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August 06, 1963 - Image 1

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Michigan Daily, 1963-08-06

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SKIN COLOR CLOUDS
CIVIL RIGHTS QUEST

'YI rL

air

i43E aii4

MOSTLY CLOUDY
High--38
Low-67
Continued warm with light
showers in afternoon or evening

See Editorial Page

Seventy-Two

Years of Editorial Freedom

VOL. LXXIII, No. 30-S ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, TUESDAY, AUGUST 6, 19-3 SEVEN CENTS

FOUR PAGES

-Associated Press
SIGNING-Secretary of State Dean Rusk (left), Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko (center)
and British Foreign Secretary Lord Home sign the recently agreed nuclear test-ban treaty. Wit-
nessing the signing were six senators and Soviet Premier Nikita S. Khrushchev (far right). Optimism
about efforts toward easing of world tensions was expressed at the ceremonies.
H aS-' igning as Step to Peace

MOSCOW (R) - Britain, thev
United States and the Soviet Un-
ion signed a treaty banning most
nuclear tests yesterday and hailed
it in a .communique as an impor-
tant first step toward world peace.
Spokesmen for all three powers
warned, however, that there was

much still to be done, and at a
celebration later, Premier Khrush-
chev repeated his demand that the
NATO powers sign a nonaggres-
sion pact with the Communist
Warsaw Treaty countries as the
next step.

Red China Army Papers
Reveal Widespread Discord
WASHINGTON (P)-The state department made public yesterday
a thousand pages of secret Red Chinese army documents revealing
unrest and near-revolt among Chinese soldiers in 1960-61.
In giving this analysis of the documents, a state department
spokesman added that the Red military leaders apparently success-
fully overcame thb serious morale problems which stemmed
- from China's faminine, economic

May Approve
Tax Proposal
WASHINGTON - Congressional
leaders are confident that a modi-
fied version of President John F.
Kennedy's tax cut and reform
proposals will pass the House by
the end of August, the Washington
Post reported.
A major roadblock-repeal of
the four per cent dividend credit
--is expected to crumble this week
when the House ways and means
committee is scheduled to reverse
an earlier decision and abolish the
provisions.
This, Congressional leaders as-
sert, will remove the stigma of
"rich man's tax cut" from the
measure.
Smaller Reductions
There are also strong indica-
tions that the committee will not
slash corporation income taxes to
the 47 per cent ceiling requested
by Kennedy. They are expected to
approve a smaller reduction.
The leadership plan on the com-
mittee finishing its work this
week. It expects to call it up for
floor debate the week of August
23, hold about two weeks for floor
debate, then vote. The leadership
expects the tax-cut measure to
pass.
It hopes to complete work on
the tax revisions before civil rights
debate snarls Congress.
This optimism, the Post report-
ed, stems from a change in the
mood of the House. A few weeks
ago, the fate of the bill was very
much in doubt, now for reasons
not yet 'lear, this mood has
changed.
Final Approval
The committee is expected to
give final approval to revisions
'what will increase taxes by $900
million to $1 billion. About $350
million of that will come from an
increase on capital gains taxes
on heirs of estates. The revised
dividend section would bring in
another $300 million.
Another $350 million would be
raised from a provision lowering
to 19.5 per cent the maximum
capital gains tax on assets held
three years or more. The lowered
tax rate is expected to encourage
some long-time stockholders to
sell and reap a profit for them-
selves and the government.
Seeks Way
On the other hand, the commit-
tee is looking for a formula that
will cut the top bracket tax rate

failure and Communist zealotry.
The documents "certainly give
no hint that the (Peking) regime
thought it was about to be over-
thrown by the army" and do not
disclose what conditions are like
now, the spokesman said.
Complete Set
Totalling perhaps three quarter
of a million words, the documents
consist of a nearly complete set
of 29 issues of the "Bulletin of
Activities of the General Depart-
ment of the Chinese People's Lib-
eration Army" dated Jan. 1
through Aug. 22, 1961.
The secret bulletins were issued
to Chinese army officers of the
rank of regimental commander
and above, for their policy guid-
ance.
It is believed rare for the United
States government to acquire such
documents, and it is even rarer
for them to be made public. The
spokesman v ou ch ed for the
authenticity of the bulletins, but
declined to say how they were ob-
tained or what others may be in
United States hands.
Scholarly Study
The stated reason for United
States release of the documents
now is to give scholars a chance
to study them. Copies of the docu-
ments may be obtained through.
the Library of Congress at $8 for'
a microfilm copy or $40 for a full
size, electrostatically reproduced
version.
The material, of course, is in
Chinese. No English translation
was given out. The spokesman said
the state department's own trans-
lation has not been polished up
enough for public issuance.
The Russians-official allies of
but ideologically at odds with the
Chinese Communists-presumably
can obtain a copy of the Chinese
secret bulletins for themselves
now just by going to the Library
of Congress.
Describes Unrest
The documents "described inci-
dents of unrest and near-revolt"
in the Chinese army and told the
military commanders how to deal
with them.
On the mainland of China in
1960 and 1961, the period dealt
with in the bulletins, there was
a severe food shortage and wide-
spread economic failures.
Soldiers in the Red army com-
plained in particular about the
hunger faced by their families at
home, about a lack of military
supplies and about unpleasant
policing duties carrying out polit-
ical objectives of the Communist
regime.
Frank Approach
The secret bulletins took a rel-
atively frank approach to the mo-
rale nrilm. And instad of meet-

