M- EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
n Opinions Are Free UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
uth Will Prevail"
STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. . Phone NO 2-3241
'itorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
INDIVIDUAL OR ORGANIZATION?
Spring Rush Study
Resumes Old Dispute
By ELIZABETH ERSKINE
Daily Associate Personnel Director
AY, MARCH 8, 1959
NIGHT EDITOR: SELMA SAWAYA
Hoffa's New Drive May Return
Labor to UBad Old Davs'
rHE UNION PICTURE seems to be shaping
up into a "big three" vying for monopolies
f the nation's labor force and seeking ways
) increase profits - not in worker's benefits,
ut in union funds.
The recent announcement by Jimmy Hoffa
eamster Union's president, of a drive to
ring independent unions into his truck driver's
aven has intensified the race between it, the
liners Union and the AFL-CIO to corner the
abor market. At this rate, one of the groups
nay soon initiate cut-throat competitive meth-
ds for increasing membership at the expense
f the other two, methods they have previous-
7 branded as tainted by capitalism.
T THE SAME TIME, the Teamsters de-
cided to find out what the chances are of
halking up paid strike benefits to charity,
hus by-passing the necessity fo paying income
ax on the funds. It's a nice way to increase
he profits a bit, but who will receive the
enefits - Hoffa and his boys or the workers
'ho. go hungry on the meager -payments they
et when they strike under union orders?
It all seems to add up to a development of
he "captains of industry" outlook of the labor
osses and promotes the query of whether
unions remain a- means to improve the plight
of the laborer or are becoming an end in them-
selves. The time may not be far off when
the unions, looking at their hiring halls, will
announce themselves full-fledged corporations,
which provide labor needed to produce the
goods of the industrial corporations.
The laborer who pays his dues and keeps
the unions in business has long been a nebu-
lous identity thought of, by the bosses, not in
terms of the individual but of the masses, or
occasionally his specific occupation.
THE MOVE to destroy individual unions
through merger with one of the big powers
may destroy what little independence the
workers have left. They might presumably be-
come lost in the polyglot of unions with un-
differentiated membership, truly little more
than tools to be used by the labor bosses to
intimidate the capital bosses.
The insignificant union member might ask
himself which is the lesser of the two evils,
possible exploitation by industry or by union?
If he doesn't, he may wake up one morning
with the realization that he's no better off
than were his ancestors in the pre-union era.
'We, the peoples of the United Nations, determined to save succeeding generations from the
scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind and to re-
affirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the
equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small . . ." - reprinted from the
United Nations Charter on a mural outside yesterday's Campus UN Assembly. In the background
are signs marking the various delegations.
Berlin Potential Western Trap
OFFEE. . . BLACK By Richard Taub
[-A GIRL GRADUATES from high school and
takes a good secretarial course, she may get a
job With the University, and live in an apart-
inent in Ann Arbor, whether she is eighteen,
iineteen or twenty years old.
However, if the same girl comes to the Uni-
versity, because she is intellectually curious, she
wants to grow and to learn, she must live in a
University residence hall or a sorority house, al-
though she is twenty-one years old, an adult in
the eyes of everybody but those of the Dean of.
Confusing? Well, there is even more to it
than that. Women cannot move out of residence
h'alls next year-one of several reasons being
that there are empty spaces in the residence
hialls. Yet, the sorority system keeps merrily
expanding, pulling more girls out of the resi-
dence halls-and in doing, perhaps, depriving
other girls of the opportunity to live in apart-
PPARENTLY, there are three possible con-
clusions to be drawn from this. 1) If a
roman wants to be educated, she is to be pro-
hibited from assuming very much responsibility
for herself as long as possible. 2) Sorority living
md dormitory living are healthier for the in-
hvidual than living in an, apartment. 3) One
Man control the women better if they live in
>rganized housing, and this is necessary.
The first argument does not make sense and
he third is logically incomprehensible for a
reat University. After all, a University is not
'un for administrative convenience, it is run
or the students, and everybody knows that.
fVoell, almost everybody
Occasionally, there is some administrator who
Irges regulations because they are administra-
ively feasible, rather than because they are
raluable to the individuals involved. But thts is
>nly representative of the worst type of ad-
ninistrator, and since there are few of them
t the University, it is not worth further con-
WHAT LEAVES US with the second alterna-
tive: sorority living and dormitory living
re educationally more valuable .for the in-
lividual than living in an apartment.
