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August 10, 1963 - Image 3

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1963-08-10

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. _ ~ r, s ___ . .

Underground Tests Remain a Thorn

Arts Lab Could Signal Changes
(Continued from Page 1) I I :7.7% |

(EDITOR'S NOTE: Underground
tests were excluded from the limited
nuclear test ban treaty because
there is no sure way yet to detect
sub-surface blasts. An American
scientist says concentrated current
research may overcome this obstacle
and lead to a full ban on nuclear]
weapons testing.)
Associated Press Science Writer
PASADENA, Calif. (RP)-A mem-
ber of the United States negotiat-
ing team says the limited nuclear
test ban treaty points up a serious
gap in the technology necessary
for nuclear arms control: under-
ground detonations.
They were excluded from the
treaty because scientists have not
found a sure way to detect and
identify all subsurface blasts, Dr.
Frank Press, director of the seis-
mology laboratories of California
Institute of Technology, said in an
exclusive interview.
Precise information about this
research is secret. Neither side
wants the other to know how much
progress is being made in distin-
guishing explosions from earth-
Research Proceeds
But informed sources say this
research is going ahead full speed,
because a breakthrough could lead
to cessation of all nuclear weapons
"The treaty signed in Moscow is
a good first step, but I doubt if
anyone would deny there is need
for a more comprehensive treaty,"
Press said.
"Science has made some very
significant advances in the field in
the past five years, but we are all
looking forward to the day when
underground tests, too, can be pro-
hibited, with 'assurance that any
violator will be exposed," he said.
Radioactive Debris
Atmospheric tests can be detect-
ed at great distance because of the
radioactive debris. Even if a
"clean" bomb were perfected, its
detonation could be spotted be-
cause the first burst of light ex-
cites a brief glow in the upper
atmosphere which can be seen by
instruments far beyond the hori-
Underwater tests can be detect-
ed because they set up sound-and-
pressure waves that travel thou-
sands of miles.
Even tests far out in space can
be detected with reasonable cer-
tainty because they throw off some
radiations that are different from
those ordinarily found in the solar
But underground tests are hard
to detect, for two reasons:

-They frequently
with earthquakes.

are confused)

-The bombs can be suspendedt
in a large cavity, and this muffles
the blast so it cannot be identified
by monitoring stations more than
a few hundred miles away.-
Scientists cannot be sure of
identifying "seismic events"-un-
derground shocks-of less than1
magnitude 4 with monitoring sta-
tions outside the Soviet Union.
Rule of Measure9
Magnitude is a way of measur-
ing underground shocks on a scale
that puts most property-damaging
earthquakes at magnitude 5 ora
higher. Magnitude 5 is 10 times the,
strength of magnitude 4; magni-
tude 6 is 10 times the strength
of magnitude 5, and on up the
In dry, sandy soil of the type
found in many areas of the So-
viet Union, a bomb of 10 kilotons'
yield-equal to 10,000 tons of TNT
-sets off a shock of magnitude 4.
By suspending the bomb in an
underground cavern-a technique
which tends to "decouple" blast
energy frwn the surrounding earth
-the power of the device can be
increased greatly without its show-,
ing more than magnitude 4 on
seismographs, outside the Soviet
Big Bombs
Superbombs of the megaton
(million ton) range could almost
certainly be identified, but much
can be learned by testing with
weapons of 10 kilotons or less.
Exclusion of underground tests
from the treaty does not mean the
costly research effort of the past
five years was wasted, Press said;'
it does mean that more research is
"For instance, in 1958 we,
thought it was impossible to iden-
tify underground shocks of mag-
nitude 4 farther away than 1000
kilometers (about 600 miles)," he
Shadow Zone
"Since then we have learned
that this was only the start of a
shadow zone where the waves dip
down to the earth's hot inner lay-
ers and are refracted back to the
surface 1500 kilometers farther on.
Beyond 2500 kilometers we can
monitor successfully again."
This new long-range capability
means it is not absolutely neces-
sary to have "black boxes" on So-
viet soil to detect most blasts of
more than 10 kilotons.
But the discovery of the decoup-
ling effect of caves, plus the fact