This project has already roused
a storm of opposition in many
countries and in the United States
Senate, six of whose members were
present at the solemn ceremony
where the treaty was signed.
Under its terms, nuclear test-
ing is forbidden in the air, outer
space and under water. There is
no ban on underground testing.
Secretary of State Dean Rusk
plans to stay on in Moscow for a
few day's.
Hope for Formula
He did not react immediately to
Khrushchev's renewed urging of a
nonaggression pact. The United
States view hasbeen that some
formula might be found which
would not endanger the interests
of any NATO power-especially
West Germany-nor imply recog-
nition of Communist East Ger-
many.
Meanwhile West Germany held
out yesterday against signing the
new nuclear test ban treaty, ap-
parently determined to get more
United States and British support
in its diplomatic battle against
Communist East Germany.
There was no sign of any such
new support.
Robert S. McNamara, secretary
of defense, flew home after a hur-
riedly scheduled visit to Chancel-
lor Konrad Adenauer at the Ger-
man leader's request.
Chinese Uneasy
The Chinese Nationalists are un-
easy on their part over the pos-
sibility of new accords between
the United States anddthebSoviet
Union developing from the limited
nuclear test ban treaty.
This feeling stems from fears
that closer relations between
Washington and Moscow could re-
sult:
1) In joint American-Soviet ef-
forts to freeze the situation in the
Formosa Strait area, or
2) In a situation working
against Chinese Nationalist am-
bitions for recovery of mainland
China..-
The United States, in ambas-
sadorial-level talks with Commun-
ist China, has tried-so far with-
out success-to induce Peking to
renounce the use of force.
- The United States has a mutual
defense treaty with Nationalist
China under which both sides un-
dertake to refrain from *use of
force in the Western Pacific,
without joint agreement, except
for self-defensive action of a
clearly emergency character.

Aid Bills
May Pass
Obstacles
WASHINGTON - Two federal
aid to education bills appear to
have cleared one hurdle - the
House rules committee - only to
land in another - a Republican
civil rights amendment.
As the rules committee began
hearings on two long-delayed fed-
eral aid measures, committee
members seemed well-disposed to-
ward a $450 million four-year
assistance to vocational education
program and willing to pass a $1.2
billion "bricks and mortar" col-
lege aid bill.
Rules committee chairman Rep.
Howard W. Smith (D-Va) called
up the vocational-aid bill declar-
ing, "If we're going to help edu-
cation, this might be a good place
to start."
Indicate Support
Republicans have indicated that
they will support a rules commit-
tee green light for the college aid
bill.
But committee discussion of the
vocational-aid bill disclosed that
its toughest hurdle awaits it on
the House floor, when Republicans
are expected to offer an amend-
ment to bar aid to racially segre-
gated schools.
While the bill was discussed in
committee, Rep. Adam Clayton
Powell (D-NY), chairman of the
educational and labor committee
where the bill originated, said that
he would not personally sponsor
such an amendment, as he has in
the past, but would vote for it if
it were in good faith.
Back Bill
The 12 Republicans on Powell's
committee had solidly backed the
anti-discrimination measure. The
amendment was rejected, 14-12,
only because acting chairman Rep.
Carl Perkins (D-Ky) withheld
three proxies, including Powell's,
which could have swung the vote
the other way.
- The civil rights ruckus was con-
sidered less of a threat to the col-
lege aid bill because it would have
little application. In general, col-
leges that would benefit are de-
segregated, at least on a token
basis, the Washington Post re-
ported.
The college bill includes Presi-
dent John F. Kennedy's proposal
of a three-year program of loans
to public and private colleges and
universities for the construction
of academic facilities.
It also includes grants to the
states for building academic facil-
ities in junior colleges. Other as-
pects touch on libraries and grad-
uate study centers.
Mississippians
To Hold Vote
For Governor
JACKSON, Miss. W)-An esti-
mated 450,000 race - conscious
Mississippians will choose among
four Democratic candidates for
governor today amid reports un-
registered Negroes may invade the
polls.
After a slow campaign based
largely upon widespread anti-
Kennedy feelings..
Gov. Ross Barnett, who cannot
succeed himself, took no public
part in the campaign. His key
backers who did participate split
between Jol---on and Sullivan.