This could be the only truly logical reason
or insisting that women live in organized hous-
ng, because the University's goals are primarily,
f not strictly, ones of intellectual growth of the
But even this does not apply very well. For
lthough dormitory living may be good for some
eople, and sorority living may be good for
thers, we suspect there are just as many for
irhom living in an apartment would be educa-
There are many for whom organized living is
RICHARD TAUB, Editor
EICHAEL KRAFT JOHN WEIGHER
ditorial Director City Editor
ALE CANTOR .................... Personnel Director
AN WILLOUGHBY .... Associate Editorial Director
LAN JTONECS..........................Sports Editor
BATA JORGENSON..A....Associate City Editor
SIZABETH ERSKINE ... Associate Personnel Director
[ COLEMAN....... . Associate Sports Editor
AVID ARNOLD ............... Chief Photographer
distinctly oppressive, and to force them to put
up with it for four years is completely unfair.
BUT THERE ARE positive aspects as well.
There are advantages in apartment living.
For in an apartment, a person is responsible
for herself-there is nobody to tell her what to
do. Whatever she accomplishes, whether study-
ing, cooking, buying food, or cleaning-up, must
come from her own inner resource--and the
apartment life will give this resource the op-
portunity to grow and develop.
A student in an apartment, it might be added,
has far better control over her study conditions,
than-one in most kinds of organized living.
But the important thing is that she will be
able to make her own decisions, without the
guiding hand of " group pressure-or the rigid
scheduling which is necessarily involved in or-
Of course, there are some who would insist
that women are not to be trusted in apartments.
But if a 21 year old woman is not to be trusted
in an apartment-who is and when? This kind
of attitude reflects a rather great lack of under-
standing of the undergraduate woman at the
University of Michigan.
ONE OF THE MOST extraordinary bits of
reasoning on this subject comes from the
Dean of Women's office, with the announce-
ment that apartment permissions would be cur-
tailed for next year:.
"Michigan is a 'residential' University for
undergraduates and so stated in the Regental
By-Laws. This is in contrast with some equally
well - known but largely streetcar Univer-
"The responsibilities as well as the privileges
of group-living have long been considered inte-
gral and vital parts of the total college experi-
ence at Ann Arbor. 'Si monumentum requiris-
circumspice."' To choose to come to Michigan
saying, "Yes, but I cannot bear group-living,"
is like choosing Colorado for a summer vaca-
tion saying, "Yes, but I cannot bear mountains."
Therefore, it is obvious that apartment permis-
sion for undergraduate women remains defi-
nitely in the exceptional category."
ANY ARGUMENT which defends a policy,
because "that's the way it is," is definitely
a weak one. This is especially true in a Uni-
versity where some emphasis is placed on ra-
tionality, as opposed to authority.
Further a statement which is unable to define
community in any sense other than clearly
defined physical structures has rather severe
We see no reason why a "residential" Uni-
versity cannot be one In which students leave
home to go to live at the University, and one in
which many are bound together by a com-
munity of interest. The student takes residence
in a town other than her own.
In all fairness, it should be pointed out that
Ann Arbor's topsy turvy housing situation has
caused difficulties in the residence halls. In
just four years, the town has changed from
hopelessly overcrowded with people unable to
find a place to live; to one in which there are
many vacancies. This does cause difficulties in
arranging for housing.
BUT EVEN IF one is to admit that there are
educational advantages in organized living
(they really are not too readily apparent), there
is no good reason to subject a girl to it for
four years if she does not like it.
By SEYMOUR TOPPING
Associated Press Foreign Correspondent
BERLIN-If the Russians block-
ade West Berlin the fighting
odds would be stacked against any
Western military effort to pry open
the lifelines to this isolated city.
Geography and the military bal-
ance favor the Communists
U.S. military leaders say the
West could break through a block-
ade of West Berlin. But it has not
been explained how this would be
feasible if the Russians counter
with their larger forces.
A NEW CULT?