that many valuable experimentsz
can be made with devices of less
than 10 kilotons, leaves a largef
gap in any arms control fence. 1
Two Requirements1
Press believes two things are
First, continued research toward
more sensitive detection and iden-
tification methods. Second, on-1
site inspections (within the boun-
daries of the Soviet Union) until
improved techniques are available.
There's the hitch.
"The Russians have consistently,
objected to on-site inspections,";
Press said. "The treaty is the best
compromise we could expect at this{
time. At least it does end, or is de-,
signed to end, contamination of
the atmosphere."
A I D Seeks
Study 'Unit.
(Continued from Page 1)
some length of time in order to be
effective, Niehuss said.
There has been no loss of status
by University professors who have
taken long-term AID assignments,
Niehuss added. "The time the pro-
fessor spends away is counted to-
ward a sabbatical leave," he ex-
plained. "The faculty member
makes the decision as to whether
the time he spends away will be
compensated by his work abroad."
Niehuss cited salary levels as
another problem in AID-university
contracts. "Naturally AID wants
the best people, and sometimes the
salaries they want are high." Spe-
cial contracts with non-universi-
ty personnel also involve high sal-
Niehuss said that as far as the
University was concerned, "there
have been no insurmountable prob-
lems, but we are glad to have the
oppo'tunity for revision of some
of the difficulties."
He noted that the task force
study is not the first of its kind.
Some participating institutions
have conducted conferences with
AID personnel to iron out prob-
lems. "The programs have been
=mproved over the years," Niehuss
The University is currently in-
volved in AID programs in Formo-
sa and Brazil. AID has 118 con-
tracts outstanding in 37 countries
with 69 United States universities.

mate facility of a particular play.'
The hall would have to be erect-
ed inside the laboratory for tem-
porary use. The decision of loca-
tion of the structure would depend
upon availability of land and cost
of the project.
Three Activities
The operation of the project
calls for three distinct kinds of ac-
tivities. There would first be trial
programs to realize the creative
ideas of the artist. Secondly, au-'
dience behavior studies would be
conducted to collect data on audi-
ence relationship to the perform-
ance. Studies into modern tech-
nology of control over the influ-
ence of environments on the audi-
ence would be conducted in the
third kind of research.
The erection and operation of a
possible facility for a two-year
period is estimated at $350,000..
The laboratory would employ one
project director and two associate
directors, graduate students and a
In the laboratory, new concepts
of theatre and concert hall can
be developed. Never heard of ef-
fects could be produced to a live
audience. The relationship between
the performer and the audience
could further be developed to a
great degree, and new aspects of
performances could be investigat-
Other Precedents
Such new presentational forms
would not be entirely new in the
field of the performing arts. Mass
media like the film industry, tele-
vision and radio have already
pioneered new ways of creating il-
lusion and detachment from the
present. Close up shots have been
used to point out the symbolic
meaning of a gesture or a pose.
Three-dimensional movies with
stereo effect have been able to
create near perfect illusion.
The theatre of tomorrow will be
concerned with both the perform-
ance and the audience. Until now
the main interest and emphasis
lay only with the performance. The
very fundamentals of conventional
theatre will be examined.
For instance, the beginning of
the performance may be set at the

peak of audience noise, rather than
at a scheduled time. The effect of
such radical changes in the con-
cept of theatre must be examined
to receive the best effect for the
particular type of play.
More Variables
Other variables for modern the-
atre will lie in the kind of presen-
tation, of lighting, of acoustics and
of technical equipment. The au-
thors of the most effective plays
must realize their new realms of
environment to treat their audi-
ences to the fullest detachment
from the present.
In the research about the audi-
ence, the quest for an ideal size
relationship for a particular play
is the most important one. It must
be explored which plays can be
presented to theadifferent sizes of
audiences. The position of the au-
dience in. relationship to the per-
former will probably be differen-
tiat in future theatres.
The effect of dimensional change
during the performance is of spe-
cial interest to the theatre re-
searcher. He may even assume that
there will be technical innova-
tions making a shift from ex-
treme closeness 'to extreme disth
ance possible. This effect has al-
ready been applied in television
and film through the use of the
Public Motivation
Other audience research in the
theatre will be centered around the,
motivation of the public. Archi-
tects and authors will be interest-
ed in the social backgrounds, the

... has plans, wouild build
information levels, the individual's
predisposition and his involvement
in the performance. Through this
research they will be able to de-
sign new kinds of plays and en-
vironments with completely new
effects on the audience.
The purpose of this research will
not be an ideal kind of architec-
tural structure to accommodate all
kinds of modern performances.
Rather, many new and specialized
kinds of theatre will result from
such research, structures which
will give maximum effects to en-
tirely new kinds of drama.

