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hen Opinions Are Free
Trutb Will Prevail"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This mrust be noted in all reprints.
)AY, OCTOBER 5,1958
NIGHT EDITOR: ROBERT JUNKER
Supreme Court Decisions
Within Consistent Set of Values
'THE PROCLAMATION by the Supreme
Court in the Little Rock decision far
transcends in scope and relevancy the issues in
hat case. It is the most far-reaching and
levasting blow ever to bludgeon the reserved
>owers of the states of', this union. It is de-
signed to reduce the states to the status of
mere puppets slavishly manacled to the socio-
ogical and personal predilections of a judicial
>ligarchy negating the fundamental concept
f a government of law and not men. It tears
he battered remnant of the Tenth Amendment
ut of the Constitution and hurls it into the
ace of a shocked and beleagured people."
-J. Lindsay Almond, Governor of Virginia
I S EXCERPT from Governor Almond's
statement on Monday's Supreme Court
pinion (the statement continues in the same
vein) contains a great deal of nonsense-legally,
>olitically and generally-a great deal of exag-
eration, land a great deal of demagogy; but it
aso expresses angaccute problem: should the
will of a majority of state's population be
hwarted by a set of principles, irregardless of
he loftiness of those principles?
To answer that question, a fine, but basic,
istinction must be made between two terms
requently used as synonyms. The two terms
re "liberty" and "democracy."
Liberty, according to Webster's International
)ictionary, is "The sum of the rights and im-
nunities of all the citizens of an organized civil
ommunity concurrent with all the guaranteed
rotection against interference with such rights
The key words in this definition are "the
guaranteed protection against interference with
such rights." In other words, liberty is con-
cerned with the rights of the people as in-.
Webster's defines democracy as the "principle
or system of government by the people." This
means that democracy is concerned with the
rights of the people as a group.
THE FAUBUS'S, Almond's, and other severe
critics have claimed that the Supreme
Court, again to quote Governor Almond, "under-
takes to rob the people of the exercise of their
right' of freedom of choice and association."
Essentially this is correct; however, it is not
because of, as Governor Almond claims, "the
sociological and personal predilictions of a
judicial oligarchy," but rather it was because
of a basic principle which has been a constant
Supreme Court trend.
WHENEVER THE COURT has been forced to
choose between what apparently were the
rights of individuals and the "choice" of the
people as a whole, it has pretty consistently
guarded individual liberties.
The Supreme Court has said repeatedly that
liberty is a higher virtue than democracy. This
point is obviously a decision of basic political
nature, but within the framework of this set of
values, the Court has acted remarkably con-
sistently and; fairly. If one is to criticize the
recent Court decisions one should criticize the'
basic and traditional Court philosophy, not the
Court's present membership.
'Go TeamJ Go
By AL JONES
Daily Sports Editor
4THLETICS are accepted, en-
joyed and participated in by
almost every American at some
time in his or her life.
In fact, professional athletics--
representing the ultimate in- the
field-have become a method of
earning a living that is respected
in our society. The fact that physi-
cal education classes are required
in state supported schools for stu-
dents of both sexes shows the gen-
eral acceptance of athletics as a
part of American social structure.
However, there are still many
people that question the right
and the -worth of athletics on the
college campuses of the country.
These people claim that the pur-
poses of a college are solely educa-
tion and the business of training
one for a career.
This is certainly, true--colleges
are to educate and to train stu-
dents-but athletics in no way
effect this process. In fact, in
many ways they aid it.
THE SCHOLARSHIPS that are
given to athletes provide the
means for many boys to reach in-
stitutions 'of higher education
that otherwise wouldn't get there.
The important fact to remember is
that these boys are students just
like everyone else. They have to
meet the same entrance require-
Ments, and pass the same class
standards as all other students. At
least this is the case at Michigan--
if not at all schools.
S igma Kappa ,'Natioonal
HE NATIONAL Organization of Sigma Kappa
sorority has denied readmission to its one-
e Cornell chapter, suspended for pledging
he action of the national sorority, in re-
ng to accept a chapter which has dis-
ruished itself on this campus both in aca-
ilc and extracurricular affairs, can do
ling but confirm in the minds of all the
raceful record which the organization has
de for itself since the beginning of the
le affair, over two years ago.