By SAM DAWSON
Associated Press Business Editor
NEW YORK ()-What ever be-
came of self reliance?
It used to be the mark of most
Americans. They took care of
themselves, their families-young
and old-and their own futures.
They went to work with the idea
of getting ahead, maybe dreaming
of being their own boss, risky as
that might be.
Now the emphasis seems to have
swung to something called security.
Many employers complain that
when they interview a job appli-
cant today the talk switches at
once to what kind of pension plan
the company has. The job seeker
mentally figures how that will sup-
plement the Social Security he'll
collect from the government.
The would-be employe also asks
about the company's policies on
severance pay and unemployment
benefits, health insurance, sick pay
and many other fringe benefits.
But business itself is just as busy
Government subsidies aimed at
insuring the security of various
groups of industries take many
* * *
THERE IS the familiar cry of
the railroads that the airlines
benefit from postal subsidies and
from use of airport facilities built
at taxpayers' expense; and that
trucks use highways also provided
by tax money.
Security on the farm is a politi-
cal issue. The farmer can't be
made secure from the weather's
onslaughts-drouths, floods, dust
storms. But in, many cases he can
be sure that the price of what he
does raise will be supported by the
government, and that in some
cases he'll be paid by the soil bank
for not raising anything.
Industry turns to government
for many kinds of security against
the perils of foreign, or even do-
mestic, competition. Government
stock-piling has been used to fur-
nish markets for, and support
prices of, various metals and other
Pump priming in recessions is
expected by many businessmen.
The government hands out orders
for their products, launches big
construction projects, buys mili-
tary supplies with a lavish hand.
It makes credit easy for them if
they want to expand, or gives
them tax allowances.
* * *
SMALL BUSINESS looks to gov-
ernment to make credit available
on favorable terms and to watch
constantly lest big business get
too big - and to remember them
Soviet Premier Nikita Khrush-
chev has warned that Russian
forces will oppose any air or
ground sortie into East Germany
With both East and Wegt obvi-
ously leary of war, this tough mili-
tafy talk on both sides over Berlin
may be just high powered bidding
leading up to a deal at the confer-
What is feared most here is a
miscalculation or an accident in-
volving a fateful collision between
Western and Soviet troops.
Defense of West Berlin is based
today on the "plate glass window
The Russians hesitate to crash
through the West Berlin window
because it could trigger World War
III. H-Bombs might fall on the
But if a blockade did spark a
shooting war with the Russians,
the 2,200,000 West Berliners and
of some 10,000 troops would have
little chance to escape. They would
be swamped in a Red sea. To un-
derstand why, glance at West Ber-
lin's strategic position.
* * *
THIS OUTPOST lies 110 miles
deep in Communist East Germany.
It is situated in the heart of the
biggest concentration of Red Army
forces in Europe, more than 400,-
000 ground troops, plus tactical
The city is linked tenuously to
West Germany by a single track
rail line and a highway, both un-
der Soviet control.
West Berlin's unhampered access
to the West is via four air corri-
,dors to the West German cities of
Munich, Frankfurt, Hannover and
It was the availability of these
air corridors which enabled the
West to mount its massive 318-day
airlift in 1948-49 which finally
cracked the Russian land blockade
of the city.
THE BIG GIMMICK in the way
of an airlift this time is the
changed attitude of the Russians.
They say they won't tolerate an-
other air bridge-and that pre-
sumably means they would inter-
fere by means of radar jammers
and possibly with fighter planes.
The alternative to an airlift
would be an effort to force open
the rail line and highway to Ber-
If the Russians are determined
to halt this kind of an operation
into East Germany, a massive
Western ground operation would
be called for. Allied troops would
be compelled to advance into the
heart of the Russian base area on
an extremely narrow front with
flanks exposed to attack from nu-
merically superior forces.
All in all, if a real shooting war
started with the Russians, the
Allies would probably be too busy
protecting Western Europe to pay
much attention to West Berlin.
West Berlin's hopes for a, secure
future rest more on the ability of
world statesmen to keep the peace
rather than on what the fighting
men can do.
