Sixty-Eight Years of Editorial Freedom
SANN ARR. MCIGAN. WEDNESDAY. SEPTEMBER 17. 1958
VOL. L=X. .NO. 2 Hl..i. nnDsaa fS uva'a.w , . -.-..-
Two Surveys Pr
Note 'Boom. '
Science OfRussian Trip
Degrees in. PhyRussian experts at an important astronomy convention were
egee Phs1cs nearly mum on the topic of earth satellites, Prof. Leo Goldberg,
Show Annual Rise chairman of the astronomy department, said recently.
wsurveys' indicate a o He made the comment after returning from the Moscow meeting
Two recent urity 'mndrcath- of the 10th General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union.
possible popularity boom for math- "They didn't say much that we didn't already know," he said, "but
The American Institute of Phys- I'm sure they held back. They talked about solar observations. re-
ics says that the number of ported by their Sputniks, but nothing was mentioned in the way of
bachelor degrees given in physics scientific results or about methods for obtaining results."
is rising at the rate of 10 per The number of Soviet scientists attending the meeting was up
cent a year. It reports that there considerably over previous meetings. About 200 Soviet scientists from
, was a similar boom in chemistry that nation's leading observatories
after the first World War. Ap- atteded the eight-day meeting at,
parently areas that place em- Moscow University. Not more than -.
phasis on technology give glamor two dozen had attended previous4
to career$ in the physical sciences. meetings in Western Europe.
The United States Office of Elected Vice-President%
Education, together with the Na- Prof. Goldberg was elected one
tional Science Foundation, made of the union's six vice-presidents.
a survey of 1,102 four year col- He spent his spare time sight-.
leges, Universities and Institutes, seeing and talking to the Russians ..
It found that nearly 13 per cent "They were very friendly toward;
of all college students were major- the Americans," Prof. Goldberg
ing in either mathematics or said. "There was never any sign
physics. In the 'liberal sarts col- of hostility, even though the dele-t
leges the proportion is 16.7 per gation arrived in Moscow only
cent, shortly after the demonstrations
More Degrees Expected at the United States embassy' ";
The survey, which assertained Prof. Goldberg said the Russian
the, number junior-year students people did not seem to believe all"
majoring in the two fields, in- that they were told about thew
dicated that one - third more United States by Pravda and the
bachelor degrees in science and other Russian papers. 'n d
mathematics will be granted in "The Russians are convinced.
Tune, 1959 than were granted in that there is a difference between ;
1957. the American government and the PROF. LEO GOLDBERG
fall 50,50 students American people. It is interestingF
Last fall 5Q,500 students were A . . . says Russians friendly
majoring in mathematics and that Americans hold the same dis-
science. Allowing for dropouts, it tinction," he said.
is expected that approximately Believe Living Standards ZEISLER:
4x°000 of these will receive their "They were very interested in
degrees. In 1957 the figure was how long a man in America had F u ll Tl .
deres.In19'lth fgue asto work to earn eough to buy a rj,
33,380. .fcar, dishwasher, or what have you,"
The estimate for next spring he said. They seemed, to believe
represents an increase of 35 t o what we told them about the R
per cent over the post-war low American standard of living.
Five degrees w hee.n eteen29, iftsych iveother members of theeUnt-
degrees were given. Nineteen fifty versity's astronomy department The full text of speeches and
marked the high point when 51,400 attending the conference were statements should be published by
degrees werer given many of them Profs. Fred T. Haddock, Lawrence newspapers rather than a report
to former servicemen.H. Aller, Orren C. Mohler, William by a newsman, according to Prof.
Previous Interest Shown Liller, and research assistant Edith Karl F. Zeisler of the journalism
One featur of these reports Muller.dartmnt.j
which encourages education offs- __________dpamet
cials is that these figures indicate In the September issue of The
interest in these courses by the Quill, national journalism maga-
stuents wn they wrestl PhoifeSSors zine, Prof. Zeisler wrote, "My con-
hightswhenhchtheywswerestagllsidered calculation is that almost
high school, which was long be-statement or speech can
fore the Russins put up theirEar Abe printed full text at a saving of
satellite last year. space over any given cover story
Several other surveys indicated Fellowships at the Center for encrusted with what the reporter
that increasing numbers of ele Advanced Study in the Behavioral wanted to say. In the original ver-
ueitary, and secondary school Sciences at Stanford, California, sion the reader might get it, or at
pupils have been taking mathe for 1958-59 have been awarded least have a reasonable chance of
tcnd h a seene courses. This to two University professors. figuring it out."
trend hsbe developing: for Selection of Prof. Morris Jano- Prof. Zeisler continued, "When
several years. witz of the sociology department I was accumulating copyreader's
The surveys have confirmed, and Prof. Helen Peak of the psy- corns I scoffed at speakers .who
however, the statements of James chology department was an- complained of the angle treat-
B Conant, former president of nounced Sunday. ment. Then I found myself on the
Harvard University, that com- "The purpose of the fellowships other side of the headline.
paratively few women are major- is to help universities to strength- "What made me see red was
ing in mathematics or science. en their human resources for ad- that an angle-happy reporter had
Conant believes that girls do as vance research:and training in the plucked out of context an illustra-
well in these courses as boys and behavioral science fields," accord- tion I had used for a minor point
ought to be encouraged in these ing to Center Director Ralph W. and made it seem to be the whole
studies. Tyler. theme of my speech," he said.
Libraries Curtail Service
wn Worth Consider
Ranonort Notes Value
Of Analogies, Models
Social theory, although lacking
the precision of the physical
sciences, still has value, Prof. Ana-
tol Rapoport of the Mental Health
Research Institute said recently.