Ve do not know on what basis Chi Gamma,
nigh its chapter alumnae, asked to be re-
litted-whether it asked the national to
;e a non-discriminatory clause into its con-
ition, or whether it would have rejoined
any basis, or if it desired some condition'
:etween the two extremes. In,view of the
, however, that Chi Gamma has been
wn more than once that national Sigma
pa is an obstinate bunch, it can be fairly
imed that Chi Gamma did not try to force
clause into the constitution;,
CAN ALSO be surmised that the national
ade heavy demands upon the chapter, that
jt asked Chi Gamma for firm promises that,'
if it were readmitted, it would never again
break the unwritten taboo and admit another
Negro. This the alumnae representing the
suspended chapter apparently refused to
promise. And as a result, the chapter's applica-
tion was turned down, "for the welfare of na-
tional Sigma Kappa."
The actions of the national have been made
all the worse because it has shown itself to be
unwilling to cooperate with the chapter here
in helping it work out its future status. All
decisions of the national have either been with-
held from the chapter altogether, or trans-
mitted in vague, meaningless phrases. The na-
tional has never let the chapter know formally
why it was suspended; it has never let the
chapter know on what grounds it would be re-
It is more evident than ever now that Sigma
Kappa cares not for the welfare of the thou-
sands of undergraduate women who belong
to it on campuses -across the country, but only
for the discredited dicta of discrimination.
-Cornell Daily Sun
AT FOOTBALL GAMES:
Old Grads Compensate,
For Silent Generation
By Richard Taub
fHE NEW UNDERGRADUATE Library sched-
ule has served at least one valuable purpose;
has shown those who didn't believe it before,
at students are concerned about the quality
While campus discussion on the curtailed
hedule has not yet reached the proportions
does for the football games, one does not
ve to go very far to hear student complaints
out the new program.
Closing the library disturbed students in the
y that taking a new toy from a child bothers
m. He may never have had the toy before,
t now that he does, deprivation really hurts.
tainly, one might argue that the extended
rary hours were only introduced last semes-
and their withdrawal should not be dis-
bing, but once students have found a good
.ce to study late into the evening, they are
t so eager to give it up.'
ND THE UNDERGRADUATE Library is not
just a mere study hall. According to official
orts book use in University libraries soared
en students had the opportunity to study
ere books were easily accessible.
:t seems utterly incomprehensible that just
en students in a great University begin to
dy more and read more books, this privilege
aken from them..
['he library hours on the weekend heighten
absurdity of the situation. Education is not
our and one half day week affair-frequently
does not stop Friday afternoon. One large
blem at the University is that this "short
rk week" attitude is fairly prevalent. But it
This is not to be construed as criticism of
the University libraries alone. The blame rests
more heavily with the state legislature and
some responsibility for the action does lie with
the student body.
THAT THE STATE legislature gave the Uni-
versity considerably less money than was
requested is not news. But there is always some
legitimate feeling that perhaps the University
has been crying wolf and it does not really need
the money so badly after all.
Cuts are usually reflected in some not very
tangible manner: Larger classes perhaps, fewer
top professors, or fewer counselors. But in the
library situation, students can immediately feel
Many state legislators have often voiced the
criticism that students do not have enough
"seriousness of purpose." Few, If any, have ever
bothered to come around to check for them-
selves-they prefer to attend the football games.
But some responsibility does lie with the
student body. In just one semester, about one
per cent of the Undergraduate library collection
was lost, and over the summer months the loss
rate in the General library climbed as well. A
large percentage of these books had to be
stolen-and given the careful checks at the.
door, stolen with some thought. If the library
chooses to spend its limited funds to replenish
the book supply, money must be taken that
would normally be used to pay personnel-and
hence, reduced hours.
IVEREVER the fault lies, one thing is quite
By RALPH LANGER
Daily Staff Writer
A HANDFUL of old grads often-
times make more noise, are
more emotionally involved in, and
have more fun at a college foot-
ball game than thousands of stu-
This unusual phenomenon really
isn't so strange. Psychological
identification is visible in one of
its clearest manifestations when
the former student relives the
"good old days" through his
school's football team.
The fact that the old days prob-
ably. weren't much better than the
nbew ones is irrelevant. In addition,
great quantities of emotional
steam can be released harmlessly
by sitting in the familiar old sta-
dium with the familiar old colors
and the familiar old songs. Yell-.'
ing for Podunk U's football team
is considerably more socially ac-
ceptable than betting the wife.
* * *
WHY CAN GRADS work up more
enthusiasm at a football game
than students? Certainly travel-
ing many miles by car on the
crowded highways or packed into
a bus with several dozen other fans
leaves less energy for cheering the
team than retained by the lot of
several thousand students who
merely have to wend their way in-
to the 'stadium from probably no
more than a mile.
