective way of wringing money
out of Congress, even in the con-
troversial field\ of education. Aid
to school districts overloaded by
children of servicemen or federal
employes and National Defense
Education Act scholarships are
two prime examples of linking ed-
ucation and defense.
The ability of colleges and uni-
versities to train personnel for de-
fense' work and to research de-
fense problems adds an alluring
appeal. The administration can
argue that federal aid is a utili-
tarian and noble weapon in the
American arsenal.
However, the linking of higher
education to this sacred cow poses
some very serious questions. What
will federal aid, given under such
conditions, do to academic inde-
pendence and the freedom of edu-
cators to criticize society? What
will happen to the fields not use-
ful for defense?
Already education and defense
are strongly linked. The defense
department spends approximately
$350 million a year for research at
colleges and universities. It used

to provide more than half of the
government sponsored research
funds at the University and only
this year will the combined total
of other federal research spend-
ing exceed it. Even so, the de-
fense department and related
agencies like the Atomic Energy
Commission and the National
Aeronautics and Space Adminis-
tration will spend $20 million here.
To date, this spending has been
largely limited to research. Fed-
eral aid is now necessarily branch-
ing into teaching. State and local
revenue are no longer sufficient
to finance education at any level
and the federal government is in-
creasingly pressed to fill this need..
The rationale that the federal
government uses is important, for
it shall determine the way its
money shall be spent.
If its philosophy is to promote
knowledge for its own sake, the
government will spread its pro-
grams to as many areas as pos-
sible with the fewest controls,
which would mainly concern ac-
However, if its rationale is to
promote national defense, federal
aid. will be limited to the physical
and some of the, social sciences.
Its controls will extend from ac-
counting to loyalty oaths and se-
curity restrictions. Already the
National Defense Education Act
scholarships require loyalty oaths
and an elaborate security program
is part of defense department re-
search contracts.
IF FEDERAL aid is defense-
oriented, the atmosphere, fed by
the tight security system that ac-
companies the defense establish-
ment, will be one of conformity
and support for the system. The
potential prospects of losing fed-
eral aid because of criticism of
the defense effort will tend to in-
hibit such criticism.
For disciplines not related to
the defense effort, federal aid gen-
erated on a defense principle will
be slow in coming and smaller in
size. The University, a major re-
cipient of federal research money,
has seen a physical science re-

.. "magnanimity"

He always had a kind thing to say to his
visitors-even to atheist Alexi Adzhubei, Soviet.
Premier Nikita S. Khrushchev's son-in-law.
The pope was more concerned for people
than for ideology and at his death was at-
tempting to make approaches to East European,
Communists so that the church could better,
minister its flock in that region.
In last fall's Ecumenical Council-the first
since 1870-Pope John began his attempt to
institutionalize these theoretic reforms and
unite Christendom. The conference promoted
close contacts between the church and Pro-
testant and Eastern Orthodox counterparts,
opening avenues that had been blocked for as
long as 1000 years. Since the first call of the
conference two years ago many leading church-
men of other faiths have visited the Vatican.
Pope John did all this without compromising
the church's basic doctrines. He made no con-
cessions to other groups, but advanced the
church by stretching its humanistic side. It
will be the task of Pope Paul to consolidate
these new attitudes and further modernize
the social thinking of the church.
THIS CHANGE comes none too soon, as
Christianity is stagnating. In many parts
of the world it is associated with former hated
colonial masters. In the West, organized reli-
gion has been aloof from social problems and
has lost adherants to growing world secularism.
In the underdeveloped nations, the populace
tends sometimes to accept Islam, but often
atheistic Marxism of a Communist or non-
Communist variety.
Pope John, the humanist, has done much
to squarely meet this problem by ministering
to man's human needs. He blazed a clear
path. It is up to Pope Paul to follow his trail.
Free Thought
ON HIS recent visit to Ann Arbor Pete Seeger,
America's finest folksinger, called himself
a conservative. "Sure," he explained, quoting
an unknown source, "any man who is not a
radical at 20 has no heart, and any man who
is not a conservative at 40 has no head."
Seeger, whose past political views have been
anything but conservative, has long been mak-
ing a more than adequate living with his
heart and voice in the right place, and has in
an equally long time been suspiciously eyed
by the government for having "Communist
leanings." Last year he was acquitted of con-
tempt of Congress charges which grew out of
an oue Tn-American Activities Committee

