* Sixty-Ninth Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
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Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
URSDAY, MARCH 26. 1959
NIGHT EDITOR: JOAN KAATZ
"The Fool! He's Cutting The Wrong End"
OV\MEsTC NEEVS p
II ( -4, ea
The Fishman Disqualification Case:.
STUDENT Government Council is unjustified
in refusing to seat Michael Fishman.
The Council had told candidates before the
election that the twenty-five dollar limit was
grounds for possible disqualification.
But if Fishman had thought that exceeding
the $25 limit meant that there was a strong
possibility that he would be disqualified, then
there is a good reason for Fishman falsifying
his expense account.
IE PRESENT RULE, at least before Fish-
man's case, must have been unclear as to
penalties for violation in the minds of many
candidates. The rule says that candidates
should not spend more than $25 on election
expenses, and provides for "possible disquali-
fication if the rule is violated.
If the Council had assured the candidates
beforehand that exceeding the campaign limit
by a few dollars would not be grounds for dis-
qualification, but result only in a fine, then
Fishman, or candidates who may find them-
selves in similar positions, would be wrong in
not admitting their violation to the Council.
But when the choice beforehand is so diffi-
cult, because of Council vagueness, the Coun-
cil must take part of the responsibility for
Fishman's falsification of his report. The regu-
lations are unclear in two important areas.
First, penalties for specific violations should
be made much more detailed than they are
Secondly, if falsification of the expense re-
port is so important that it, instead of the spe-
cifically listed violation is the reason for dis-
missal, then falsification should be listed in
the petition and election rules. If it is thought
necessary to say that forged or fictitious sig-
natures will constitute grounds for the dis-
qualification of a candidate, it should be neces-
sary to be equally explicit about campaign- ex-
The advantages of explicit rules are obvious.
It helps rule out extraneous considerations on
the part of a Council member deciding in such
cases. And when the rules are written down it
places the blame for violation squarely on the
HOWEVER, there is more to the case than
deficiency in election rules. The Council
should bend over backwards to insure that the
candidate knows exactly what rules he must
abide by in his campaign. "Knowing exactly"
means having them written down.
If the Council does not have these regula-
tions written down at the time a candidate is
elected, then it is the Council's duty to seat
the candidate, however unpleasant the Coun-
cil feels about the circumstances.
If Fishman's violation is more than just a
violation of a regulation, but instead is a sign
of some underlying deficiency in Fishman as a
Council member, then the present members
should be ready to vote against him should he
run for election again. If, however, this one
mistake is not at all typical of Fishman, his
falsification should be seen in its proper light,
as an excuseable violation, and steps should be
taken to make amends.
A SHORT TIME ago Assistant Dean of Men
John Bingley called the Fishman affair
Ridiculous it is, but also unfortunate and
harmful to all those concerned.
One can easily feel sorry and sympathetic
for Fishman, seeing all the trouble he has
But the all-important point remains that
Fishman knowingly lied to the Council about
He maintained that during the hectic cir-
cumstances of Count Night when his mind was
on the election rather than the expense ac-
count, he was told by a Council member to
put down $25.
Doubtless true, but the expediency of a situ-
ation should be no justification for a lie. That
Fishman was told by a member to do some-
thing which he knew to be dishonest is no
Fishman's advisor was probably misunder-
stood when he said to put down the $25 maxi-
mum "just to be within the limit," but he
doubtless was thinking about the fact that in
the past the expense limit has not been too
closely observed by all candidates running.
Again, true enough. But it remains that
Fishman got caught and the others did not.
If the Council failed to discover other vio-
lations in the past, this should be no reason
for them to fail to act on Fishman's now. The
old saw still applies, that if a rule is not en-
forced in all cases, that rule soon becomes
meaningless. If the rule and the procedures for
applying it are bad, they should be changed.
But until then, such rules must be enforced.
Further the Council was not violently con-
cerned with the obviously trivial sum of $4.87
that Fishman spent over his limit. The Cre-
dentials Committee found him only in viola-
tion of the expenses limit rule. But it was the
Council's authority to enforce this rule, in
view of the circumstances surrounding the
violation, as they saw fit.
At the meeting, it was clear that the Coun-
cil felt that had Fishman "come clean" at the
time and admitted he had spent more than the
limit, he would have been seated without
Fishman claimed that his intentions were
not to deceive SGC and that the estimate he
received from the printing company was too
However, Fishman had attended the candi-
date training meetings, where the ruling had
been explained. Further, two weeks had
elapsed between the time he received his es-
timate and the time he paid the bill. During
this time, he could have found the discrepancy
between estimate, the bill and the limit, and
should have contacted Council authorities
had he been strictly honest. He did not.
