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November 23, 1958 - Image 5

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1958-11-23

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Rats Used in Brain Experiments




'!W P !Jztr"

Small electrodes painlessly im-
planted deep in the brain are en-
abling researchers to map pleasure
centers in the brain.
Tests have revealed many spots
in the brain which are centers of
hunger, sex and other reward
Results of the research have
modified a long-standing psychol-
ogical theory and may give man
new weapons for the war on men-
tal illness.
Olds in Charge
Prof. James Olds of the psychol-
ogy department is in charge of
the research. An accidentally mis-
placed electrode put the professor'
on the path of discovering the
pleasure centers.
Previously on the staff of Mc-
Gill University, he noticed in his
studies there that a rat expressed
great interest in the geographic
location where it received a mild
electrical shock.
While the rat moved away from
this spot, he usually returned and
sniffed around the area. Addi-
tional stimulus made him spend
more of his time there."
Gradually, Prof. Olds found he
could control the animal's be-
havior by giving it an electrical
stimulus as a reward for correct
Tests End Doubts
The first animal tested in this
fashion ended any doubts that an
electric shock in some parts of
the brain provided rewards. After
two to five minutes in the box, the
rat stimulated its own brain regu-
larly about every five seconds.
By uniformly increasing the
number of rats involved, Prof.
Olds compared the effect of elec-
trode placement in different parts
of the brain. Gradually, he began
to map the pleasure and pain
Lie in Middle Portion -
The centers lie in the middle
portion of the head, slightly be-
low eye-level, in a cylindrical area

The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Da ly assumes no edi-
torial responsibility,. Notices sh.ould

Davis. Mr Robert B. Klinger. and a rep- Girls and Boys Physical Education
resentative of the Over-Seas Dept., iSept.).
Standard Vacuum Oil Company will Chicago Heights, Ill.-HS Math (Feb.)
participate. Grand Haven. Mich. - Elementary;
HS English (Feb.

be sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to-
Room 3519 Administration Build- Concerts Lake Forest, IlL. - Shop-Art: Ele-
ing. before 2 p.m. the day preceding mentarV men): Science: American
publication. Notices for Sunday Jerome Hines, M1etropolitan Opera History: Social Studies iSept.).
Daily due at 2:00 p.m. Friday. baso, will be heard in recital in the Newberry, Mich. - Girls Physical
'Uth concert in the Choral Union Education: Art {Feb.).
Series, Mon., Nov. 24. 8:30 p.m., Hill
SUNDAY, NOVEF"MBER ?.3, 1 95 Ad r iewihAeadrAea Richmond, Mich. - Men's an:d Wo-
VOL LXIX, NO. 59 at pin wi perest- men's Physical Education Directors;
inte program which includes arias from HS Science Industrial Arts Science;
- ozart's 'Cosi fan tutte. The Magic ocal Music; Librarian: Uppe Elemen-
e era Notic s Flute, and "Marriage of Figaro"' Ver- etard Commercial English Teacher of
Exercises for students who d's "Don Carlos. Rossini's "Barber of retarded children (both elementary
Seville.- Bowtos "Mefistofele" andan scol
complete their degree requirements at Gounod's..Faust;", andsongs by Shu- Setauket, N.Y. - Elementary: JHS
the end of the first semester of the Gber, s Faure :Dpadrc, onertgas well as English Latin: Science: Math: Librar--
1958-59 school year will be held Sat,-LI se an: Remedial Reading; Girls Physical
Jan. 24, 1959 at 2:00 ,p:m._in Hill Au:d sveaTi iitas.intRmeil.aig irsPyia
Tickets are. available at the offices Education (Sept.).
Further notice will follow. of the U rsi al Soies Tecumseh, Mich - Elementary: Girls
of the U ni -ersity- Musical Societ}. in ;Ph ysical Education C Feb.).
Burtonl Tower du ring office hours; and Pyia dcto eA
The automobile regulations will be Blston ru n the eoensn of Utica, Mich. - Elementary (Feb.).
lifted for Thanksgiving vacation fron t e e sfte : m the ill For any additional information con-'
5 p.m. Wed., Nov. 26, until S a.m. Mon., Aue oe ofe tact the Bureau of Appointments, 3528
Dec. 1, 1958. _____u___ Admin. Bldg., NO 3-1511, Ext. 489.

cation of Work-Ohio: Ind.; Ill.; Mic
Ky. Graduates-Feb. Must be citizen
Men with a degree in Liberal Arts
' Bus. Admin. for 'Marketing Sales Frc
gram. The program is on-the-jobtrai
ing for 12 months in 12 to 14 differe
locations and assignments througho
their five state retail marketing are
Marketing Men. Dealer Representati
and Consumer Salesmen have almo
limitless opportunities depending up
their initiative, ability and willingne
to work.
Moore Business Forms, Inc., Detro
Mlich. Location of Work-Detroit, Mi1
Graduates-Feb. Men with a degree
liberal arts or bus. admin. for ter
tory sales. The new salesman is E
signed to a District office for int
grated, on-the-job training under t
direction of the District Manager
staff. Six months after employment kn
the new salesman attends a series
sales seminars at a Home Office loc
tion after which is assigned a ter
tory of his own under the guidance
his immediate supervisors.
Women February Graduates--The Pros
tor & Gamble Co. has openings for Fe
graduates, women with BA, or BS
Liberal Arts. BBA for consumer surv
work. This work involves extensive trai
el. Will you contact the bureau n
mediat.ely if interested so that '
may set up a schedule if enough gi.
show an interest.
A #