search boom and is already pro-
viding for other disciplines
through endowment funds. This
sort of effort would have to be in-
creased as support of the physical
sciences would expand under spe-
cific aid programs as well as gen-
* * *
economic or security values. These
are limited benefits which tend to
distort education towards ends
other than knowledge.
Education should be sought for
its own sake. Expanding knowl-
edge keeps the community alert
and progressive, providing the
means for social and economic ad-
justment. Standing slightly out-
side the main stream of society,
the educational system studies so-
ciety and feeds new information
into it. Its members receive the
time and the training to reflect
on all facets of the world and
their work enriches it, although
often in an intangible manner. A
stagnant society often results from
a limited or frozen educational
system, twisted to serve false ends.
If this broad rationale is
stressed, federal aid can be best
used with the minimum number
of controls. This approach allows
the government to sponsor the
widest dissemination and increase
of knowlecge, helping impover-
ished English and classics depart-
ments as well as rich physics and
aeronautical engineering ones.
Federal money could help the
study of literature as well as nu-
clear physics.
Otherwise, federal aid could
well be concentrated in areas of
national security or economic
benefit, American society is al-
ready highly materialistic and
supporting fields that have an im-
mediate economic benefit will only
intensify this attitude at the ex-
pense of the humanities which
have no immediate application.
The aid proposals have also been
sidetracked by civil rights issues.
Several attempts have been made
to add anti-segregation provisions
to aid bills, notably to the impact-
ed areas aid measure, but few
have succeeded.
The House education subcom-
mittee tacked onto the impacted
areas aid bill the soundest anti-
discrimination amendment yet
devised. It calls for all segregated
school districts receiving aid funds
to register an integration plan
With the Office of Education by
June 30 and to effect one within
a year. This scheme is more flex-
ible than the Powell Amendment
which flatly bans federal money
from segregated schools, but its
effect on Southern congressmen is
the same.
These provisions have had an
ironic effect on federal aid to edu-
cation proposals. They make such
programs, desperately needed in
the South, unpalatable to South-
ern congressmen. The Southern
states have traditionally been the
lowest education spenders, since
their poor agricultural resources
leave them little funds to devote
to education.
Thus federal money is most
needed in that region. The vast
resources of the federal govern-
ment would serve well to supple-
ment the meager funds of the
Southern states. Yet, Southern
congressmen have been forced into
the opposition because of anti-
segregation amendments.
Congressional action is not the
place to speed school desegrega-
tion. New civil rights laws are
needed - especially in voting,
housing and employment discrim-
ination - but in education they
are only self-defeating. The exec-
utive and judicial branches should
lead school integration.
The administration can insure
that federal money is not spent
in defiance of federal law, yet as-

"Huh - Time Already?"

a ..

To the Editor:
I HAVE MADE certain observa-
tions in three years at the Uni-
versity. Most students do not aver-
age more than five hours of sleep
per night; 'with a credit load of
15 hours, a student averages three
hours in classroom activity per
day; allowing two hours of study
for every one hour in class (too
generous, but a concession to the
more ambitious student), there
still remains 10 hours in the day.
Allotting three hours a day for.
meals, the student is left with a
seven-hour day, as much time as
his father puts in daily "at the
office" or "in the shop."
It seems to me that underlying
Ellen Silverman's recent editorial
is a deep and reasonable concern
for the quality of education at the
University. It does not seem logical
that an education system should
be arranged such that the student
who works 20 hours a week or
spends a comparable amount of
time in "extracurricular activities"
should lie able to do so without
undue pressure or a proportion-
ately lower grade average than
that student who is ."burdened"
with only 15 credit hours and its
accompanying load of study,
It does seem logical that the
above-calculated extra seven hours
per day should be put to some
productive p u rp ose. Hopefully,
Miss Silverman's suggestion of a
required credit load of 18 or 19
hours is not the only answer. It
is a positive suggestion in the face
of seeming1y insurmountable
apathy on the part of students,
faculty and administrators. The
quality of education at the Uni-
versity has fallen frighteningly in
the last 10 years. Perhaps the
answer is to raise standards of
admittance and refuse admission
to the student who graduates from
a Michigan high school with a 1.90
average-to revolt against the dic-
tates of the Legislature just a
little and turn pressures for fi-
nancial assistance in other direc-
tions. It is possible that with a
higher quality student body cer-
tain demands would be placed up-
on the powers-that-be to match
and surpass that quality.
* * *
HOWEVER, IT is an unfortun-
ate truth that there is no student
who will read from the "suggested
reading list." Instead, let the in-
structor add those supplementary
materials to the "required reading
list." Let him demand an extra
paper or two per semester. Let
him force new and perhaps radical
ideas into a student's sleeping
mind. The student's mind will stay
asleep as long as it is permitted.
If we are not excited enough to
waken it ourselves, please let's
have someone scare it awake.
If Miss Silverman suggests rais-
ing quantity instead of quality,
perhaps it is because she is con-
cerned enough by the realities to




tx tl Fttt t '

Business Staff
ONALD WILTON........................ Co-Editor
HILIP SUTIN'.............................Co-Editor
AVE GOODE.....................Co-Sports Editor
;HARLES TOWLE.................Co-Sports Editor
UTH HETMANSKI... .............Night Editor
EAN TENANDER........................Night Editor
NDREW ORLIN........ ............ Night Editor


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