Why not, unless he hoped to get away with
The adage that "a public office is a public
trust," while rather mossy, remains true. The
terms of the public trust implicit in election
to office were violated by Fishman.
And if SGC is to preserve its own integrity,
it cannot seat a candidate who lied while be-
By The Associated Press
THE FATE of a rebellious Tibet
is being fought out in the lofti-
est, most backward and most iso-
lated territory in the world.
Its gay, good-humored people-
whose greatest national occupa-
tion is religious contemplation -
dwell in valleys behind craggy
peaks of the Himalayas on the
south and the Kunlun Mountains
on the north.
Its average elevation is higher
than California's 14,495-foot Mt.
Whitney, highest in the United
States. It truly is the "roof of the
Visited through the centuries
by only a few westerners, the
country did not know even the
wheel until recent years. Commu-
nication was mostly by caravan
routes winding through 16,000-
foot mountain passes. Arctic-like
winds whippedabout the moun-
tains and made the lot of the
traveler a hard one.
BUT SINCE the invasion of the
country in October 1950, by a Red
Chinese army, a rough 1,000-mile
road has been built from China's
Western Sinkiang province to
Gartok in southwestern Tibet.
Other roads now link northern
Tibet with Gartok, and Lhasa,
the capital, with the southwest.
Air service between central Tibet
was established in 1957 between
Red China and Lhasa.
The country is poor in agricul-
tural production, but may be rich
in minerals.hFor centuries, its
chief trade has been in musk,
wool, furs, and yak tails, used for
Santa Claus beards. But in some
Shangri-La-like valleys an almost
lush climate permits the growing
of pomegranates, wheat and bar-
In the 7th century, Tibet was a
.powerful kingdom and exacted
tribute from China. But since the
17th century, China has main-
tained a varying degree of suzer-
ainity over the country.
The Tibetans finally expelled
Chinese officials in 1912 after the
Sun Yat-Sen revolution overthrew
China's Manchu emperors, and
the Chinese attempted to restore
their rule only in 1950 after the
Communists had established their
government at Peiping.
* * *
THE 1,300,000 Tibetans, who
imported their Buddhist religion
from India, tend to devote their
time to religion rather than in-
dustry, politics or war. Thousands
of monks live in monasteries scat-
tered throughout the country and
are the rulers of the country.
The Dalai Lama, the temporal
and spiritual ruler, is believed to
be the 14th reincarnation of
Buddha. He was chosen for the
role by monks in 1935, when he
was five years old, on the basis of
mysterious signs and portents
which satisfied them that he was
He was installed as the Lama in
1940 in the nine-story Portala, or
palace, which towers over the
center of Lhasa. Red China for-
mally recognized his temporal and
spiritual authority in 1951 in a
treatyugranting aut o no m o us
rights to Tibet but retaining con-
trol of its foreign and defense
IN THE background, threaten-
ing the Dalai Lama's rule, how-
ever, is the Panchen Lama, re-
garded by rival monks as the real
Lama. He formerly lived in Red
China's Sinkiang province and
for a time was considered the
In recent years some innova-
tions have takenrplace. Some 10,-
000 Tibetans of both sexes are re-
ported to be receiving education
in 78 primary schools and a high-
er school in Lhasa. An old elec-
tric power plant has been re-
placed by a new one in Lhasa,
and another one built in Shigatse
in southern Tibet.
A motor repair shop has been
built in Lhasa, along with a veter-
inary research institute. Lhasa
and Shigatase have public tele-
Until 1950 most of Tibet's trade
was through India. In 1955 India
turned over its rest houses and
postal and telegraph services
along the caravan route to the
control of Red China.
Tibetans are a nation of tea
drinkers. Despite their interest in
religion they love horse racing
- Summit Talks No Real A nswer
By WILLIAM S. WHITE
W ASHINGTON -- The Western
world's diplomacy has entered
a new era, full of promise and of
danger. And in that diplomacy the
British have reassumed the West-
ern leadership which they lost to
the United States after the second
Prime Minister Harold Macmil-
lan has returned to London, after
a fateful tour of great capitals,
carrying in his brief case the baton
that now leads the Western con-
To deny that it is the British
who now hold the initiative might
make us as Americans feel better
-if we wish to look at it all as a
competitive enterprise between
Washington and London. But to
deny it would be to reject the
plainest of obvious realities.
FOR 'THE Eisenhower-Macmil-
lan decision to meet the Russians
in the summer at a summit con-
ference is now fixed and final in
fact. It is true that President
Dwight D. Eisenhower has reserved
the right to refuse to go along
with such a conference, after all,
if an intervening Foreign Minis-
ters' meeting produces no justifi-
cation in our eyes for the big show.