"The 'worth' of a theory is not
calculable by a set of cut-and-
dried criteria, any more than a
man's worth as a member of the
community is calculable in terms
of how much he produces," Prof.
Rapoport toldsthe American Poli-
tical Science Association meeting .
here last week.
Prof. Rapoport cited metaphor
and analogy as two examples of
social t-cience methods that "are
sometimes important aids in the
sense that they prepare the mindsR
to make more, precise investiga-
tions," even though they cannot
be accepted as scientific "explana-
"It is in this sense that the ;.
so-called'models' of the non-
exact sciences are to be appreci-
ated. They are like the diagrams
of geometry, neither necessary nor WAGON BRIGADE-Students a
sufficient for the sort of proof that to replace books in the stacks.
mathematical rigor demands, but staffers are kept busy returnin
of ten helpful for the eventual terpoe lcs
construction of such proofs." their proper places.
Taking issue with the position,
Prof. Rapoport cited Galileo as a KELLY SURVEY REVI
scientist who did not take "facts"
too nieticulously. If he had, his/
general law of falling bodies would
never account for the falling ofG
leaves or raindrops, which account
for about 99 per cent of the falling Prof. E. Lowell Kelly, chairman
that occurs on this planet, Prof. of the psychology department and
Rapoport said. director of the Bureau of Psy-
The important thing is that al- chological Services, has recently
though Galileo's law is false in a announced the findings of his 20-
strict factual sense, it is true in year study of changes in married
an overall, deeper sense, he said. couples.
Not every conclusion of an exact His study reveals that the shift
theory has to be translatable into toward higher religious values is
observation. The proof may come-not due to the subjects' aging but
in the future, and sometimes to a real shift of cultural values
should not be demanded too soon, during the last two decades.
he told the political scientists. it also contains these genera
1) There has been a significant
M oil e, adar decrease in aesthetics and theore-
tical values of marriage.
n tD2 Both men and women have
developedmore favorable attitudes
toward marriage, church and
The University's Research In- child-rearing.
stitute and Willow Run Labora- 3) A shift appeared to a more
tories have developed a mobile neutral position on housekeeping,
radar station to be used in the From Middle Class
study of cloud physics.
The purpose of the station is to Prof. Kelly first tested his sub-
learn more about precipitation. jects in the ,1935-38 period, and
The radar station is designed to re-tested 116 men and women whc
give a "satellite- view" of clouds had married after the first test
and a cross-section slice of a cloud period and remained married for
so that its configuration may be 20 years in 1953-54. The subjects
seen. were above average in intelligence
The station's great value is its and education and were primarily
mobility which enables ~it to be from middle class families, Prof.
used in areas beyond the range Kelly reported.
of permanent radar stations. For the ideal marriage, subjects
re not permitted
. Hence, library
ug the books to
7alues Undergo Change
TURNABOUT--Because smoking is permitted
throughout the underegraduate library, special
rooms must be provided for the more sensitive
Lead to Greater Use
Of Library System
Increased demands for staff
personnel and a sharp budget cut
have forced University libraries to
curtail service and may necessitate
Additional staff required with
the opening of the Undergraduate
Library last winter has resulted in
cuts in reference service, extension
service, divisional libraries and ad-
ministrative staff, according to
Director Frederick H. Wagman.
A million dollar reduction by the
Legislature last spring in the Uni-
versity's 1958-59 operating budget
has forced virtually every unit in
the University to undergo a 10 per
cent cut in non-salary budgets
and a three per cent slash in salary
Book Purchases Cut
New book purchases have been
curtailed by the budget reduction,
Too, the cost of new books and
subscriptions has .been increasing
at a rate of about 12 per cent
annually, according to Prof, Wag-
However, opening of the new
library has greatly: changed stu-
dent reading habits and stimulated
use of the entire library system,
Prof. Wagman reports.
More than three quarters 'of a
million persons passed through the
doors of the new 3.1 million dollar
building in the first six months it
was, open. Total circulation of
books in the building and for
home use, 187,000 volumes, repre-
sents nearly a four-fold turnover
of its entire collection in half a
Book Circulation Sets Record
Opening of the new building
raised total circulation of all Uni-
versity library books for home use
by faculty and students to an all-
time high of more than one-half
This represents an increase of
more than 10 per cent over last
,year, the largest year-to-year gain
in home circulation since the li-
brary began keeping records in the
See UNDERGRADUATE, page 17
most strongly endorsed a common
standard of sexual morality for
both husband and wife and mari-
tal fidelity, while a wife's earning
her own living was least strongly
Most items felt essential for an'
ideal' marriage shifted toward a
neutral position, but among those
"Education has an entirely new
kind of responsibility in our time-
developing creativity for coping
with a rapidly changing world,"
Professor Robert Inglehart, chair-
man of the art department said.
It is the parents and teachers
who must prepare children "to
work creatively in any situation
without being terrified--to act out
of themselves and make their own
culture," he says.
Prof. Inglehart points out that
art has an advantage over many
other subjects because, by the na-
ture of the work, the answers
aren't known as they are in history
felt to be "more essential" after
20 years were:
1) Both husband and wife
should have the same religious
2) Children should be given
3) Children should be held to a
4) Husband and wife, if con-
genial, should take vacations to-
"The more positive endorsenient
of this particular cluster of items
suggests a shift in the direction of
greater conventionality and per-
haps toward more authoritarian-
ism," Prof. Kelly noted.
The study also showed more
feeling against postponing mar-
riage for financial reasons. This
is probably due to the fact 'that
couples discovered increased in-
come will not eliminate the need
for careful budgeting, Prof. Kelly
Women tended to endorse items
somewhat more strongly than men,,
the study showed. Both men and
women tended to feel less strongly
about issues at the second testing,
EVERYONE IN ANN ARBOR
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