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December 11, 1958 - Image 5

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Text
Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1958-12-11

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11. 1958

THE MICHIGAN DAILY

TENSION HIGH IN DIVIDED CITY:
Crisis Raises Sceptre of Berlin Blockade

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By HANS NEVERBOURG
Associated Press Newsfeatures Writer unfavorable exchange rate and an
BERLIN - This is the only undeniably sharp increase in the
~ity on earth where you can see East German standard of living.
iton artwhee ouncane. ee The refugee exodus is a drain
wo worlds at one glance. on the manpower-short East Ger-
On one side, the bright lights of man economy, which is losing
he Western sector contrast with sntists, educatorscdoctors and
he silhouettes of tall modernistic technicians every day.
ulldings at nightfall. The close contact with the free,
On the other, the dimly-lit east- prosperous West, practically frus-
in part of the city, the capital tratesayCmmns teps
f Communist East Germany t tsany. Communist attempts
ShChaem ergedtastaGeymally for an all-embracing indoctrina-
vhich has emerged as a key ally tion of the people. \
Af the Soviet tUnion.tinothpel.
West Berlin, the show window Unemployment High
)f the Western way of life, has Even the fact that West Berlin
een a painful thorn to the Com- has 60,000 jobless-the result of
nunists for many years its isolated situation-fails to con-
Soviet Russia's newest gambit vince most East Berliners of the
Sovet ussa' neestgamitalleged advantages of commun-
gainst the West raises once more
he specter of 1948's Berlin block- ism.
de. The Russians then shut off Berlin is the proclaimed capital
3erlin by blocking road, rail and of the East German Democratic
anal traffic through East Ger- Republic. But the fact that two-
thirds of the 3.6 million Berliners
Three Air Corridors live in the western sector does not
help to boost the prestige of the
To reach West Berlin, the West Communist Regime.
lad three air corridors. American The Communists claim West
nd British aircraft used these Berlin is a giant center of Allied
orridors to deliver 2,300,000 tons intelligence operations directed
)f civilian and military supplies against the Soviet bloc. They say
luring the blockade which began this is one of the chief reasons
une 24, 1948, and ended May 12, for the Russian campaign to get
X949. the Allies out of the city's Western
Premier Nikita Khrushchev has sector.
roposed that Berlin be declared Struggle Coming to Head
"free city," inside East Germany, The battle for control of Berlin,
vith Western miltary units with- which has been going on practi-
Lrawn. He says East Germany cally since the end of World War
rould not obstruct non-military II, seems headed into a decisive
raffic with the West.phse
He claims Russia will put this The West is pledged to defend
Ian into effect after six months its freedom and most West Ber-
vhatever the reaction of the West, liners believe the. Russians would
)ut that he is willing to talk about not risk war by a takeover of the
with the Western nations from Allied sectors. But the 100,000
ow until next spring. East Germans already in the West
West Adamant Berlin and many of their 18 inil-
Western spokesmen have in- , lion countrymen still living under
isted they will never consent to the Communist regime still have1
ny agreement which would put gnawing fears that they may1
he West Berliners at the mercy eventually be trapped behind thet
f Communist East Germany, Iron Curtain.
That is the outline of the cold, . The root of the present troublel
npersonal high-level argument stems from the fact that all Allied
ver Berlin. Here are some of the wartime plans were based on the1
uman, personal elements which assumptionthat Berlin would re-
ulse beneath the diplomatic con- main the capital of all Germany
est. and that there would be no divi-
Nowhere in the world have Iron sion of the country. r1
lurtain residents such close con- Allies Occupied Berlin
act with the West. And nowhere Wartime agreements made Ber-
n the world is it as easy to escape lin the seat of the Allied Control