Tradition is important. Grads
like to feel they are .a part of the
tradition of their alma mater ....
even if they recall little or no tra-
dition from their undergraduate
days. Gone are the memories of
studying late.into the night, final
exams, scrimping .on a limited
budget and all of the other less
colorful days of collegiate life.
Foremost in the memories of
yesteryear are games, rallies, par-
ties and all of the other more de-
lightful aspects of undergraduate-
Fortunate is the grad who, re-
turning to the office Monday
morning, can say "MY college won,
how about that?" He, personally
has scored a victory. Life, which is
not overly stocked with victories,
seems brighter as a result.
THE QUESTION of undergrad
spirit remains shrouded in the
mist that surrounds that old buga-
boo of student apathy. The ivy-
league buckled senior, even at state
universities, considers a demon-
stration of outright emotion at
athletic. events as strictly some-
thing for freshmen. Freshmen, of
course, don't want to b~ e eognized
by the time four years are over the
inhibitions are inigrained into the
very fiber of his belt-in-the-back
Yet next year or five years later,
upon returning to his Alma Mater,
older and supposedly wiser, this
same conservative ex-student
screams his head off, beats the
heads of those in the immediate
vicinity with his program (some-
thing he never even bothered to
buy in the old undergrad days)
and returns with gusto to his recol-
lection of what college was or what
he would have liked it to be. No
longer must he suppress his urge
to give vent to his emotions and
vocally help HIS team. And he
probably even knows the words to
the "Yellow and Blue" by now,
an accomplishment few under-
grads can claim.
* * *
THE ALUMNI who, return to
watch and cheer at football games
are a tremendous asset. They
should be encouraged, and are by
several University agencies. The
University Public Relations de-
partment promotes numerous trips
and outings for student organiza-
tions who display their asundry
talents before alumni groups
throughout the state and nation,a
thereby keeping the "tie that
binds" in good repair.
This undoubtedly accounts for
much of the increase in emotional
response to the educational insti-
tution that granted the diploma.
The Glee Club and Marching Band
are two examples of University
groups of which alumni are justly
proud tc exhibit as coming from
And it's a good thing the alum-
ni do attend games, one hundred.
thousand and one members of the
"silent q generation" massed in a
stadium is a terrifying thought.
Athletics have often been criti-
cized for bringing boys to school
who are" not on a level with the
other students. This is an im-
possibility at Michigan, since the
same entrance requirements are
demanded of all.
These same criticisms continue
because the athletes are in class
under scholarships and receive
special tutoring. The complaint
here is that these students are in
general no more in need of these
privileges than the other students.
TRUE, but the area that needs
improvement, then, is the non-
athletic rather than the athletic.
It is to the ad<antage of the ath-
lete that he has these advantages,'
but why should he give them up
because others don't have them?
All students have to pass the
same exams. If people other than
athletes need extra help, then it is
up to the educational system of
America to provide it. There is
certainly no reason for the athletic
department to forfeit the advan-
tages they have for the students
in their system. This would only
mean that fewer people are get-
ting the best education possible.
Athletics on a college level have
also been criticized because a
group of students are brought into
the school that have an interest
namely athletics- that is apart
from the classroom. This isn't a
fair criticism; a majority of the
students attending any given col-
lege will have some interest other
It stands to reason that athletics
have as much right on campus as
any extracurricular activity. What-
ever the students interest-be it
athletics, music, drama, writing,
or some more personal hobby-he
has the right to spend his non-
class time as he desires.
SINCE it is the partial function
of schools to prepare students for
a future career, athletics also have
a place in this function. Many of
these athletes will make a career
in the professional field, and the
fact that they played in college
first helps prepare them. The edut-
cation they receive at the same
time will aid them later in life.
Since athletics are an estab-
lished part of American life, it is
obvious that the area in which
they effect the university most is.
the entertainment that they pro-
vide for students in general. This
system is often criticized because
of its financial scope, but it must.
be remembered that it is a self-
sufficient setup, and doesn't effect
the rest of the college.