All students who expect education and The U. of M. Woodwind Quintet willt
raining allowance under Public Lanw pla a concert in the Rackham Lee-
50 (Korea G.I. Bill )or Public Law 634 ture Hall Tues. Evening. Nov. 25. 8 p.m.
Orphan's Bill) must get instructors' The guintet. Nelson Hauenstein, flute,
ignatures Nov. 24, 25, or 26 on DEAN'S Florian Muel:er. oboe. Albert Luconi',
dONTHLY CERTIFICATION form and clarinet, Clyde Carpenter. French horn,
urn the completed form in to Dean's and Lewis Cooper, bassoon, will play
ffice by 5:0Q p.m. Wed., Dec. 3. compositions by Bach-Catelinet. Al-
bert Huybrechts. Gyula David. Leslie
Fassett, and Anton Reicha. Thedqin-
L e c ill e s et hby LesierBassett w sndedicated
Lecturesto the University Woodwind Quintet.

The following companies will be in-
terviewing at the Bureau of Appoint-
ments. Make appointments by phone,
NOrmandy 31511, Ext. 3371, or by com-
ing to our office in the Admin. Bldg.
Room 3528.
Mon., Nov. ?4:
Bell Telephone Systems, (Michigan
Bell Telephone Company: Western Elec-
tric Co.; American Telephone and Tele-
graph Company) Detroit, Mich. Loca-
tion of Work-Mich. and anywhere in
the U.S. Graduates. Feb. Citizenship re-
quired. Men with any degree in Liberal
Arts or Bus. Admin. for Management
Trainee Candidates in Line and Staff
Positions for all departments.
Tues., Nov. 25:
Bell Telephone Systems--See Monday's
The Ohio Oil Co,, Findlay. Ohio. Lo-

WANTS STIMULATION--Prof. James Olds of the psychology department watches a large white
rat run across an electrified grid to get an electric "brain-tickling" stimulus at the far end of this
obstruction box. Hungry rats refuse to cross thegrid to obtain food, but willingly experience "living
hell" to get a tiny shock from electrodes in their, brains when they press a small bar at the end of the

Dept. of Aeronautical Engineering
presents Prof. Hideo Itokawa. Institute
of Industrial Science, Univ. of Tokyo,
on Mon., Nov. 24, 4:00 p.m.. Rm. 1504
E. Eng. Bldg. His topic will be "The
Japanese Sounding Rocket Program.'
Public Health Assembly: "Present
Status of Public Health Affairs" Dr.
Leroy E. Burney, Surgeon General, U.S.
Public Health Service, Mon., Nov. 24,
4:00 p.m., School of Public Health Aud.
University Lecture, auspices of the
Dept. of Anthropology. "Early Man and
Environment in Trans-Saharan Africa"
(with mnovie) Dr. J. Desmond Clark,
Rhodes-Livingstone Museum, Living-
stone , N. Rhodesia. 4:00 p.m., Tues.,
Nov. 25, Aud. B. Angell Hall.
The Society of Indian Chemical En-
gineers, U. of Mich., invites all the for-
eign engineering students to a panel
discussion on "Opportunities foraIn-
dustrial Training for Foreign Engineer-1
ing Students in the United States," to
be held on Monday, Nov. 24, 1958, at
7:30, pm., in the Multipurpose Room,
(3rd floor) of the Undergraduate Li-!
brary. Prof. J. G. Young, Dr. James A.

Open to the general public without
Academic Notices
Engineering Scholarships: A limited
number of undergraduate engineering
scholarships are available for the sec-
ond semester. Consult the bulletin
boards for instructions relative to qua-
lifications and applications
Engineering Mechanics S e mi n a r,
Mon., Nov. 24, 4:00 p.m. Rm. 218 W.
Eng. Bldg. ir. Michael Bentwich will
speak on "Topics in the Use of Digital
Computers." Coffee will be served at
3:30 p.m., Rm, 201 W. Eng. Bldg. All in-
terested persons are invited to attend.
Placement Notices
The following; schools have ,listed
teaching vacancies with the Bureau of
Appointments for Feb. and Sept. 1959.
Ballston Spa, N.Y. - General Science
(Feb l; Elementary; Mentally handi-
caped: JHS English; Social Studies:
Math; Science: HS Math; Latin; Social
Studies; General Shop/Driver Training;

running from one ear to the other.
In certain cases, the professor
found the rats would stimulate
themselves as much as 8,000 times
an hour, the pleasure of the elec-
tric stimulation was so great.
In other cases, animals would
press the bar lever once and never
return, thus indicating they had
been punished and did not care to
repeat the process.

