l§~R THE MICHIGAN DAILY
CIENTIFIC RESEARCH IMPORTANT:
Eisenhower Asks Treaty To Dispel
International Rivalry in Antarctica
Possible Clue to Cancer
transformation mimics that which
. By CHARLES STAFFORD
Associated Press Newsfeatures Writer
The United States is seeking to
dispel the cloud of conflicting ter-
ritorial claims which casts a shad-
ow over the future of Antarctica.
President Dwight D. Eisenhower
on May 3 called for a treaty that
would preserve the huge, ice-clad
continent for scientific research.
He invited 11 other nations, in-,
cluding the Soviet Union, to en-
ter into the agreement.
There is a chance 'of success.
International rivalry in the Ant-
arctic is generally polite because
no natural resources of great val-
ue have yet been found.
Explored in 19th Century
Tentatively probed by *explorers
in the 19th Century, Antarctica
snapped the world to attention in
the first decade of this century.
Within a month of each other,
Norwegian and British parties
reached the South Pole.
In 1928, Rear Adm. Richard' E.
Byrd took a highly mechanized
American expedition to Antarc-
tica and established Little Ameri-
ca. Using Byrd's base as their
starting point, later American
parties explored much of the con-
The aroused interest in Antarc-
tica touched off several territorial
claims. In 1924, Secretary of State
Charles Evans Hughes stated what
has been United States policy ever
since: No claim is valid without
occupation of territory.'
Seven Nations Claim Land
The United States has never
claimed an ice-cube's worth,. of
Seven nations have: Great Brit-
ain, Norway, New Zealand, France,
Chile, Australia and Arg'entina
(see map). In the Palmer Penin-
sula, the claims of Britain, Chile
and Argentina overlap and some
friction has occurred among them.
These- nations were invited by
President Eisenhower to a treaty
conference with the United States,
Russia,. Japan, Belgium and the
Union of South Africa.'
The 12 nations are taking part
in the International Geophysical
Year program for the Antarctic.
Value to Science Stressed
In his call for a: treaty, Presi-
dent Eisenhower said:
"We propose that Antarctica
shall be open to all nations to
conduct scientific or other peace-
ful activities there. ...
"The scientific research being
conducted In that continenst. by
the cooperative efforts of dis-
tinguished scientists from many
countries is producing information
of practical as well as theoretical,
value for all mankind."
Prof. Alfred S. Sussman, of the
botany dept., hopes to find a clue
to "runaway" cells in cancer by
studying a mold often found in
Neurospora, ,the "red bread
mold" that may be grown in a
breadbox, is the object of Prof.
Sussman's efforts, for which he
has been awarded a $17,700 Na-
tional Science Foundation grant.
The grant, which covers a two-
year period, will enable him to
devote his time to a basic study of
Neurospora, he said.
To Study Ascospores
The particular aspect of Neu-
rospora on which Prof. Sussman
will work is the ascospores, or re-
productive bodies, which help it
survive rough times, such as
drought and adverse temperatures.
A specialist in fungi, Prof. Suss-
man is studying the breaking of
dormancy of ascospores in the
"Superficially, at least, this
occurs in certain types ofcancer,
wherein a healthy animal cell is
transformed into a rapidly meta-
bolizing and dividing 'runaway'
cell," he noted.
What Controls Dormancy?
Prof. Sussman said that the un-
answered problem is: which are
the regulatory mechanisms and
controls exerted over the meta-
bolism of ascospores?
"The' ascospore has a low rate
of metabolism and won't develop
into a mature mold plant unless
it's exposed to a temperature of
140 degrees Fahrenheit for up to
"Such a temperature is enough
to kill most living things, yet
ascospores immediately respond to
such treatment by showing a 15-
to 20-fold increase in their respira-
tory rate and developing into the
mature fungus," he concluded..
Recent Interstate Commerce
Commission decisions on trucking
industry mergers "demonstrate its
concern for (maintaining) com-
petition," Prof. Carl H. Fulda, of
Ohio State University said.
In an article in a recent Michl-
gan Law Review, Prof. Fulda
pointed out that most of the
mergers approved by the ICC were
of the "end-to-end" type, linking
two firms serving adjacent terri-
tories. Prof. Fulda said that this
type of merger, by permitting
through service over longer routes.
has probably strengthened the in-]
Prof. Fulda noted that generally,
the ICC has proceeded on the
theory that mergers should be pre-
vented only when they threaten
the existence of other trucking
firms as- common carriers.
'In the" kno%
-iin QU OOW
jiy~~RC' . 5~~ K O
Authorized Deaer for:
Scientific knowledge, 'at the
moment, is the continent's;richest
resource. Antarctica is known to
have large deposits of low grade
coal, but these are too remote to
Reveal Ice Cap Region'.
Airplane reconnaissaice has re-
vealed in the %ntinent's interior
a huge dome of ice which dwarfs,
anything in the northern polar
region. This ice cap chills air which
affects weather, throughout. the
The Ice cap region is believed
to hold secrets of climate change,
cosmic rays; earth-sun relation-
ships and other weather mysteries.
At the edge of the Ross Ice
Read and Use
Shelf,' particularly in the vicinity
of the Beardmore and Mill glaciers,
valleys have been found which are
almost entirely free of snow and
ice. These valleys, lying within 300
miles of the South Pole, may
provide clues to.the continent's
past and its potential.-
Discover Coal, Fossils 7
Laurence M. Gould, head of the1
United States research in the polar
regions, believes the valleys may
contain fossils which will offer
evidence of the kind of animals
which may have roamed prehis-
Twenty-nine years ago, Gould
discovered coal near Little Ameri-9
ca. This coal and leaf impressionsI
and fossilized trees found else-
where indicate the region once.
was covered by a dense forest.
This is the kind of scientific
information President Eisenhower
wishes to preserve for all nations.
The University Research Center
for' Group Dynamics received the
Kurt Lewin Memorial Award at-
the annual meeting of the Ameri-
can Psychological Association, held
recently in Washington, D.C.
The award has been presented
annually since 1948 "to a person
or institution whose work
has contributed most significantly
. .. to one or more of the fields
in which Kurt Lewin worked,"
according to the Society. Lewin
was a psychologist and humani-
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