IE CONTINUING controversy
of whether sorority rushing
should take place during the
spring or fall semester received
additional background material
this week with the presentation of
the Spring Rush Study Report
Wednesday night to Student Gov-
The issue of when women
should rush can be considered in
several ways, just as the 70 pages
of data gathered by Panhellenic
and Assembly can be interpreted
in several ways.
The positions are essentially
Proponents for fall rushing con-
sider the following points import-
ant: 1) The organizations on
campus function more smoothly
with more continuity if rushing is
completed in the fall and does not
interrupt the "organizational"
plans for the year. Panhellenic
can get organized immediately
after rush with a full year's pro-
gram and not spend half the
year preparing for it.
2) The upperclassmen who rush
-about 28 per cent of the total-
are better off rushing in the fall.
They have had a year in which
to consider the picture and deter-
mine their attitude. Individually,
they have expressed a desire for
fall. Those who have rushed be-
fore have no need for an addition-
al waiting period.
3) Of the group of women who
rush and are dropped (this in-
cludes both freshmen and upper-
classmen) 42 per cent believe sor-
ority affiliation to be very im-
portant or indispensable. For this
group, too, fall rushing is better.
The emotional pressure of rushing,
is over and has not had a chance
to build up through the semester.
The women are less committed to
the idea of pledging and do not
lose as much face.
4)For the affiliate system, fall
rushing has definite advantages.
Financially they gain. Pledges
must pay a certain basic amount
during their pledge period regard-
less, but additional social and
house fees for five extra months
from approximately 600 pledges
adds a considerable amount to
Sororities have a longer time to.
train and integrate their pledges.
Weaker houses: have a better
chance of making their quotas,
and houses can pick up addition-
al pledges with a spring bid day--
to fill up quotas not made in the
fall and to replace women who
have dropped out of school.
SPRING RUSH supporters,
however, feel that the organiza-
tions are not to be considered. The
individual and his college . goals,
are their primary concern. This
changes the picture considerably.
1) With spring rush the indi-
vidual has a chance to adjust to
the University academically and
socially. First semester adjust-
ment problems are not compound- -
ed by rushing and the time it
consumes. 2) Potential rushees
are able to get a more realistic
picture of the affiliated system
and the individual houses therein.
3) The experience of women
living together in the dorm for a
period of time without additional
social stratification caused by
pledging of a sorority is a .benefi-
cial and educational one.-
In dormitories freshmen wo-
men of all types and backgrounds
are thrown together. They meet
and associate. With pledging im-
mediately in the fall they tend to
limit their friendships and much
of the benefit of living with a di-
verse group is lost. The associa-
tion with a particular group and
the time demanded by this group,
as well as a lessening of interest
in their surroundings, decreases
the value of dorm living.
Women no longer need to ex-
plore for themselves but already
have a niche carved out for them
by the sorority. This limiting of
the individual goes against the
educational and broadening pur-
poses of the University.
A question can be raised as to
whether the one semester wait be-
fore rushing can really make that
much difference in the indi-
vidual's friendship patterns. Will
the individual gain perspective
and go out of his own "type" or
will the slight exposure really
have no effect? Most people will
agree that freshmen coming into
a large school such as the Univer-
sity should have the opportunity
to learn about their surroundings
before deciding if they want to
Whether the dorm experience
of freshmen for one semester out.
weighs the "pros" for fall rush de-
pends on the initial premise taken.
THE WORK resulting from Al-
bert Mullen's trip to the south-
west via Rackham Grant shows
provocative results. This project,
in the form of ink sketches, tem-
pera, and oil paintings, is on dis-
play for the next few weeks at
the Alumni Museum.
It is provocative because during
the year since Mullen's return he
has encountered two specific and
very unusual problems in the
control of space on the two-
dimensional canvas. Some of the
paintings are particularly excel-
lent because of the success with
which they solve these problems.
The earliest work done on this
grant grapples with the control of
color, form, texture, and gesture
which is oriented at the center of
the canvas and recedes to the
edge of the frame. Sometimes the
gesture moves directly outward to
the frame, sometimes it is more
complex and twists, spirals, or
churns its way from a point near
the center backwards into depth-
space and then out to the frame
edge. Two of the better examples
of this are "Santa Fe No. 2," and
"Dark Lit Tree."