Rats often ignored available food
in order to receive more electric
In one test, Prof. Olds put in-
dividual rats in a long narrow ob-
struction box. This had a bar lever
at each end and an electrified grid
in the middle.
As current in the grid was in-
creased, rats near death from
starvation refused to cross it for

the food at the other end of the
box. But, if they could receive an
electric stimulus instead, they will-
ingly would cross.
Experiments with Drugs
Prof. Olds then began experi-
menting with various drugs and
tranquilizers to see what effect
this might have on the brain cen-
He suspects excessive activity in
these pleasure systems results in
psychotic agitation in man, while
insufficient activity may cause
psychotic depression.
His tests with the effects of
drugs on rats lends support to this

Many Sample Books to Choose From-
316 South State Street Phone NO 2-5669
gg----gg . g .- ij- gggg gjggagig -g. ' -[3ggggg~i

Reports Indians, Dark-Skinned People'
Have Difficulty Finding Living Quarters

* *
Tuesday, Dec. 2
.*aa ssa a~s~r +ss ~ssaraa a

(EDITOR'S NOTE: The following Is
an analysis of the housing situation
faced by the University's foreign stu
dents.) -
The only foreign students who
have any significant difficulty in
finding apartments and rooms in
Ann Arbor are Indians and dark-
skinned people, James M. Davis,
director of the International Cen-
ter, said.
Indians have housing problems
mainly because of the "somewhat
pungent" odor of their cooking
spices and their housekeeping
customs that differ from American
standards, Davis explained.
Most Indian students, however,
have not found any exceptional
difficulty with prejudiced land-
lords, according to two women
from Caracas who are studying at
the University under Lisle Fellow-
One Landlady Hostile
Only meeting one landlady who
was hostile to them because of
their race, one of the Indian stu-
dents smiled and said, "When she

opened the dopr and saw us there, The additional show of hostility
her eyes got very big and she may be enough to destroy his good
closed it right away. I think she impression of America.

thought we would bite her or1
Negro students face a some-
what different problem. One of the
most disconcerting experiences is
for an African student to call
about an advertised room and be
informed that it is available, only
to ,be told that it is taken when
the landlord sees him in person.
Markley Helps Situation
This situation has been allevi-
ated somewhat by the addition of
Mary Markley Hall, Davis noted.
$ince there is more dormitory
space now available for all stu-
dents, apartments are not in such
demand and most foreign students
who cannot live in the residence
halls because of their food require-
ments, are able to have quite a
wide choice of living accommoda-
Housing tliscrimination against
the foreig i student is important
especially because it occurs at a
time when his morale is very low.

Cites Recent Study
Citing a recent study done in
this area, Davis said that most
foreign students have a''rosy''
picture of the United States be-
fore they arrive, due to the re-
ports of others coming here be-
fore them, and various other
sources. This illusion is destroyed
by such practical and unglamorous
activities as finding housing and
making a living. To a student al-
ready disappointed in this country,
an unfriendly landlord can repre-
sent complete rejection.
To prevent the occurrence of
such circumstances, the Interna-
tional Center has a file of avail-
able housing for foreign students
listing the landlords' preferences
and prejudices in tenants.
"Actually, though, the landlord
has the right to choose the tenants
he wants," Davis said, explaining;
that most of the objections to
"messy" housekeeping and
"strong" food odors are valid.


I - -1 \

Ai Research Divisons

See Russia
for yourself!
MAPI NTOUR oforeoachi Tours.
departing New York
Aug. 12th. Rote inc.
Economy air fare is

will be ors campus to Interview



B.S.-.S. - Ph.D. canydidat.es



Contact D. H.
David Stewart at
NO 3-3883



The Garr-ett Corporation is one of the most
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From AiResearch laboratories have
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Garrett divisions and subsidiaries are
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Project work is conducted by small
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Student Government Council
proudly announce



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and work with engineers who are outstand-
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data computers, pressure ratio trans-
ents, electrical systems and motors and
design from analytical and theoreti-
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fenics, pneumatics, nuclear power and
power units and control systems for

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Air and vapor cycle re'rigeration turbines,
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. ..JUNE 23



..SEPT. 1

amics '
ion Analysis
A Engineering
cal Engineering
cry Design
ring Analysis
n Engineering

Laboratory Engineering
Electrical Engineering
Instrument Design
Analogue Computers
Cycle Analysts
Control Engineering
Computer Programming
Space Physics and lonizatior
Sales Engineering

Missile APU Analytical Design
and Development
Magamp Design and Development
Liquid Oxygen
Air Turbines
Air and Freon Centrii,,al
Welding Engineering
Sensors and Servos
Connecting Networks
Electronic Flight Data Systems,
Controls and Transistor Circuitry
Air Conditioning and Heat

For further information attend
MASS MEETING at the Union,
December 1 .7958 nf 7.? P AA-

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