An outlet is furnished by ath-
letic contests for all students to
vent their enthusiasm through
supporting the teams. This is a
valuable part of college life, and
shouldn't be sacrificed because
certain people feel that athletics
don't belong on campus,
It only seems right that any
educational institution should, as
part of its student preparation,
support an athletic system. Stu-
dents should be acquainted with,
all aspects of the American way
THE MOST striking fact about
the Michigan athletic depart-
ment's financial setup is that it
is an entirely self-sufficient sys-
All of the funds thak are used
for supporting the varsity team
are raised 'by gate attendance at
the many sports events. Football
provides most of this money, while
hockey is ,the only other team
,that makes- more money than it
The general expenses fall into,
four categories. The first of these
consists of equipment expenditures
of the various teams.
Each team must furnish uni-
forms, personal equipment, and
the general equipment for com-
petition with intercollegiate op-
ponents. Included in this is the
maintenance of the apparatus that
is used, and of the building in
which the team competes.
ANOTHER large part of the in-
comb is used:for team traveling:
expenses. Away trips to other con-
ference schools, and to Big Ten
and NCAA meets are quite expen-
sive, especially in the case of the-
larger teams, or groups that, have
limited time and must go by air-
The third item on' the expense
account is the system of scholar-
ships. Michigan operates under the
new Big Ten Athletic Aid Policy,
which allows each member school
to grant 100 scholarships to ath-
letes each year.
These scholarships range from
$1400 for out-of-state students to
$1100 for Michigan residents.
The final area of expenditure is
in the form of long-term projects.
Things that have been done re-
cently are the final addition to the
stadium, and now the new press
box. A new field house, and new
hockey rink are future projects-
that 'are being considered.,
Push em Back. . .
By MICHAEL KRAFT
Daily Editorial Director
THE OLD ROMAN emperors weren't so dumb. They built huge coli-
seums, opened the gates to the masses and presented circuses and
gladiator contests. The entertainments diverted the Roman minds from
more serious things, such as revolt, and kept them happily absorbed iin
watching someone else exercize.
Unfortunately, the past still lingers. Every Saturday afternoon,
spectators crowd into stadiums to watch helmeted gladiators fight it
out, 11 on a side. And when the gladiators rest, circuses in the form
of marching musicians keep the crowds entertained.
But even though inter-collegiate athletics isn't supported by any
one emperor, King Football has grown to unbalanced proportions.
When an institution of higher education assigns a coach full time
to the task of recruiting and evaluating prospective football players,
when thousands of dollars are
spent to develop them into a win-
ning combination and when a huge
stadium is built to house them and
their 101,001 (it is hoped) admir-
ers for half a dozen Saturdays
each year, one must wonder where
the emphasis really is.
It's almost hard to keep from
laughing at the spectacles the'-na-
tion's universities and colleges
make of themselves in their efforts
to provide the public with a visible,
easily absorbed spectacle. Unfor-
tunately, the distortion of an in-
stitution of higher education'.
serious function is, a pathetic
commentary, on the national sense
FOR A UNIVERSITY'S purpose
is to provide a place for educa-
tion, research and scholarship-.,.
intercollegiate football contributes
little to this except, the ficekle
attention of those people who like
to identify themselves with a suc-
cessful team. In the popular mind,
a ischool's reputation is. not linked
with the quality of its faculty, the
intellectual caliber of the students,
the size of the library or extent of
its research facilities, but with
the number of times 11 boys wear-
ing its colors can transport a
leather bladder across the sacred
goal line of 11 boys wearing the
colors of some other school which
;also supposedly shares the same
interest in educating people to
NOR IS BIG-TIME football's
lack of any meaningful contribu-
tion to the school itself compen-
sated} for by any real benefit to
individuals. One may agree with
Plato that the body should be -
trained along with the mind, yet
, inter-collegiate athletics doesn't
even do this for,very many people.
. Huge sums are lavished on the
further physical training of those
who already are the best available
physical specimens, 'while those
who really need the exercise are
-snot required to step into a gym
except for two hours a week during
their freshman year.
Indeed, most of the hWighly touted.
values for the individual are some-
what mythical. To be sure, the
scholarships and aid programs de-
signed especially for athletes en-
able some people to attend college
who otherwise would do something
else. Yet there are scholarships
for mere students who likewise
might not attend. college without
outside support. However, the ath-
letes are sought and recruited for,
their physical talents, not their
intellectual interest or ability
which tends to be regarded as of a
secondary, bonus nature. In.effect,
a premium is put on the qualities'
that play the smallest role in a
THE UNFORTUNATE part
about intercollegiate athletics is
the difficulty of keeping it under
control. Huge stadiums, once built,
are good for only one thing; alum-
ni want the old school to keep up
m - z - rn