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'U' Botanist
Makes State
Plant Study
Edward G. Voss, research asso-
ciate at the University Herbarium,
and various assistants have, for
the past two years, been collecting
specimens for use in a manual on
Michigan plants.
Voss estimates that he has cov-
ered some 22,000 miles in Michi-
gan, the equivalent of almost once
around the world, collecting speci-
mens of fauna: from each of the
state's 83 counties.
The research, which began in
1956, is supported by a five-year
grant of $60,000 from the Horace
H. Rackham School of Graduate
Studies Research Fund, The aim
of the project is to compile an
illustrated manual of all species
of Michigan flora, including dis-
tribution maps and identification
keys. There are about 2,000 dif-
ferent species of plants in Michi-
gan, Voss said,
In addition to the work of col-
lection, the field work has pro-
vided "a broad familiarity with
field conditions in all parts of the
state . . . obtaining the largest
number of significant records in
the limited time available," he
said.
At present, Voss has gathered
5,600 numbered collections, 3,000
of which were collected last sum-
mer. In all, some 6,00 specimens
of Michigan flora have been
mounted at the Herbarium during
the past two years, and approxi-
mately 10,200, including some pre-
viously mounted specimens, have
been classified in the collection.
There are still about 8,000 speci-
mens set for mounting, he said.
For the remaining time on the
project, Voss will be writing origi-
nal keys to the already-collected
flora, and coordinating the infor-
mation now on hand.
Assistance in the study as been
provided by several organizations,
Voss said, and innumerable ama-
teur botanists have aided with
the work of collection. A good deal
of the work has been done in
areas of the state which are rather
poorly known botanically, such as
Hillsdale, Ogemaw, Kalkaska, Me-
costa, Lake and Missaukee Coun-
ties.
In certain other counties, Voss
has been able to draw on previ-
ously gathered information.
The better known counties in
the state include Wayne, Oakland,
Macomb, St. Clair, Kalamazoo,
Kent, Emmet, Cheboygan, Hough-
ton and Keeweenaw, he said.
Aid has also been enlisted from
several specialists in certain gen-
era where there is difficulty in
identification, Voss said.

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Prof. Anders(
Japanese She
Although centralized control of
schools by the government has re-
turned in part to Japan, Prof.
Ronald Anderson of the educatior
school said many of the educa-
tional reforms which were intro-
duced under the American occu-
pationeof the country have beer
retained.
Most dramatic of the reforms
which remain in Japan is co-edu-
cation at all levels, he said,
"Others are the six-three-three
school ladder, the extension of
compulsory educaiton from six tC
nine years and the introductior
of a measure of democratic or-
ganization and atmosphere tc
school administration and super-
vision and the classrooms."
Three Main Periods
There have been three majoi
periods in the development of
modern education in Japan. The
first of these, from 1868 to 1937,
was the creation and development
of a universal education system
dedicated entirely to the purposes
of the state.
The second period from 1937 tc
1945, consisted of the molding of

on Discusses
ool System

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this system to serve the purposes
of war.
During the third period, 194
to 1952, there was the democrati-
zation of the system under the
Occupation, and since 1952 there
has been an attempt to adjust the
democratic objectives to the tra-
ditional, he said.
Worked in Japan
Prior to World War II. Prof. An-
derson worked in Japan as an
English teacher, and during the
occupation he served as a regional
civil education officer. Having ob-
served the schools in Japan at
these periods, he said he was in-
terested on his return there in
1957 to see how the great social
revolution which had occurred
since the war was faring.
"In the post-treaty period," he
said, "democratic education has
been modified but not replaced.
Its essential goals have been inte-
grated into Japanese thought and
practice."
The practices which have sur-
vived, he added, are those which
met the needs of the people and
gained support of pressure groups.
Lists Democratic Goals
"The democratic goals guaran-
teed by the new Constitution and
basic education laws which have
been welcomed by the people in-
clude: 1) suiting education to the
needs of youth; 2) providing equal
educational opportunity for all to
develop their ability to capacity
and 3) academic freedom.
"American-inspired reforms ap-
pealed to sizeable blocks of inter-
ested groups in Japan including:
1) the teacher corps, now organ-
ized into a large and influential
teachers' union; 2) the organized
student groups; 3) women's
groups in general and 4) labor
unions and the Socialist Party.
"These groups, whose politics
range from liberal to left, have
adopted the reforms of the occu-
pation as their own," Prof. Ander-
son said.