But this is a technicality. The
British are bound and determined
to have the big show regardless
of what happens at the Foreign
Ministers' talks in between. Mac-
millan feels quite confident that
no Foreign Minister or anybody
else but Nikita Khrushchev can
bind the Russians to anything at
all, anyhow. Thus he is absolutely
resolved to meet the boss man
And it is too late now, in a
world thrilled with hope for a
summit-made peace (and maybe
altogether too thrilled, if it comes
to that) for us alone to turn back
and say no when the time comes.
NOBODY is going to read the
fine print of our reservations, no
matter what we may say and hope
from time to time. Thus, whether
we should or should not have got
into this position is now water
over the dam. Realists will now
prefer to look not at where we
might have been but where we
actually are. These, then, are the
1) The policy of "rigidity" to-
ward the Soviet Union so long at-
tributed to the ailing Secretary of
State John Foster Dulles is gone
forever. For just as in actuality
we simply must go to'the summit,
we also must be prepared to nego-
tiate when we get there. And to
negotiate means at least to con-
template giving up something of
known value in exchange for
something of possible value from
the Russian side.
2) The whole heart of interna-
tional negotiation has now passed
to this coming summit meeting -
and to others that well may fol-
low. The old power center of the
United Nations, the S e c u r i t y
Council, has now become almost
as obsolete as the League of Na-
Only the most uncritical of UN
lovers will deeply mourn the un-
announced demise of the Security
Council, which has been paralyzed
for years by Soviet vetoes. But
there is great peril to another in-
stitution which ought to be al-
indeed in ever-increasing strengt
lgwed to stand in strength, and in-.
deed in ever-increasing strength.
This is the North A t l a n t i c
Treaty Organization, the military
alliance of the free West.
The 15th anniversary of NATO,
this great association of honor-
able power, is going to be celebrat-
ed here on April 4. Its compara-
tively little members, Belgium for
one and Italy for another, have
been faithful allies. For 15 years
Italian governments in particular
have sturdily stood with NATO,
often under savage pressure from
a large and howling Italian Com-
* * *
THE ITALIAN Foreign Minis-
ter, Guiseppe Pella - and other
representatives of the smaller
powers in NATO - is coming here
in wistful hope that the needs of
these small but loyal allies are not
iltogether forgotten when the big
fellows foregather on the summit.
Those who want NATO to go on
xill wish these little fellows well.
Summit or no summit, we cannot
do without them, and this it
would be wise not to forget in all
the general fanfare.
For the true shield of the West
cannot be found on any summit.
The shield of the West is found
in NATO's military headquarters
just outside Paris, Supreme Head-
quarters Allied Powers in Europe.
Negotiate and negotiate, yes. But
history has not been kind to those
who have preached that there is
any final substitute for collective
power in dealing with any dicta-
INTERPRETING THE NEWS:
Kassem Walks Thin Rope
SHANGRI-LA DISTURBED-Shown above is Potola, palace of the
Dalai Lama of Tibet, in the capital city of Lhasa where fighting
has been raging between followers of the supreme spiritual and
temporal ruler of Buddhists who have rebelled against Red Chinese
By L. M. ROBERTS
Associated Press News Analyst
IRAQ'S DENUNCIATION of the Baghdad Pact
merely formalizes a foregone conclusion.
But the question of whether the Kassem
revolutionary regime thus sides with Soviet
Russia, which has always agitated against the
Pact, or is trying to establish a position of
leadership in the Arab world despite its break
with the Nasser nationalists of the United Arab
In the tight-rope walking by which he has
so far maintained independence of Nasser
while enjoying not-quite-so-much independence
of the local Communists who support him and
the international Communists who give him
material aid, Kassem has faced a serious
He is getting arms from Russia, but most of
the arms he already has are British, When
Kassem staged his revolt, the British supply
was cut off. But a country which depends upon
an outside source of arms also depends on
parts and replacements from the same source.
RICHARD TAUB, Editor
MICHAEL KRAFTJOHN WEICHER
Editorial Director City Editor
DALE CANTOR.................Personnel Director
T HE BRITISH now seem about decided that
Kassem has not gone over into the Com-
munist camp so far that he can no longer be
trusted by the West, and the flow of arms is
expected to be resumed.
The long experience of the British in Middle
Eastern politics makes this a significant contri-
bution to any attempt to assess Kassem's real
position in the generally confused- situation.
There's more behind it than meets the eye.
Almost every action in the Middle East has
its effect on other situations which may at first
glance seem only tenuously related.
By supplying arms to Iraq, Britain compli-
cates a french problem. Any aid given Kassem
increases his ability to aid the anti-French
rebels in Algiers, which he is doing.
This Iraqi aid is calculated to cut the Nasser-
ite influence which has been strong in Algeria.