Marchers Seek Ordinance

-Daly-Kamalakar Rao
PROTEST-Approximately 150 residents marched from'City Hall north to Summit Ave. to Brooks
St., down Seventh St. to Pauline St., then back to City Hall via Main St. yesterday. The Ann Arbor
Area Fair Housing Association-Congress on Racial Equality, sponsors of the march, chose the
route leading through Negro neighborhoods and potentially accessible white areas now allegedly de-
nied to Negroes to dramatize the need for a strong fair housing ordinance to combat housing seg-
regation.
Duvalier C aught Unguarded

Cantave' s

Forces

Invade

Near

By ROBERT BERRELLLEZ
Associated Press News Analyst
MIAMI-An invasion of Haiti of
the size reportedyesterday could
spell_ real trouble for President
Francois Duvalier.
He may have been caught with
his defensive resources down.
Last April's abortive army plot
started a crisis that has been
costly financially and materially to
the government. It also depleted
the Haitian officer corps when.
many of the top flight men took
political asylum in Port Au Prince
embassies.
Since April Duvalier has had to
maintain on the alert his private
army of militiamen and women
and a special security force called
Ton Ton Macoutes. Informed
sources in Port Au Prince said
last week thathas a result of the
April crisis the Haitian budget
was running $800,000 below the
$2.4 million monthly revenue re-
quirements.
Reports of Unrest
There were reports of growing
disatisfaction among government,
employes over reductions in wages
and long delays in collecting their
pay.
Military experts in Port Au
Prince and Santo Domingo re-
cently said Duvalier's defensive
capabilities had been so weaken-
ed that an invasion of the size
reported would have good chances
of success.
These experts said military
weakness was exposed late last

North

month when it took the army, mi-
litia and the Ton Ton Macoutes
most of one week to put down a
tiny band of rebel youths.
Express Doubt
But the same military sources
have expressed doubt that Du-
valier's opposition would be able
to 'mount an invasion because of
the bickering and disunity among
the exiles abroad.
The Dominican Army disarmed
two small exile groups on the
Haitian border nearest to Port
Au Prince in May and July.
There were persistent reports
last week in Santo Domingo that
Haitian exiled officers and men
were moving north to the vicinity
of Monte Cristi, a Dominican
town on the north Haitian border,
45 miles from Cap Haitien, Haiti's
second city.
Peasant Support
The area of the reported land-
ings is ruggedly mountainous as is
most of Haiti.

Haitian

City

The invaders' success was be-
lieved to depend on the extent of
support from peasants and de-
fectors from the small military
outposts in the interior.
The Haitian army of some 5,000
men is trained mainly in police
work. The military combat corps
is said to number about 400 men.
But to protect himself Duvalier
has concentrated his defenses
around Port Au Prince and has
,onverted the national palace into
an arsenal protected by the few
remaining tanks and a consider-
able number of armed men.
The Haitian dictator last April
threatened that "rivers of blood"
would flow if there was an upris-
ing.
The Haitian dictator also faces
the Dominican army on the east.
Domincan President Juan Bosch
moved up troops during last April's
crisis. While most have withdrawn,
they still provide potential sup-
port for anti-Duvalier forces.