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Symposim
To Be Held
A symposium on "India's Foreign
Policy" will be held at 8 p.m.
today in the third floor Con-
ference Room of the Union.
Participants in the symposium
will be Solomon Quaynor, '59,
Ghana; Pacifico Albano Castro,
Grad., Philippines; Ahmed Belk-
hodja, Grad., Tunisia; Louis
Greiss, Grad., United Arab Repub-
lic; Beverly Pooley, Grad., United
Kingdom; Roger A. Needham,
United States and Shiv Dayal,
Grad., India.
Prof. Robert Crane of the his-
tory department will be the mod-
erator.

_ t:.:::::. :....

Council which was to administer
the defeated country divided into
occupation zones between the four
wartime allies, Britain, France,
Russia and the United States.
That Berlin, the jointly occu-
pied capital of Germany, hap-
pened to be in the center of the
Soviet zone did not bother many
in this time of vodka-flowing Al-
lied-Russian friendship parties:
Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower
turned down a suggestion by Field
Marshall Bernard Law Montgom-
ery to capture Berlin in a "knife-
cut' 'offensive from the West,
maintaining that destruction of
the Nazi armed forces and war
potential in the industrial parts
of central Germany was more im-
portant than a mere prestige
booster.
From historical records pub-
lished by the United States gov-
ernment it appears that President

Harry S. Truman was among the
first to give some .thought to the
isolation of Berlin 110 miles be-
hind the Soviet zone border.
Wrote Letter to Stalin
In June 1945, at a time when
United States troops were still
deep in what is now East Ger-
many, he wrote a letter to Stalin
saying he would make their with-
drawal to th eagreed zonal boun-
dary dependent on satisfactory
agreements giving access by rail,
road and air to American forces
in Berlin.
Stalin, in his reply, raised no
objections and gave assurances
that everything would go accord-
ing to four-power agreements.
Subsequently, the Russians agreed
to give the Western Allies three
air corridors to Berlin and also
permit use of the 110-mile high-
way and rail link between West
Germany and West Berlin.

Until late in 1946, Allied-Rus-
sian cooperation in Berlin was.
marked by relative smoothness.
Elections Defeated Communists
Then, the first free elections in
the city dealt a resounding blow
to the Soviet-supported Commun-
ists. The Russians immediately
dropped their smiles.
Haggling started in the Allied
Control Council that soon reached
proportions causing the Allies to
decide to go ahead with their
plans for economic rehabilitation
of their zones of occupation in
West Germany.
When a London six-Power Con-
ference finally even suggested that
the Western zones should be
merged into a federation, the Rus-
sians stepped out of the Allied
Control Council. This marked the
beginning of the division of Ger-
many.

from Communist rule-by a nuvo'
cent subway ride.
The result is a daily average of
300 persons registering as refugees
in West Berlin. More than 100,000
former East German residents
have made new lives in the West-
ern sectors.
Thousands of East Germans
cross into the Western sectors
every day to buy and smuggle
home shoes, chocolate or textiles,
and other goods. If you go for
quality, many things are still
cheaper in the West despite an

.Prof. Fisher
To Give Talk
Prof. Ralph T. Fisher. of the
history department at the Univer-
sity of Illinois will speak on "So-
viet Youth" at 4:15 p.m. tomorrow
in Aud. A, Angell Hall.
The talk is sponsored by the
committee on Russian Studies and
the History department.

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We have a selection of
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Sizes 10-16 ...
priced from
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BOUTIQUE ITEMS
JEWEL CASES
JEWEL BOXES
PERFUME
STOLES
TRAVEL
ACCESSORIES

BERMUDAS

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UMBRELLAS

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