Algerian rebel leaders recently discussed, with-
out action, whether the Iraqi aid might enable
them to drop UAR support.
AT THE SAME TIME there is behind-the-
scenes competition between Iraq and the
UAR over the future of Jordan.
When the UAR was formed, the former Iraqi
monarchy negotiated a so-called Arab union
with Jordan. The revolution abrogated this
arrangement. Now Jordan stands between Iraq,
the UAR and a totally hostile Israel which, at
the first outbreak of new hostilities in the area,
would move toward all Jordan territory west
of the Jordan River, and perhaps even farther.
Jordan's chief hope for life rests in Anglo-
American support. The young King Hussein,
LETTERS TO-THE EDITOR:
Courses Meet Student Needs
To the Editor:
I WAS very disappointed to read
the editorial concerning the
School of Education. I thought the
trick of taking things out of con-
text and generalizing about them
was reserved for demogogues and
political tricksters. I can see how
wrong I was.
In this day and age, when edu-
cation is under heavy fire, it
would be nice to see a report
based on scholarship and research
instead of the trash that is being
written. There have been far too
many books and articles written
about education by people who
haven't seen the inside of a school
since they graduated. Anybody
who ever went to school is an ex-
pert on education, everybody ex-
cept the person who has made this
field of study his life's work.
If you were really interested in
discerning the philosophy of the
School of Education you should
not have relied upon the catalog.
However, since you used the cata-
log as your primary source I don't
understand why you didn't read a
little more of it. Allow me to quote
from the same source, School of
Education Announcement 1958/59,
p. 26. "The demand made upon
IF TEACHERS are incompetent
in a subject matter field, perhaps
the blame lies outside the School of
Education. You will notice from
the above statement that the
School of Education does not lay
claim to making prospective
teachers proficient in a subject
matter field. This is left to the
scholars in the literary college.
They are the ones who certify that
a teacher is proficient in subject
matter. This is done by the grades
that they give. If a student enrolls
in the School of Education and
has grades that indicate that he
has passed the courses in his sub-
ject matter field, it is assumed
that he is somewhat competent.
If not, then he should never have
been given a passing grade. The
prospective teacher spends but
1/6th of his college career in the
School of Education, and almost
half of this in practice teaching.
Yet, whenever teachers are criti-
cised, it is the School of Education
that is blamed for faulty prepara-
* * *
I WOULD like to have you look
at the catalog again and this time
notice that the courses you so
carefully itemized are graduate
courses and not undergraduate
one methods course. If a person
is going to deal with learners it
is important that he be familiar
with the way people learn.
You imply that if the School of
Education requirements were done
away with, students would take
more work in their major field. I
don't think this is true, but before
I can commit myself I should like
to see a survey made of liberal
arts graduates to determine how
many of them took more than the
prescribed number of hours neces-
sary for a major.
-Bert I. Greene
En Garde ..
To the Editor:
THE CAMBRIDGE University
Tiddlywinks Club, having re-
cently become British champions,
by virtue of a resounding victory
over Oxford, are making prelim-
inary plans for a tour of America
in September this year.
As we wish to play a match
against the principal American
universities, we feel that Michigan
University would be keen to take
part in what will be the most in-
teresting sporting event for some
years. It has been suggested that
versities are in the U.S. today.
These young men are the leaders
of tomorrow. Many of them, in
spite of being from Africa, have
never had the opportunity of meet-
ing together in their own land.
The political structure at home,
the artificial boundaries separate
these peoples from each other.
Today, with the merging power
of determination, of self-govern-
ment and liberty, those boundaries
are bound to crash and disappear
sooner or later.
For good understanding, friendly
relations and good will, the U. S.
has today a golden opportunity to
foster these principles.
These aims could be realized if
all in a joint effort would study the
means and possibilities to have
most of these students from Africa
meet, study their problems, and
establish relations with one an-
other, with the help of some
American specialist in that area of
the world. Thus, a full cooperation
between Africans and Americans
on the above mentioned principles
could build a lasting friendship
and unity for peaceful coordina-
tion. The conflict between East
and West will be settled in Africa,
and to win the Africans is to secure
the democratic institutions of the
Compliments * *.
To the Editor:
MY COMPLIMENTS to Miss
Sarah Drasin for her very
fine story in today's Magazine sec-
tion ("A Lasting Link with the
Past"). In reading her article I
experienced an intensification of
pride in the greatness that is
Michigan. I shall save the story
as a reminder of my four years at
the University because Miss Drasin
has, I think, captured the essence
of Michigan's true climate.
-Peter L. Wolff
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
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Daily due at 2:00 p.m. Friday.
THURSDAY, MARCH 26, 1959