Exiles Land
TOCapture
Cap. Haitien
Dominican Sources
Claim Insurrectionists
Armed as Guerrillas
SANTO DOMINGO (') - A
small invasion force of exiled Hai-
tian soldiers commanded by Gen.
Leon Cantave was reported to have
landed yesterday on Haiti's north
coast just west of the Dominican
border.
The immediate objective appear-
ed to be capture of Cap Haitien,
Haiti's second city. The ultimate
goal would be overthrow of the
Haitian dictator, Dr. Francois
(Papa Doc) Duvalier, bitter foe of
the Dominican government and
thorn in the side of the United
States.
Sources in Santo Domingo said
on the basis of radio and other
reports that the Duvalier govern-
ment in Port au Prince, the Hai-
tian capital in the south, had
acknowledged the invasion was un-
der way. The force was described
as well armed and trained for
guerrilla warfare.
Invasion Progressing
By nightfall the citadel radio in
Cap Haitien was still in the hands
of the Duvalier regime. But there
were hints between music pro-
grams that the invasion was pro-
gressing.
It said the United States-owned
Dauphin Sisal plantation was be-
ing cleared of American families.
It lies near the reported invasion
spot athFort Liberte, about 15 miles
from the Dominican border.
Haitians living in tle Domini-
can Republic to escape oppression
under the Duvalier regime and its
Tonton Macoutes security foices
seemed aware of the invasion
plans.
There was no official word on
where the invasion was launched
but an exile spokesman said an
island-unidentified-was used as
a staging area for the landing at
Fort Liberte.
Little Resistance
The force, reported to consist of
about 250 former army officers
and soldiers of Haiti, apparently
met little resistance in Fort Li-
berte, Derac and Phaeton.
Cantave, a former Haitian arm-
ed forces chief of staff, told an
interviewer recently he was not In-
terested in becoming president,
only in ousting Duvalier.
Haitians reported the invasion
group is fighting under the flag
of the anti-Duvalier "National
Democratic Union."
A news source in Port au Prince
said last night that little was
known in public there except that
an undetermined number of rebels
apparently are fighting the Hai-
tian army in the north, near Cap
Haitien. Censorship prevails in
Haiti and duringrthe day it barred
correspondents from sending out
any news by cable.
In Santo Domingo a Haitian
exile said he confirmed the early
morning landing at Fort Liberte
and said another landing was set
for Monday night.
Bus Company
To Lose $2700
By Month End
"We suspect that the Public Bus
Company will have lost more than
$2700 by the end of August," Ann
Arbor City Administrator Guy C.

Larcom Jr. said last night at the
city council meeting.
The Public Bus Company lost
$1476 in June, and $355 through
July 15.
Larcom mentioned that the bus
company. can normally build up
enough capital during the winter
to cover the summer losses, but
that the Public Bus Company had
been unable to do so because It
wasn't organized until the begin-
ning of this summer.
He also mentioned that although

ROAD TO UTOPIA:
Gardner Calls for Sren gthe

World News Roundup
By The Associated Press
DAKAR, Senegal-Algerian Premier Ahmed Ben Bella yesterday
urged heads of African nations to attend the next session of the United
Nations Assembly and force the Western powers to choose between
colonialism and the African population.
* * * *.
ADDIS ABABA, Ethiopia-Emperor Haile Selassi supports in
principle the Communist Chinese proposal for a conference by all
" governments on a total nuclear
ban, a government statement said
yesterday.
The emperor, replying to a mes-
sage from Premier Chou En-Lai,
e said that "obviously such a devel-
opment depends particularly on
the big powers possessing nuclear
weapons."
be able to start a war and no one *
will be able to apply force or the WARSAW-The United States
threat of force in international may probe Chinese Communist in-
relations." tentions in regard to atomic test-
Soviet Plan ing and other East-West issues at
Under the ,Soviet disarmament this week's session of the United
plan, nations would be permitted States-Chinese talks.
to maintain national forces for * * *
the "safeguarding of frontiers," MANILA-Neutralist Indonesia
which, without international con- and anti-Communist Malaya and
trols, could be used to threaten the Philippines have agreed that
other nations, Gardner noted. foreign military bases in their ter-
It is this attitude toward the ritories "should not be allowed toj
peacekeeping issue, as well as re- be used directly or indirectly toI
fusal of the Soviets to accept subvert the national independence
effective inspection, which is of any of the three countries."
blocking progress on disarma- * * *
ment, Gardner said. SEOUL, Korea-South Korean
In the field of pacific settle- Premier Kim Hyun-Chul says he
ment, the International Court has does not think Communist North
had comparatively little business, Korea intends to launch a large-
averaging about two cases a year, scale invasion of South Korea.

By RUTH HETMANSKI
Even though the peacekeeping
capacity of the United Nations is
an element of the answer to the
question, "How do we get to
Utopia?", it is those who work
for the strengthening of that ca-
pacity who are the realists, Rich-
ard N. Gardner, deputy assistant
secretary of state for international
organization affairs said, yester-
day.
Speaking at the lecture series
"Where We Stand: A Review of
the American Position on Critical
Issues," Gardner outlined two
sides to the UN's "peacekeeping
coin.".
The first is preventative diplo-
macy or pacific settlement. The
second is international policing
action to contain violence.

by one nation or group of nations
might be politically inexpedient,
Gardner said.
"It has often been said in criti-
cism of the UN that it has not
been able to keep the great powers
together. The point is, however,
that the United States has been
able on numerous occasions to
keep the great powers apart,"
Gardner emphasized.
If general and complete disarm-
ament is ever to be achieved, there
must be a major buildup in the
UN's ability for peaceful settle-
ment and controlling internation-
al violence, Gardner added. Na-
tions will never be willing to elim-
inate their arms until they have
some substitute means of-protect-
ing their territorial integrity and
vital interests.

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