MULLEN encounters his first
specific problem with a bold step.
"Santa Fe No. 1" uses a strong
vertical frame. The space motion,
or gesture, moves upwards and
sprays out at the top of the frame
into infinity. Two other vertical
oils are "Inner Tree" and "Im-
provisation-Rock Face." These use
wider brush strokes than any oth-
er work in the show, but in "Im-
provisation" Mullen seems unde-
cided about whether this paint
ing should 'use the 'upward-flow
potential of its vertical space or
knot ftself up in the middle as in
the earlier "Santa Fe No. 2."
"Eldorado" stands apart from
the genre of this exhibit. The
weight of this oil is oriented at
the center of the canvas. In at-
tempting to define and manipu-
late the spacial properties of this
center weight Mullen has used
strong fragments of line: figures
reminiscent of cattle-brands. This
is a drastic means. It has frozen
the > center space and color mo-
tion into an almost static cluster.
The fiat receded space at the
edges of "Eldorado" has a differ-
ent function than in the paintings
with mobile gesture. In a radical
attempt at control of this outer
space; Mullen has added a broad
horizon-functioning band at the
top of the painting. A most per-
THE SECOND unusual problem
Is the most recent. In "Arroyo
Hondo" and "Slow Sweep Moun-
tain" the artist has reversed his
point of attack. He places the
heaviest weight and greatest mo-
tion towards the edge of the frame
and recedes the space Into the
center of the canvas. This solu-
tion has produced the two out-
Anti-American Sentiment Grows
By KENNETH McELDOWNEY
Daily Staff Writer
T HE GLOWING coals of the
summer's- anti-Nixon, anti-
American hate blazed forth last
week in Bolivia.
The Bolivian demonstrations
broke out after an article in the
Latin American edition of Time
magazine quoted an American
embassy official as saying the an-
swer to Bolivia's economic prob-
lems would be to divide the na-
tion's problems and Bolivia itself
among its neighbors.
Even though the article made it
clear that the official was only
joking, the humor fell fiat in a
country that has already lost ter-,
ritory to its five neighbors. And
in Venezuela, members of the
Chamber of Deputies denounced
America for humiliating Bolivia.
The incidents, says Prof. Irving
A. Leonard, professor of Spanish-
American Literature and History.
indicate that dislike of the United
States is now at tis highest peak
He said much of the problem
has historical roots. The Span-
iards brought over a feudal sys-
tem in the 1500's that still sur.
vives today. Prof. 'Leonard de-
scribed the system, which is based
on farming, large land-owners
and a dominant church, as direct-
ly conflicting with the modern
This history has fostered an in-
feriority complex in these nations
that is enough to foster anti-'
American riots as well as many
aganist the existing Latin Ameri-
can governments. Seemingly in-
significant events have been
enough to touch off violent dem-
onstrations. In Rio de Janeiro
last Friday at least one student
died in riots over an increase in
college tuitions. Last month an
attempt to overthrow the govern-
ment in Panama was crushed
within a week. Even in Colombia,
which kicked out its last dictator
less than a year ago, there were
riots last week against the pres-
ent head of government. The Co-
lumbian mobs shouted for free-
dom of expression and lower
South American officials are
blaming the magnitude of the
demonstrations on the Commun-
Fidel Castro's recent ouster of
Cuban dictator Batista has 'struck
fear into the hearts of the ,two
remaining dictators Rafael Leon-.
idas Trujillo of the Dominican
Republic and Francois Duvalier,,
of Haiti. Not only has Castro's
success given hope to those who
are plotting the downfall of these
dictators, but now after their vic-
tory, the Cuban rebels hope to lib-
erate those countries that are
still under the power of dictators.
As a counteriforce, ex-generals
in the Dominican Republic are
forming a type of foreign legion
that would be used to stop any so-
called communist threat to the
countries of Latin America, but
are really intended to neutralize
the Cuban rebel threat to the ex-
However, out of the general
black scene of political discontent,
several bright spots of hope ap-
pear. Ecuador's trade surplus and
solid currency seems almost out' of
place in economically depressed
Latin America. Recently the
United States has attempted to
improve its position, in President
... . ...