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the College of Lit., Science and the
Arts, for honors or high honors should
recommend such students by forward-
ing a letter (in two copies; one copy
for Honors Council, one copy for the
Office of Registration and Records) to
the Director, Honors Council, 1210, An-
gell Hall, by 3:00 p.m., Tues., Aug. 20,
Teaching depts. in the School of Edu-
cation should forward letters directly
to the Office of Registration and Rec-
ords, Room 1513 Admin. Bldg., by 11:00
a.m., Wed., Aug. 22, 1963.
Effective Aug. 15, 1963 the academic
year staff paid parking permits will be
available at the reduced rate of $20.
Vehicle registration will be required to
obtain all types of permits.
Attention August Graduates: College
of Lit., Science, and the Ar'ts, School
of Education. School of Music, School
of Public Health, School of Business
Admin. Students are advised not to re-
quest grades of I or X in Aug. When
such, grades are absolutely imperative,
the work must be made up in time to
allow, your instructor to 'report the
makeup grade not later than 11 a.m.,
Aug. 21. Grades received after that time
Gamma Delta, Supper & Program -
Discussion of "Confirmation Practices
of the Lutheran Church," 6 p.m., Aug.
Lutheran Student Chapel, Worship &
Holy Communion, 10 a.m., Supper hon-
oring international students, 6 pm.,
Aug. 11, Hill St. at S. Forest Ave.
U. of M. Friends of SNCC, Ann Arbor
Freedom Rally-Speech by John Lewis,
chairman of SNCC, Aug. 26, 6 p.m.,
City Hall.

may defer the student's graduation un-
til a later date.
Events Sunday
4:00 p.m. to 6:00 p.m.-Bureau of
School Services Leadership Training
Conference-Registration: West Quad-
8:30 p.m.-School of Music Degree Re-
cital-Phillip Georger, clarinetist: Lane
Hall Aud.
8:30 p.m.-School of Music Degree Re-
cital - Univ. Summer Session Choir,
James Aliferis, conductor: Hill Aud.
Events M onday
8:30 a.m.-Bureau of School Services
Leadership Training Conference-Mich-
Mich. State Dept. of Social Welfare,
Lansing-1) Assistant Camu Directors-
Seeking 2 men to work in year-round
rehabilitation camps for maladjusted
boys. Camps in Grayling & Boughton,
Mich. MA in Educ, Admin., Soc. Wk.,
or Guidance & Counseling. 2) Youth
Workers-need 5 men to counselyoung
men age 16-18 in these same camps &
supervise projects. BA Psych., Sociol.,
Recreation or related fields.
Mich. Assoc. of Osteopathic Physicians
& Surgeons, Inc., Farmington, Mich. -
Seeking person for general area of re-
search. Will pull together data from a
wide variety of sources generally avail-
able in the Detroit Library or other
specialized libraries throughout the city.
Will then present this data in a writ-
ten report, well documented, well ex-
pressed & with statistical charts, if nec-
essary. Might require travel in other
areas for very short periods. Pertinent
Champion Paper Co., Hamilton, Ohio
-Seeking individuals for Operations
Research. MBA or MA with Math & Sta-
tistics. With or without exper.
Management, Consultants in Mass. -
Client firms have following openings:

1) Internal Auditor--BS in Accounting
plus 2 or 3 yrs. exper. In general acc't.
Will travel. Location: West Va. Will per-
form audit work at div. hdqts., in
branch plants in Texas & Ind. and also
overseas in Japan & in the British
Isles. 2) Contract Analyst - Degree,
probably English major. Do not have
to be a lawyer. Minimum 2 yrs. exper.
in Contract Admin., for Accident &
Health Dept. of Ins. Co. Chicago loca-
tion. 3. R&D Understudy-Prefer ME
degree plus 5 yrs. exper. in design, test
or dev. work. Worcester, Mass. location.
Mich. Civil Service-1) Clinical Social
Worker Trainee-MA in Social Work.
2) Clinical Psychologist Trainee-MA in
Clinical Psych, or equiv. grad sch. cred-
it toward a PhD. 3) Bank Examiner-
Degree with major in Acc't., Bus. Ad.,
Econ. or related field plus 1 yr. exper.
in Acc't. or Banking.
Dixon State School, Dixon, III.-The
School is initiating new programs for its
mentally retarded patients & needs ad-
ditional professional personnel to both
supervise & assist in these programs.
The institution has 4,925 patients & 1,-
225 employes. Openings include: Physi-
clans; Social Workers; Social Work
Trainees; Psychologists; Dietitians; Ele-
mentary Teachers; Rehabilitation Coun-
selors; Hearing & Speech Specialists;
Indust. Therapist; Recreation Workers;
Occupational Therapists; Nurses; Stu-
dent Worker (students are employed in
this classification during summer va-
cations or on a part-time basis while
attending college).
For further information, please call
General Div., Bureau of Appointments,
3200 SAB, Ext. 3544.


a story of
and death,
in fact,




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